Jan Potocki

Count Jan Potocki (Polish pronunciation: [ˈjan pɔˈtɔt͡skʲi]; 8 March 1761 – 23 December 1815) was a Polish nobleman, Polish Army Captain of Engineers, ethnologist, Egyptologist, linguist, traveler, adventurer, and popular author of the Enlightenment period, whose life and exploits made him a legendary figure in his homeland.[1] Outside Poland he is known chiefly for his novel, The Manuscript Found in Saragossa.[2]

Count
Jan Potocki
Jan Potocki by Alexander Varnek


POL COA Potocki Hrabia

Jan Potocki by Alexander Varnek
Coat of armsPiława
Born8 March 1761
Pików, Podolia, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Died23 December 1815 (aged 54)
Uładówka, near Winnica
Noble familyPotocki
Spouse(s)Julia Lubomirska
Konstancja Potocka
Issue
with Julia Lubomirska
Alfred Wojciech Potocki
Artur Potocki
with Konstancja Potocka
Bernard Potocki
Irena Potocka
Teresa Potocka
FatherJózef Potocki
MotherAnna Teresa Ossolińska

Life

Jan Potocki was born into the Potocki aristocratic family, that owned vast estates across Poland. He was educated in Geneva and Lausanne, served twice in the Polish Army as a captain of engineers, and spent some time on a galley as novice to the Knights of Malta. His colorful life took him across Europe, Asia and North Africa, where he embroiled himself in political intrigues, flirted with secret societies and contributed to the birth of ethnology – he was one of the first to study the precursors of the Slavic peoples from a linguistic and historical standpoint.[1]

In 1790 he became the first person in Poland to fly in a hot air balloon when he made an ascent over Warsaw with the aeronaut Jean-Pierre Blanchard, an exploit that earned him great public acclaim. He spent some time in France, and upon his return to Poland, he became a known publicist, publishing newspapers and pamphlets, in which he argued for various reforms.[3] He also established in 1788 in Warsaw a publishing house named Drukarnia Wolna (Free Press) as well as the city's first free reading room. His relation with the King Stanisław II August was thorny, as Potocki, while often supportive of the King, on occasion did not shy from his critique.[3] He was highly critical of the Russian ambassador, Otto Magnus von Stackelberg.[3]

Potocki's wealth enabled him to travel extensively about Europe, the Mediterranean and Asia, visiting Italy, Sicily, Malta, the Netherlands, Germany, France, England, Russia, Turkey, Dalmatia, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Spain, Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, and even Mongolia. He was also one of the first travel writers of the modern era, penning lively accounts of many of his journeys, during which he also undertook extensive historical, linguistic, and ethnographic studies.[1]

Potocki married twice and had five children. His first marriage ended in divorce, and both marriages were the subject of scandalous rumors. In 1812, disillusioned and in poor health, he retired to his estate at Uładówka in Podolia, suffering from "melancholia" (which today would probably be diagnosed as depression), and during the last few years of his life he completed his novel.[1]

Believing he was becoming a werewolf, Potocki committed suicide by fatally shooting himself with a silver bullet that he had blessed by his village priest in December 1815, at the age of 54.[4]

The Manuscript Found in Saragossa

Jan Potocki
Jan Potocki, by Anton Graff, 1785

Potocki's most famous work, originally written in French, is The Manuscript Found in Saragossa (Manuscrit trouvé à Saragosse). It is a frame tale. On account of its rich, interlocking structure, and telescoping story sequences, the novel has drawn comparisons to such celebrated works as the Decameron and the Arabian Nights.[2]

The book's title is explained in the foreword, which is narrated by an unnamed French officer who describes his fortuitous discovery of an intriguing Spanish manuscript during the sack of Zaragoza in 1809, in the course of the Napoleonic Wars. Soon after, the French officer is captured by the Spanish and stripped of his possessions; but a Spanish officer recognizes the manuscript's importance, and during the French officer's captivity the Spaniard translates it for him into French.

The manuscript has been written by a young officer of the Walloon Guard, Alphonse van Worden. In 1739, while en route to Madrid to serve with the Spanish Army, he is diverted into Spain's rugged Sierra Morena region. There, over a period of sixty-six days, he encounters a varied group of characters, including Muslim princesses, Gypsies, outlaws, and cabbalists, who tell him an intertwining series of bizarre, amusing, and fantastic tales which he records in his diary.

