Jan Nepomucen Głowacki

Jan Nepomucen Głowacki (1802 – July 28, 1847) was a Polish realist painter of the Romantic era, regarded as the most outstanding landscape painter of the early 19th century in Poland under the foreign partitions.[1][2] Głowacki studied painting at the Kraków School of Fine Arts and later at the academies of Prague and Vienna, as well as Rome and Munich. He returned to Kraków in 1828, and became a teacher of painting and drawing. From 1842 he served as a professor in the Faculty of Landscape Painting at the School of Fine Arts. His work can be found at the National Museum of Poland and its branches.[3] Some of his work was looted by Nazi Germany in World War II and has never been recovered.[4]

Jan Nepomucen Głowacki
Jan Nepomucen Glowacki - Portrait of an artist (1842)
Oil on canvas, 1842 (unnamed)
Kraków, Poland
DiedJuly 28, 1847 (aged 44–45)
Kraków, Poland
Known forPainting, art history


Głowacki was born in Kraków, where he lived for most of his life. He took his first art lessons with the painter Antoni Giziński, and between 1819 and 1825 attended the workshops of Józef Brodowski and Józef Peszka at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków. He continued his studies in Prague and then at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna under Franz Steinfeld until 1828. He went to Rome in 1834/35 and finished his studies in Munich. While abroad, he went by the name Jean Nepomuk Glowacki.[5] Upon his return from Vienna, Głowacki became a teacher of art in his hometown and also a prolific artist. He painted mostly landscapes and city scapes, as well as portraits, and religious or mythological scenes.[1] He was influenced by the Viennese school of realism, which was especially apparent in his portrait studies. Polish art critics and historians consider him the father of Polish school of landscape painting.[6]

Głowacki was the first Polish artist to devote an entire series of works to the Tatra Mountains.[6] He was also the first, to produce studies for his oil paintings on strenuous outdoor trips. Landscapes such as "Widok z Poronina" (View from Poronin, 1836) and "Morskie Oko" (1837) are said to mark the beginning of realist Polish mountain painting.[7] His Romantic city scapes of Kraków and its environs became very popular during his lifetime thanks to an album of 24 prints that he published in 1836.[5] He was married and had a son, Justyn Jan Głowacki, born in 1838, and a daughter Emilia (ca 1840). Very little else is known about his personal life.[8]


View of Wawel Castle in Kraków


Dolina Kościeliska valley, Tatras


Potok górski (Mountain stream)


Krajobraz z Ojcowa

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b "Jan Nepomucen Głowacki, Kraków 1802 - Kraków 1847". Spis malarzy (in Polish). Pinakoteka Zascianek.pl. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  2. ^ Antoni Nowak, transl. by Matthew Dundon. "Closing statements" (PDF direct download, 100 KB). The Oldest Images of the Tatras. Euroregion Tatry EU. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  3. ^ "Jan Nepomucen Głowacki". Malarstwo polskie XIX wieku. Katalog zbiorów Muzeum Narodowego w Krakowie (in Polish). Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie. 2001. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  4. ^ Monika Kuhnke. "Lost art: Jan Nepomucen Glowacki (sample)". Wartime Losses - Polish Painting - Catalogue. Retrieved August 23, 2012. Index of known artwork looted in World War II.
  5. ^ a b Grove Art, Oxford Art Online (2003). "Jan Nepomucen Glowacki short biography". Artfact Auctions. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  6. ^ a b "Jan Nepomucen Głowacki". Lista obiektów autora (in Polish and English). Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie. 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  7. ^ Stanisław Eljasz-Radzikowski. "Głowacki Jan Nepomucen". Pierwszy artysta-malarz polski w Tatrach, Wielka Encyklopedia Tatrzańska. Zakopianski Portal Internetowy. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  8. ^ "Justyn Jan Nepomcen Głowacki". Wielka Genealogia Minakowskiego (in Polish). Wielcy.pl. May 3, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2012.

