Jan Kasprowicz

Jan Kasprowicz (December 12, 1860 – August 1, 1926) was a poet, playwright, critic and translator; a foremost representative of Young Poland.

Jan Kasprowicz
JanKasprowicz1901 (cropped)
BornDecember 12, 1860
Szymborze, Inowrocław District, Poland
DiedAugust 1, 1926 (aged 65)
Zakopane
Occupationpoet
Period1889–1926
Literary movementYoung Poland

Signature
JanKasprowicz1901 signature

Biography

Kasprowicz was born in the village of Szymborze (now part of Inowrocław) within the Province of Posen, to an illiterate peasant family. From 1870 he studied in Prussian gymnasia in Inowrocław, Poznań, Opole, Racibórz, and in 1884 graduated from Mary Magdalen Gymnasium in Poznań. He studied philosophy and literature in German universities in Leipzig and Wrocław. During his studies he began having articles and poetry published, working with various Polish magazines. For his activities in socialist circles he was twice arrested by Prussian police and spent half a year in prison.

After his release from prison, at the age of 28 Kasprowicz moved to Lwów, where he spent the next 35 years of his life. He worked as a journalist and critic of literature and theatre, working for two years in the editorial department of the newspaper, the Polish Courier (Kurier Polski) and for the following four years (1902–1906) editorializing for the newspaper, the Polish Word (Słowo Polskie). At the same time, with unusual productivity, Kasprowicz wrote and had published his own works and poetry, to critical acclaim.

In 1904 he received a doctorate from Lwów University for his treatise, the Lyrics of Teofil Lenartowicz (Liryka Teofila Lenartowicza). In 1909 at Lwów University he became the head of the Department of Comparative Literature, a department founded for him to run.

The largely self-taught Kasprowicz mastered the classical Latin and Greek languages, as well as French and English. His works included critically acclaimed translations of great literary works:

Nature gifted Kasprowicz with good health and a strong constitution. Stanisław Lem wrote of him: "He had in his bearing the originality of a gypsy and the hustle of a journalist, which, over time, allowed him to earn the money he needed, gave him the good humour of a friend, and - even then - a professorial gravity." He was - with a notable group of friends - a frequent guest at the pubs and wineries of Lwów, especially the famous winery and wine bar of Stadtmueller still present at the market, number 34.

His first marriage — to Teodozja Szymańska in 1886 — dissolved after a few months. In 1893 he married Jadwiga Gąsowska. In 1899 she dramatically left him and their daughters for the writer Stanisław Przybyszewski. In 1911, he was married again, this time to the much younger Maria Bunin, a Russian girl whom he met on a train from Rome to Naples while on one of his artistic travels. She was the daughter of the Tsarist general, Victor Bunin.

In 1921-22 he was rector of Lwów University.

In the last twenty years of his life, Kasprowicz more and more frequently visited the Tatra Mountains. In 1923 he permanently settled in the villa, "Harenda", between Poronin and Zakopane, where he died on August 1, 1926.

Works

  • (1889) Poezje (Poems)
  • (1890) Chrystus (Christ)
  • (1891) Z chłopskiego zagonu (From Rustic Field)
  • (1894) Anima lachrymans i inne nowe poezje (Anima lachrymans and another new poems)
  • (1895) Miłość (The Love)
  • (1898) Krzak dzikiej róży (The Briar's Bush)
  • (1901) Ginącemu światu (To The Perishing World)
  • (1902) Salve Regina
  • (1908) Ballada o słoneczniku (The Ballad About Sunflower)
  • (1911) Chwile (Moments)
  • (1916) Księga ubogich (The Book of The Poor)
  • (1921) Hymny (The Hymnal)

Further reading

  • Mortkowicz-Olczakowa, Hanna (1961). Bunt wspomnień. Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy.

External links

Accentual verse

Accentual verse has a fixed number of stresses per line regardless of the number of syllables that are present. It is common in languages that are stress-timed, such as English, as opposed to syllabic verse which is common in syllable-timed languages, such as French.

Agnieszka Pachałko

Agnieszka Pachałko – Miss Polish 1993, Miss Miss Polish Audience 1993, Miss International 1993, is the second Pole, which it did (after Agnieszka Kotlarska in 1991).

I graduated from High School Jan Kasprowicz in Inowrocław. Christina's mother is a retired teacher Pachałko biology in the second and LO Pachałko father Leon is a retired physical education teacher in the High School. Jan Kasprowicz in Inowrocław.