The sixty-six stories cover a wide range of themes, subjects, and styles, including gothic horror, picaresque adventures, and comic, erotic, and moral tales. The stories reflect Potocki's interest in secret societies, the supernatural, and oriental cultures, and they are illustrated with his detailed observations of 18th-century European manners and customs, particularly those of upper-class Spanish society.

Many of the locations described in the tales are real places and regions which Potocki would have visited during his travels, while others are fictionalized accounts of actual places.

While there is still some dispute about the novel's authorship, it is now generally accepted to have indeed been written by Potocki. He began writing it in the 1790s and completed it in 1814, a year before his death, though the novel's structure is thought to have been fully mapped out by 1805.

The novel was never published in its entirety during Potocki's lifetime. A proof edition of the first ten "days" was circulated in Saint Petersburg in 1805, and a second extract was published in Paris in 1813, almost certainly with Potocki's permission. A third publication, combining both earlier extracts, was issued in 1814, but it appears that at the time of his death Potocki had not yet decided on the novel's final form.

Potocki composed the book entirely in the French language. Sections of the original manuscripts were later lost, but have survived in a Polish translation that was made in 1847 by Edmund Chojecki from a complete French copy, now lost.

The most recent and complete French-language version, edited by François Rosset and Dominique Triaire, was published in 2006 in Leuven, Belgium, as part of a critical scholarly edition of the complete works of Potocki. Unlike Radrizzani's 1989 edition of the Manuscript Found in Saragossa, Rosset and Triaire's edition has been based solely on Potocki's French-language manuscripts found in several libraries in France, Poland (in particular, previously unknown autograph pieces that they discovered in Poznań), Spain, and Russia, as well as in the private collection of Potocki's heirs. They identified two versions of the novel: one unfinished, of 1804, published in 1805, and the full version of 1810, which appears to have been completely reconceived in comparison to the 1804 version. Whereas the first version has a lighter, more sceptical tone, the second one tends towards a darker, more religious mood. In view of the differences between the two versions, the 1804 and 1810 versions have been published as two separate books; paperback editions were issued in early 2008 by Flammarion.

The first English-language edition, published in 1995, was a translation of Radrizzani's edition by Oxford scholar Ian Maclean. Potocki's novel became more widely known in the West via the stylish black-and-white film adaptation made in Poland in 1965 as The Saragossa Manuscript (Rękopis znaleziony w Saragossie), directed by renowned filmmaker Wojciech Has and starring Zbigniew Cybulski as Alphonse van Worden.

Travel memoirs

  • Histoire Primitive des Peuples de la Russie avec une Exposition complete de Toutes les Nations, locales, nationales et traditionelles, necessaires a l'intelligence du quatrieme livre d'Herodote (St. Petersbourg: Imprime a l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences, 1802)
  • Voyage dans les steppes d'Astrakhan et du Caucase (Paris, 1829).
  • Voyage en Turquie et en Egypte (1788; Polish translation by Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Podróz do Turek i Egiptu, 1789).
  • Voyage dans l'Empire de Maroc (1792)

Modern editions have appeared as follows:

  • Voyages en Turquie et en Egypte, en Hollande, au Maroc (Paris: Fayard, 1980; new edition, Éditions Phébus, 1991)
  • Voyage au Caucase et en Chine (Paris: Fayard, 1980)

Honours and awards

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d "The Mystical Count Potocki. Fortean Times.". Archived from the original on August 11, 2002. Retrieved 2008-08-14.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  2. ^ a b Count Jan Potocki: The Saragossa Manuscript. Book review by Anthony Campbell (2001). Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  3. ^ a b c Krzysztof Bauer (1991). Uchwalenie i obrona Konstytucji 3 Maja. Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne. p. 38. ISBN 978-83-02-04615-5. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  4. ^ Howe, Justin (2009-03-10). "Jan Potocki and the Manuscript Found in Saragossa". Tor.com. Retrieved 2018-11-30.
  • Ian Maclean, introduction to The Manuscript Found in Saragossa, London, Penguin Books, 1995

External links

1797 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1797.

1815 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1815.