Media related to Jan Nepomucen Głowacki at Wikimedia Commons

1847 in Poland

Events from the year 1847 in Poland

Alfred Schouppé

Alfred Schouppé (born December 13, 1812 in Grabownica Starzeńska, died April 7, 1899 in Krynica-Zdrój) was a Polish painter, and one of the founders of the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts (Towarzystwo Zachęty Sztuk Pięknych) in Warsaw.


Głowacki, Glovatsky, Hlovatskyi, Golovatsky, or Holovatskyi is a surname derived from golva (Slavic for "head"). Its Ukrainian and Belarusian forms are generally transcribed beginning with an 'H' but may also be written with a 'G'.

Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts

The Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow (Polish: Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Jana Matejki w Krakowie, usually abbreviated to ASP), is a public institution of higher learning located in downtown Kraków, Poland. It is the oldest Polish fine arts academy, established in 1818 and granted full autonomy in 1873.

ASP is a state-run university that offers 5- and 6-year Master's degree programs. As of 2007, the Academy's faculty comprised 94 professors and assistant professors as well as 147 Ph.D.s.

Piotr Michałowski

Piotr Michałowski (July 2, 1800 – June 9, 1855) was a Polish painter of the Romantic period, especially known for his many portraits, and oil studies of horses. Broadly educated, he was also a social activist, legal advocate, city administrator and President of the Kraków Agricultural Society (since 1853). The Sukiennice Museum, a division of the National Museum in Kraków, contains a room named after him and devoted to Michałowski's work.

Romanticism in Poland

Romanticism in Poland, a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822. It ended with the suppression of the Polish-Lithuanian January 1863 Uprising against the Russian Empire in 1864. The latter event ushered in a new era in Polish culture known as Positivism.Polish Romanticism, unlike Romanticism in some other parts of Europe, was not limited to literary and artistic concerns. Due to specific Polish historical circumstances, notably the partitions of Poland, it was also an ideological, philosophical and political movement that expressed the ideals and way of life of a large portion of Polish society subjected to foreign rule as well as to ethnic and religious discrimination.

Silesian Museum

Silesian Museum (Polish: Muzeum Śląskie) is a museum in the city of Katowice, Poland.

Sukiennice Museum

The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art at Sukiennice (Polish: Galeria Sztuki Polskiej XIX wieku w Sukiennicach), is a division of the National Museum, Kraków, Poland. The Gallery is housed on the upper floor of the Renaissance Sukiennice Cloth Hall in the center of the Main Market Square in Old Town Kraków.The Gallery holds the largest permanent exhibit of the 19th-century Polish painting and sculpture, in four grand rooms. The majority of today’s collection at Sukiennice comprises gifts from collectors, artists and their families.

Tatra Mountains

The Tatra Mountains, Tatras, or Tatra (Tatry either in Slovak (pronounced [ˈtatri]) or in Polish (pronounced [ˈtatrɨ])- plurale tantum), is a mountain range that forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. This is the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. The Tatras should not be confused with the Low Tatras (Slovak: Nízke Tatry), which are located south of the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia.

The Tatra Mountains occupy an area of 785 square kilometres (303 sq mi), of which about 610 square kilometres (236 sq mi) (77.7%) lie within Slovakia and about 175 square kilometres (68 sq mi) (22.3%) within Poland. The highest peak, called Gerlach, at 2,655 m (8710 ft), is located north of Poprad, entirely in Slovakia. The highest point in Poland, Rysy, at 2,499 m (8200 ft), is located south of Zakopane, on the border with Slovakia.The Tatras' length, measured from the eastern foothills of the Kobylí vrch (1109 m) to the southwestern foot of Ostrý vrch (1128 m), in a straight line, is 57 km (35 mi) (or 53 km (33 mi) according to some), and strictly along the main ridge, 80 km (50 mi). The range is only 19 km (12 mi) wide. The main ridge of the Tatras runs from the village of Huty at the western end to the village of Ždiar at the eastern end.