In 1993, Agnes took first place in a beauty contest Miss Polish. It turned out to be a ticket to the world of fashion. In 1994–1999 she worked as a model in Paris, presenting the collections include: Karl Lagerfeld, Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, Pierre Cardin, Nina Ricci, Loris Azzaro and Luis Ferrau, working alongside such models as: Claudia Schiffer, Linda Evangelista, Carla Bruni and Karen Mulder. In January 1999 was on the cover of a magazine CKM. After returning to the Polish company founded her own clothing.

Altenberg Publishing

Altenberg Publishing (Polish: Wydawnictwo Altenberga) was a Polish publishing house active from 1880 until 1934; first, in the partitioned and later in sovereign Poland. It specialized in publishing high-quality book prints and illustrated albums.

Bronisław Maj

Bronisław Maj (born 19 November 1953) is a Polish poet, essayist, translator and academic.

Głos (1886–1905)

Głos (The Voice; Polish pronunciation: [ˈɡwɔs]) was a Polish language social, literary and political weekly review published in Warsaw between 1886 and 1905. It was one of the leading journals of the Polish positivist movement. Many of the most renowned Polish writers published their novels in Głos, which also became a tribune of the naturalist literary movement of late 19th century. During the Revolution of 1905 it was closed down by tsarist authorities.

The literary section published works by some of the most renowned Polish writers and poets of the epoch, including Adolf Dygasiński, Jan Kasprowicz, Bolesław Leśmian, Maria Konopnicka, Władysław Orkan, Eliza Orzeszkowa, Wacław Sieroszewski, Stanisław Przybyszewski and Leopold Staff. Głos also frequently published translated literary works of contemporary foreign writers. Among the notable journalists of the weekly was also Janusz Korczak who authored numerous editorials, reportages and feuilletons, as well as had one of his novels published there in 1904 and 1905.

Inowrocław

Inowrocław (Polish pronunciation: [inɔˈvrɔtswaf]; German: Hohensalza; before 1904: Inowrazlaw; archaic: Jungleslau) is a city in north-central Poland with a total population of 74,803 in 2014. It is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, previously in the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975–1998).

Inowrocław is an industrial town located about 40 kilometres (25 miles) southeast of Bydgoszcz known for its saltwater baths and salt mines. The town is the 5th largest agglomeration in its voivodeship, and is a major railway junction, where the west-east line (Poznań–Toruń) crosses the Polish Coal Trunk-Line from Chorzów to Gdynia.

Inowrocław Synagogue

Inowrocław Synagogue was one of two synagogues in Inowrocław, Poland. The structure was built in 1908, with funds provided almost entirely by Leopold Levy. After Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland in 1939, the Nazis attempted to turn it into a bathhouse or swimming pool, but were unable to so they destroyed it. Today, the site of the building is occupied by a statue of Polish literary figure Jan Kasprowicz, who was born on the outskirts of the city in the village of Szymborze. The site of the synagogue has recently been renamed Skwer Jan-Paweł II (John-Paul II Square). The other synagogue was in Ulica Rzeźnicka, it is not known when it was demolished but it is believed some time in the 1980s, and a private house now stands there.

Jan Józef Lipski

Jan Józef Lipski (26 May 1926 in Warsaw – 10 September 1991 in Kraków) was a Polish critic, literature historian, politician and freemason. As a soldier of the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), he fought in the Warsaw Uprising. Editor of collected works by Jan Kasprowicz, Benedykt Chmielowski and Gabriela Zapolska.

Kasprowicz

Kasprowicz is surname of:

Jan Kasprowicz (1860 - 1926), a poet, playwright, critic and translator

Michael Scott Kasprowicz (born 1972, Brisbane, Queensland), an Australian Test cricketer

List of Polish-language authors

Notable Polish novelists, poets, playwrights, historians and philosophers, listed in chronological order by year of birth:

(ca.1465–after 1529) Biernat of Lublin

(1482–1537) Andrzej Krzycki

(1503–1572) Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski

(1505–1569) Mikołaj Rej

(ca. 1525–1573) Piotr z Goniądza

(1530–1584) Jan Kochanowski

(1566–1636) Fabian Birkowski

(1580–1653) Szymon Okolski

(1651–1701) Anna Stanisławska

(1694–1774) Przybysław Dyjamentowski

(1720–1784) Franciszek Bohomolec

(1733–1798) Adam Naruszewicz

(1734–1823) Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski

(1735–1801) Ignacy Krasicki

(1746–1835) Izabela Fleming Czartoryska

(1750–1812) Hugo Kołłątaj

(1755–1826) Stanisław Staszic

(1757–1841) Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz

(1761–1815) Jan Potocki

(1762–1808) Franciszek Ksawery Dmochowski

(1765–1809) Cyprian Godebski

(1768–1854) Maria Wirtemberska

(1770–1861) Adam Jerzy Czartoryski

(1771–1820) Alojzy Feliński

(1786–1861) Joachim Lelewel

(1787–1861) Antoni Gorecki

(1791–1835) Kazimierz Brodziński

(1793–1876) Aleksander Fredro

(1798–1855) Adam Mickiewicz

(1798–1845) Klementyna Hoffmanowa

(1801–1869) Franciszek Ksawery Godebski

(1801–1876) Seweryn Goszczyński

(1804–1886) Michał Czajkowski

(1807–1875) Karol Libelt

(1809–1849) Juliusz Słowacki

(1812–1859) Zygmunt Krasiński

(1812–1887) Józef Ignacy Kraszewski

(1814–1894) August Cieszkowski

(1817–1879) Ryszard Wincenty Berwiński

(1818–1876) Narcyza Żmichowska

(1819–1890) Agnieszka Baranowska

(1821–1883) Cyprian Kamil Norwid

(1822–1899) Edmund Chojecki

(1829–1901) Lucyna Ćwierczakiewiczowa

(1838–1897) Adam Asnyk

(1839–1902) Adolf Dygasiński

(1841–1910) Eliza Orzeszkowa

(1846–1916) Henryk Sienkiewicz

(1847–1912) Bolesław Prus

(1849–1935) Michał Bobrzyński

(1852–1930) Kazimierz Bartoszewicz

(1858–1924) Ludwik Stasiak

(1860–1921) Gabriela Zapolska

(1860–1926) Jan Kasprowicz

(1862–1949) Feliks Koneczny

(1864–1925) Stefan Żeromski

(1864–1935) Franciszek Nowicki

(1865–1940) Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer

(1867–1925) Władysław Reymont

(1868–1927) Stanisław Przybyszewski

(1869–1907) Stanisław Wyspiański

(1873–1940) Wacław Berent

(1874–1915) Jerzy Żuławski

(1874–1941) Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński

(1876–1945) Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski

(1877/79–1937) Bolesław Leśmian

(1878–1911) Stanisław Brzozowski

(1878/79–1942) Janusz Korczak

(1881–1946) Paweł Hulka-Laskowski

(1884–1944) Leon Chwistek

(1885–1939) Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (Witkacy)