Alfred Wojciech Potocki

Count Alfred Wojciech Potocki hr. Pilawa (1785–1862) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), landowner, political and economic activist.Alfred was the 1st Ordynat of Łańcut estates. From 1809 until 1815 he served in the Polish Army. In 1812 he became aide-de-camp of Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski and participated in Napoleon's campaign against Russia.

In 1838 he created the Łańcut Ordynacja. Since 1861 Alfred was member of the National Sejm in Galicia, and member of the Herrenhaus. He served as Austrian councillor and was Great Galician Ochmistrz.

Alfred helped to modernize the agriculture in Galicia. He founded textile (1839–1844) and sugar (1836 industries and 1841) factories. He was co-founder of the "Estate Credit Society" in Lwów. Since 1823 he ran the Lubomirski family distillery in Łańcut, which exists today under the name Polmos Łańcut.

His father was the writer Jan Potocki, best known for his famous novel "The Manuscript Found in Saragossa". His brother was Count Artur Potocki (1787–1832), who married Countess Zofia Branicka.

Anna Teresa Potocka

For the writer Anna Potocka (1776–1867), see Anna TyszkiewiczPrincess Anna Teresa Potocka née Ossolińska (1746–1810) was a Polish noblewoman, philanthropist and Freemason.

She was the daughter of Józef Ossoliński and Teresa Stadnicka and the sister of Józef Salezego. She married Józef Potocki in December 1760, and became the mother of the writer Jan Potocki.

She was a supporter of the Bar Confederation (1768-1771). She was known for her philanthropic work and founded a charitable society.

When a Woman's Adoption Lodge of the Masonic Order was founded in Poland in 1769, she became its Grand Mistress, counting other noblewomen such as Elżbieta Czartoryska (1736–1816) among its members. She is known as the founder of the church at Rymanów.

The year of her death is usually given as 1810, but she was still alive in 1812 when the second wife of Jean, Constance, visited her in Vienna.

Antoni Michał Potocki

Antoni Michał Potocki (died 11 April 1766) was the Lieutenant-General of the Crown Army of Poland in 1754, voivode of Belz between 1732 and 1763, and the Lithuanian Great Deputy Master of the Pantry.

He was the son of Teresa Tarło and Aleksander Jan Potocki. In 1730 he married Ludwika Maria Sapieha, the daughter of Maria Krystyna de Béthune, niece of Queen Marie Casimire, and Aleksander Paweł Sapieha. With her, he had one son, Jan Prosper Potocki.

In 1733 he was a signatory to the election of Stanisław Leszczyński as king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. In 1744 he published Do Panów obojga stanów in which he recommended reforms, especially that of allowing city-dwellers a more active political role.

In 1726 he was awarded the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, in 1745 the Order of the White Eagle, in 1730 Order of St. Andrew.

Artur Potocki

Artur Stanisław Potocki (1787–1832) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic).

Battle of Suceava (1595)

The Battle of Suceava was fought during the Moldavian Magnate Wars between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Principality of Transylvania in December 12, 1595. Polish-Lithuanian forces under the command of Jan Potocki defeated the Transylvanian forces commanded by Ştefan Răzvan.

Bavarian Geographer

The epithet "Bavarian Geographer" (Latin: Geographus Bavarus) is the conventional name for the anonymous author of a Latin medieval text containing a list of the tribes in central-eastern Europe, headed Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii (Latin for Description of cities and lands north of the Danube).

The name "Bavarian Geographer" was first bestowed (in its French form, "Géographe de Bavière") in 1796 by Polish count and scholar Jan Potocki. The term is now also used at times to refer to the document itself.

Konstancja Potocka

Countess Konstancja Potocka (1781 – December 25, 1852) was a Polish noblewoman, translator and illustrator.

She was the daughter of Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki. She married Jan Potocki in 1798, and Edward Raczyński in 1817.

During her second marriage, she was a known figure in Polish literary life. She co- founded the Raczyński library in Poznań (1829), and translated, illustrated and published German works.

Letychiv Fortress

Letychiv Fortress is a complex of limestone walls built in 1598 by Jan Potocki to defend Podolia from the regular raids of the Crimean Tatars. The north-western tower, the eastern wall and parts of the southern wall still stand in the town of Letychiv, Ukraine. The most prominent feature on the grounds of the fortress is the Baroque church of the Assumption (1606-1638, rebuilt 1724). There's also a statue of Ustym Karmaliuk, a rebel leader buried at Letychiv. During World War II, the castle served as a notorious slave labor camp.