The Tatras are protected by law by the establishment of the Tatra National Park, Slovakia and the Tatra National Park, Poland, which are jointly entered in UNESCO's World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

In 1992, UNESCO jointly designated the Polish and Slovak parks a transboundary biosphere reserve in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, under its Man and the Biosphere Programme.


Wawel (Polish pronunciation: [ˈvavɛl]) is a fortified architectural complex erected over many centuries atop a limestone outcrop on the left bank of the Vistula river in Kraków, Poland, at an altitude of 228 metres above sea level.The complex consists of many buildings and fortifications; the largest and best known of these are the Royal Castle and the Wawel Cathedral (which is the Basilica of St Stanisław and St Wacław). Some of Wawel's oldest stone buildings, such as the Rotunda of the Virgin Mary can be dated to 970AD. There are also wooden parts of the complex which date to about the 9th century. The castle itself has been described as "one of the most fascinating of all European castles." Wawel is a place of great significance to the Polish people: it first became a political power centre at the end of the first millennium AD and in the 9th century, the principal fortified castrum of the Vistulans tribe (Polish: Wiślanie). The first historical ruler Mieszko I of Poland (c.965–992) of the Piast dynasty and his successors: Boleslaw I the Brave (Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry; 992–1025) and Mieszko II (1025–1034) chose Wawel to be one of their residences. At the same time Wawel became one of the principal Polish centres of Christianity. The first early Romanesque buildings were erected there including a stone cathedral serving the bishopric of Kraków in the year 1000. From the reign of Casimir the Restorer (1034–1058) Wawel became the leading political and administrative centre for the Polish State.Until 1611, the Wawel was the formal seat of the Polish monarchy; this was because Kraków was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1569 and of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1596. Later, it became the Free City of Kraków from 1815 to 1846; the Grand Duchy of Cracow from 1846 to 1918; and Kraków Voivodeship from the 14th century to 1999. It is now the capital of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. Therefore, the fortress-like Wawel complex which visually dominates the city has often been viewed as seat of power. Wawel Cathedral was not only a place of coronation for the Kings of Poland, but also their mausoleum. Later, it became a national pantheon.

During the 20th century, the Wawel was the residence of the President of Poland; after the invasion of Poland at the start of World War II, Kraków became the seat of Germany's General Government, and the Wawel subsequently became the residence of the Nazi Governor General Hans Frank. Following the cessation of hostilities, the Wawel was restored and once again become a national museum, a place of worship and centre depicting Poland's complex history.

Wawel Castle

The Wawel Castle is a castle residency located in central Kraków, Poland. Built at the behest of King Casimir III the Great, it consists of a number of structures situated around the Italian-styled main courtyard. The castle, being one of the largest in Poland, represents nearly all European architectural styles of medieval, renaissance and baroque periods. The Wawel Royal Castle and the Wawel Hill constitute the most historically and culturally significant site in the country. In 1978 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the Historic Centre of Kraków.

For centuries the residence of the kings of Poland and the symbol of Polish statehood, the Castle is now one of the country’s premier art museums. Established in 1930, the museum encompasses ten curatorial departments responsible for collections of paintings, including an important collection of Italian Renaissance paintings, prints, sculpture, textiles, among them the Sigismund II Augustus tapestry collection, goldsmith’s work, arms and armor, ceramics, Meissen porcelain, and period furniture. The museum’s holdings in oriental art include the largest collection of Ottoman tents in Europe. With seven specialized conservation studios, the museum is also an important center for the conservation of works of art.

Władysław Łuszczkiewicz

Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (September 3, 1828 – May 23, 1900) was a Polish historical painter of the late Romantic era from Kraków, active in the period of the foreign partitions of Poland. He was a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts and served as its principal in 1893/95. One of his best students was Jan Matejko, the eminent Polish historical painter and later, his close associate. Łuszczkiewicz taught painting, drawing, anatomy and architectural styles. Highly educated, he also worked as conservator of architectural monuments in the city later on in his career, and wrote historical dissertations.

Theologians and
Visual artists
Related topics

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.