List of Polish-language authors

Notable Polish novelists, poets, playwrights, historians and philosophers, listed in chronological order by year of birth:

(ca.1465–after 1529) Biernat of Lublin

(1482–1537) Andrzej Krzycki

(1503–1572) Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski

(1505–1569) Mikołaj Rej

(ca. 1525–1573) Piotr z Goniądza

(1530–1584) Jan Kochanowski

(1566–1636) Fabian Birkowski

(1580–1653) Szymon Okolski

(1651–1701) Anna Stanisławska

(1694–1774) Przybysław Dyjamentowski

(1720–1784) Franciszek Bohomolec

(1733–1798) Adam Naruszewicz

(1734–1823) Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski

(1735–1801) Ignacy Krasicki

(1746–1835) Izabela Fleming Czartoryska

(1750–1812) Hugo Kołłątaj

(1755–1826) Stanisław Staszic

(1757–1841) Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz

(1761–1815) Jan Potocki

(1762–1808) Franciszek Ksawery Dmochowski

(1765–1809) Cyprian Godebski

(1768–1854) Maria Wirtemberska

(1770–1861) Adam Jerzy Czartoryski

(1771–1820) Alojzy Feliński

(1786–1861) Joachim Lelewel

(1787–1861) Antoni Gorecki

(1791–1835) Kazimierz Brodziński

(1793–1876) Aleksander Fredro

(1798–1855) Adam Mickiewicz

(1798–1845) Klementyna Hoffmanowa

(1801–1869) Franciszek Ksawery Godebski

(1801–1876) Seweryn Goszczyński

(1804–1886) Michał Czajkowski

(1807–1875) Karol Libelt

(1809–1849) Juliusz Słowacki

(1812–1859) Zygmunt Krasiński

(1812–1887) Józef Ignacy Kraszewski

(1814–1894) August Cieszkowski

(1817–1879) Ryszard Wincenty Berwiński

(1818–1876) Narcyza Żmichowska

(1819–1890) Agnieszka Baranowska

(1821–1883) Cyprian Kamil Norwid

(1822–1899) Edmund Chojecki

(1829–1901) Lucyna Ćwierczakiewiczowa

(1838–1897) Adam Asnyk

(1839–1902) Adolf Dygasiński

(1841–1910) Eliza Orzeszkowa

(1846–1916) Henryk Sienkiewicz

(1847–1912) Bolesław Prus

(1849–1935) Michał Bobrzyński

(1852–1930) Kazimierz Bartoszewicz

(1858–1924) Ludwik Stasiak

(1860–1921) Gabriela Zapolska

(1860–1926) Jan Kasprowicz

(1862–1949) Feliks Koneczny

(1864–1925) Stefan Żeromski

(1864–1935) Franciszek Nowicki

(1865–1940) Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer

(1867–1925) Władysław Reymont

(1868–1927) Stanisław Przybyszewski

(1869–1907) Stanisław Wyspiański

(1870-1932) Malwina Garfeinowa-Garska

(1873–1940) Wacław Berent

(1874–1915) Jerzy Żuławski

(1874–1941) Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński

(1876–1945) Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski

(1877/79–1937) Bolesław Leśmian

(1878–1911) Stanisław Brzozowski

(1878/79–1942) Janusz Korczak

(1881–1946) Paweł Hulka-Laskowski

(1884–1944) Leon Chwistek

(1885–1939) Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (Witkacy)

(1885–1954) Zofia Nałkowska

(1886–1980) Władysław Tatarkiewicz

(1886–1981) Tadeusz Kotarbiński

(1887–1936) Stefan Grabiński

(1889–1968) Zofia Kossak-Szczucka

(1889–1931) Tadeusz Hołówko

(1889–1965) Maria Dąbrowska

(1890–1963) Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz

(1891–1963) Gustaw Morcinek

(1891–1945) Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska

(1892–1942) Bruno Schulz

(1893–1970) Roman Ingarden

(1894–1942) Józef Stefan Godlewski

(1894–1980) Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz

(1894–1985) Arkady Fiedler

(1895–1959) Stanislaw Mlodozeniec

(1896–1945) Ferdynand Ossendowski

(1897–1962) Władysław Broniewski

(1898–1939) Tadeusz Dołęga-Mostowicz

(1899–1956) Jan Lechoń

(1900–1966) Jan Brzechwa

(1901–1938) Bruno Jasieński

(1901–1964) Sergiusz Piasecki

(1902–1970) Tadeusz Manteuffel

(1902–1985) Józef Mackiewicz

(1902–1995) Józef Maria Bocheński

(1903-1978) Aleksander Kamiński

(1904–1969) Witold Gombrowicz

(1905–1953) Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński

(1905–1982) Adam Ważyk

(1906–1965) Stanisław Jaśkowski

(1907–1991) Stanislaw Wygodzki

(1908–1979) Sydor Rey

(1908–1988) Teodor Parnicki

(1908–1980) Aleksander Baumgardten

(1908–1995) Helena Bechlerowa

(1909–1942) Henryka Łazowertówna

(1909–1966) Stanisław Jerzy Lec

(1909–1970) Paweł Jasienica

(1909–1983) Jerzy Andrzejewski

(1909–1988) Józef Łobodowski

(1910–1978) Maria Boniecka

(1910–2007) Stanisław Dobosiewicz

(1911–1975) Eugeniusz Żytomirski

(1911–2004) Czesław Miłosz

(1912–1990) Adolf Rudnicki

(1913–1979) Zygmunt Witymir Bieńkowski

(1913–2005) Józef Garliński

(1914–1973) Bohdan Arct

(1915–2006) Jan Twardowski

(1916–1991) Wilhelm Szewczyk

(1917–1944) Zuzanna Ginczanka

(1918–1963) Stanisław Grzesiuk

(1919–2000) Gustaw Herling-Grudziński

(1919–2011) Marian Pankowski

(1920–2006) Leslaw Bartelski

(1920–1985) Leopold Tyrmand

(1920–2005) Karol Wojtyła (Pope John Paul II)

(1920–2006) Lucjan Wolanowski

(1921–1944) Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński

(1921–2006) Stanisław Lem

(1922–1951) Tadeusz Borowski

(1923–2001) Maksymilian Berezowski

(1923–2003) Władysław Kozaczuk

(1923–2012) Wisława Szymborska

(1924–1998) Zbigniew Herbert

(born 1925) Bat-Sheva Dagan

(1926-2015) Tadeusz Konwicki

(1927–2009) Leszek Kołakowski

(born 1928) Roman Frister

(1929–1994) Zbigniew Nienacki

(1929–2004) Zygmunt Kubiak

(born 1930) Sławomir Mrożek

(born 1932) Wiesław Myśliwski

(1932–1957) Andrzej Bursa

(1932–2013) Joanna Chmielewska

(1932–2007) Ryszard Kapuściński

(1933–1991) Jerzy Kosiński

(born 1933) Joanna Olczak-Ronikier

(1934–1969) Marek Hłasko

(1934–1976) Stanisław Grochowiak

(1935–1984) Janusz Gaudyn

(born 1936) Henryk Grynberg

(1936–1997) Agnieszka Osiecka

(born 1937) Hanna Krall

(1938–1985) Janusz A. Zajdel

(1938-2017) Janusz Głowacki

(1941–1989) Mirosław Dzielski

(born 1941) Leszek Długosz

(born 1943) Wojciech Karpiński

(born 1944) Michał Heller

(born 1945) Małgorzata Musierowicz

(1946–2015) Piotr Domaradzki

(born 1946) Ewa Kuryluk

(born 1948) Andrzej Sapkowski

(born 1949) Stefan Chwin

(born 1949) Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm

(born 1952) Eva Stachniak

(born 1952) Jerzy Pilch

(born 1954) Marek Huberath

(born 1955) Leszek Engelking

(born 1955) Magdalena Tulli

(born 1957) Grazyna Miller

(born 1957) Paweł Huelle

(born 1957) Agata Tuszynska

(born 1957) Grażyna Wojcieszko

(1958–2005) Tomasz Pacyński

(born 1960) Andrzej Stasiuk

(born 1960) Andrzej Ziemiański

(born 1961) Agnieszka Taborska

(born 1962) Olga Tokarczuk

(born 1964) Rafal A. Ziemkiewicz

(born 1965) Jarosław Grzędowicz

(born 1966) Andrzej Majewski

(born 1966) Marek Krajewski

(born 1966) Mariusz Szczygieł

(born 1968) Joanna Bator

(born 1971) Anna Brzezińska

(born 1972) Wojciech Kuczok

(born 1974) Jacek Dukaj

(born 1974) Andrzej Pilipiuk

(born 1975) Michał Witkowski

(born 1976) Zygmunt Miłoszewski

(born 1976) Anna Kańtoch

(born 1977) Łukasz Orbitowski

(born 1979) Sylwia Chutnik

(born 1980) Jacek Dehnel

(born 1982) Jakub Ćwiek

(born 1983) Dorota Masłowska

(born 1984) Joanna Lech

Polish literature

Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland. Most Polish literature has been written in the Polish language, though other languages used in Poland over the centuries have also contributed to Polish literary traditions, including Latin, Yiddish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, German and Esperanto. According to Czesław Miłosz, for centuries Polish literature focused more on drama and poetic self-expression than on fiction (dominant in the English speaking world). The reasons were manifold, but mostly rested on historical circumstances of the nation. Polish writers typically have had a more profound range of choices to motivate them to write, including historical cataclysms of extraordinary violence that swept Poland (as the crossroads of Europe); but also, Poland's own collective incongruities demanding adequate reaction from the writing communities of any given period.The period of Polish Enlightenment began in the 1730s–40s and peaked in the second half of the 18th century. One of the leading Polish Enlightenment authors included Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801) and Jan Potocki (1761–1815). Polish Romanticism, unlike Romanticism elsewhere in Europe, was largely a movement for independence against the foreign occupation. Early Polish Romantics were heavily influenced by other European Romantics. Notable writers included Adam Mickiewicz, Seweryn Goszczyński, Tomasz Zan and Maurycy Mochnacki. In the second period, many Polish Romantics worked abroad. Influential poets included Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki and Zygmunt Krasiński.

In the aftermath of the failed January Uprising, the new period of Polish Positivism began to advocate skepticism and the exercise of reason. The modernist period known as the Young Poland movement in visual arts, literature and music, came into being around 1890, and concluded with the Poland's return to independence (1918). Notable authors included Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Stanisław Przybyszewski and Jan Kasprowicz. The neo-Romantic era was exemplified by the works of Stefan Żeromski, Władysław Reymont, Gabriela Zapolska, and Stanisław Wyspiański. In 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz received a Nobel Prize in literature for his patriotic Trilogy inspiring a new sense of hope. Literature of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939) encompasses a short, though exceptionally dynamic period in Polish literary consciousness. The socio-political reality has changed radically with Poland's return to independence. New avant-garde writers included Tuwim, Witkacy, Gombrowicz, Miłosz, Dąbrowska and Nałkowska.

In the years of German and Soviet occupation of Poland, all artistic life was dramatically compromised. Cultural institutions were lost. Out of 1,500 clandestine publications in Poland, about 200 were devoted to literature.

Much of Polish literature written during the Occupation of Poland appeared in print only after the conclusion of World War II, including books by Nałkowska, Rudnicki, Borowski and others. The situation began to worsen dramatically around 1949–1950 with the introduction of the Stalinist doctrine by minister Sokorski. Poland had three Nobel Prize winning authors in the later 20th century: Isaac Bashevis Singer (1978), Czesław Miłosz (1980) and Wisława Szymborska (1996).

Potocki

Potocki (Polish pronunciation: [pɔˈtɔt͡skʲi], plural Potoccy) was one of the prominent Polish noble families in the Kingdom of Poland and magnates of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Potocki family is one of the wealthiest and most powerful aristocratic families that still exist in Poland.

Stefan Aleksander Potocki

Stefan Aleksander Potocki (? — 1726/1727), the Polish nobleman, Voievoda of Belz, with 2-d wife Joanna Sieniawska was founders of Basilian monastery in Buchach (UGCC) in Lublin on December 7, 1712. Owner of the Buchach castle.

Father — Jan Potocki, mother — Teresa Cetner, daughter of Halych castellan.

His body was buried in Pidkamin' monastery (now UGCC).

Son — Mikołaj Bazyli Potocki, Starost of Bohuslav and Kaniv, benefactor of the Buchach townhall, Pochayiv Lavra, Dominican Church (Lviv), deputy to Sejm, owner of the Buchach castle.

The Cherub Company London

The Cherub Company London was an English theatre company, founded by Andrew Visnevski and Simon Chandler in 1973 as an ensemble of young actors, designers and composers introducing rare classics and continental plays to the stage in a style that proved unconventional and brilliantly visual. In its first twenty-five years it produced thirty plays, toured nine times in the UK, and visited twelve counties on three continents.

Notable productions include: Kafka's The Trial (2002), with Rebecca Whiteman, Colin Adrian, Alexander Falkowski, William Wollen, Svein Solenes; Ten Days’ A-Maze by Jan Potocki (1997) with Rebecca Over, Jane Backlog, Christopher Gunning, Russell Kennedy, Ian Harris, Phil Dix; The Tempest (1996), with Russell Kennedy and Andrew Novell.

The Manuscript Found in Saragossa

The Manuscript Found in Saragossa (French: Manuscrit trouvé à Saragosse; also known in English as The Saragossa Manuscript) is a frame-tale novel written in French at the turn of 18th and 19th century by Polish author Count Jan Potocki (1761–1815). It is narrated from the time of the Napoleonic Wars, and depicts events several decades earlier, during the reign of King Philip V (r. 1700–24, 1724–46).The novel was adapted into a 1965 Polish-language film, The Saragossa Manuscript (Polish: Rękopis znaleziony w Saragossie), by director Wojciech Has, with Zbigniew Cybulski as Alfonse van Worden.

The Saragossa Manuscript (film)

The Saragossa Manuscript (Polish: Rękopis znaleziony w Saragossie, "The Manuscript found in Zaragoza") is a 1965 Polish film directed by Wojciech Has, based on the 1815 novel The Manuscript Found in Saragossa by Jan Potocki. Set primarily in Spain, it tells a frame story containing gothic, picaresque and erotic elements. In a deserted house during the Napoleonic Wars, two officers from opposing sides find a manuscript, which tells the tale of the Spanish officer's grandfather, Alphonso van Worden (Zbigniew Cybulski). Van Worden travelled in the region many years before, being plagued by evil spirits, and meeting such figures as a Qabalist, a sultan and a gypsy, who tell him further stories, many of which intertwine and interrelate with one another.

The film was a relative success in Poland and other parts of socialist eastern Europe upon its release. It later also achieved a level of critical success in the United States, when filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese and Francis Ford Coppola rediscovered it and encouraged its propagation.

Translation of the Eighteenth century Gothic novel

The most notable novels from the 18th-century Gothic genre were written by British authors in English and translated throughout history into other languages, but other writers throughout continental Europe contemporaneously emerged to write Gothic novels in their own native tongues. While British writers like Horace Walpole and Ann Radcliffe were writing about castles and ghosts, so too was the German author Friedrich Schiller, the French author Marquis de Sade, and the Ukrainian author Jan Potocki. One of the Marquis de Sade's most famous novels The 120 Days of Sodom has been translated from the French to English, German, and most recently Japanese. Beyond continental Europe, it is difficult to find authors anywhere else in the world producing Gothic genre novels in the 18th century.

War, So Much War

War, So Much War (original title in Catalan Quanta, quanta guerra...) Is a Catalan novel that was written by the author Mercè Rodoreda, first published in 1980. The novel was written during the author's stay in the house of her friend Carme Manrubia, in Romanyá de la Selva. This book together with Viajes a varios pueblos, a part of the series Viajes y flores, Made Rodoreda win the Barcelona prize. The book also received the Crítica Serra d'Or prize in 1980.Ana María Moix was the writer who translated the book from Catalan to Spanish; the translated book was published in 1982.According to the explanation of the author in the prologue to the book, the original title of the book was supposed to be: El soldat i les roses (The soldier and the roses) and the name of the protagonist of the novel was to be Manuel. Nevertheless, this idea was changed and "Manuel" became Adrià Guinart. Rodoreda also confessed that in "War so much war" is not a show of battles because her intention was to do the same as Jan Potocki in the novel, El manuscrito encontrado en Zaragoza were Saragossa

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