(1885–1954) Zofia Nałkowska

(1886–1980) Władysław Tatarkiewicz

(1886–1981) Tadeusz Kotarbiński

(1887–1936) Stefan Grabiński

(1889–1968) Zofia Kossak-Szczucka

(1889–1931) Tadeusz Hołówko

(1889–1965) Maria Dąbrowska

(1890–1963) Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz

(1891–1963) Gustaw Morcinek

(1891–1945) Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska

(1892–1942) Bruno Schulz

(1893–1970) Roman Ingarden

(1894–1942) Józef Stefan Godlewski

(1894–1980) Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz

(1894–1985) Arkady Fiedler

(1895–1959) Stanislaw Mlodozeniec

(1896–1945) Ferdynand Ossendowski

(1897–1962) Władysław Broniewski

(1898–1939) Tadeusz Dołęga-Mostowicz

(1899–1956) Jan Lechoń

(1900–1966) Jan Brzechwa

(1901–1938) Bruno Jasieński

(1901–1964) Sergiusz Piasecki

(1902–1970) Tadeusz Manteuffel

(1902–1985) Józef Mackiewicz

(1902–1995) Józef Maria Bocheński

(1903-1978) Aleksander Kamiński

(1904–1969) Witold Gombrowicz

(1905–1953) Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński

(1905–1982) Adam Ważyk

(1906–1965) Stanisław Jaśkowski

(1907–1991) Stanislaw Wygodzki

(1908–1979) Sydor Rey

(1908–1988) Teodor Parnicki

(1908–1980) Aleksander Baumgardten

(1908–1995) Helena Bechlerowa

(1909–1942) Henryka Łazowertówna

(1909–1966) Stanisław Jerzy Lec

(1909–1970) Paweł Jasienica

(1909–1983) Jerzy Andrzejewski

(1909–1988) Józef Łobodowski

(1910–1978) Maria Boniecka

(1910–2007) Stanisław Dobosiewicz

(1911–1975) Eugeniusz Żytomirski

(1911–2004) Czesław Miłosz

(1912–1990) Adolf Rudnicki

(1913–1979) Zygmunt Witymir Bieńkowski

(1913–2005) Józef Garliński

(1914–1973) Bohdan Arct

(1915–2006) Jan Twardowski

(1916–1991) Wilhelm Szewczyk

(1917–1944) Zuzanna Ginczanka

(1918–1963) Stanisław Grzesiuk

(1919–2000) Gustaw Herling-Grudziński

(1919–2011) Marian Pankowski

(1920–2006) Leslaw Bartelski

(1920–1985) Leopold Tyrmand

(1920–2005) Karol Wojtyła (Pope John Paul II)

(1920–2006) Lucjan Wolanowski

(1921–1944) Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński

(1921–2006) Stanisław Lem

(1922–1951) Tadeusz Borowski

(1923–2001) Maksymilian Berezowski

(1923–2003) Władysław Kozaczuk

(1923–2012) Wisława Szymborska

(1924–1998) Zbigniew Herbert

(born 1925) Bat-Sheva Dagan

(born 1926) Tadeusz Konwicki

(1927–2009) Leszek Kołakowski

(born 1928) Roman Frister

(1929–1994) Zbigniew Nienacki

(1929–2004) Zygmunt Kubiak

(born 1930) Sławomir Mrożek

(born 1932) Wiesław Myśliwski

(1932–1957) Andrzej Bursa

(1932–2013) Joanna Chmielewska

(1932–2007) Ryszard Kapuściński

(1933–1991) Jerzy Kosiński

(born 1933) Joanna Olczak-Ronikier

(1934–1969) Marek Hłasko

(1934–1976) Stanisław Grochowiak

(1935–1984) Janusz Gaudyn

(born 1936) Henryk Grynberg

(1936–1997) Agnieszka Osiecka

(born 1937) Hanna Krall

(1938–1985) Janusz A. Zajdel

(born 1938) Janusz Głowacki

(1941–1989) Mirosław Dzielski

(born 1941) Leszek Długosz

(born 1943) Wojciech Karpiński

(born 1944) Michał Heller

(born 1945) Małgorzata Musierowicz

(1946–2015) Piotr Domaradzki

(born 1946) Ewa Kuryluk

(born 1948) Andrzej Sapkowski

(born 1949) Stefan Chwin

(born 1949) Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm

(born 1952) Eva Stachniak

(born 1952) Jerzy Pilch

(born 1954) Marek Huberath

(born 1955) Leszek Engelking

(born 1955) Magdalena Tulli

(born 1957) Grazyna Miller

(born 1957) Paweł Huelle

(born 1957) Agata Tuszynska

(born 1957) Grażyna Wojcieszko

(1958–2005) Tomasz Pacyński

(born 1960) Andrzej Stasiuk

(born 1960) Andrzej Ziemiański

(born 1961) Agnieszka Taborska

(born 1962) Olga Tokarczuk

(born 1964) Rafal A. Ziemkiewicz

(born 1965) Jarosław Grzędowicz

(born 1966) Andrzej Majewski

(born 1966) Marek Krajewski

(born 1966) Mariusz Szczygieł

(born 1968) Joanna Bator

(born 1971) Anna Brzezińska

(born 1972) Wojciech Kuczok

(born 1974) Jacek Dukaj

(born 1974) Andrzej Pilipiuk

(born 1975) Michał Witkowski

(born 1976) Zygmunt Miłoszewski

(born 1976) Anna Kańtoch

(born 1977) Łukasz Orbitowski

(born 1979) Sylwia Chutnik

(born 1980) Jacek Dehnel

(born 1982) Jakub Ćwiek

(born 1983) Dorota Masłowska

(born 1984) Joanna Lech

List of Polish-language poets

List of poets who have written much of their poetry in the Polish language. See also Discussion Page for additional poets not listed here.

There have been four Polish Nobel Prize laureates in literature: Henryk Sienkiewicz, Władysław Reymont, Czesław Miłosz, Wisława Szymborska. The last two have been poets.

List of compositions by Karol Szymanowski

Below is a sortable list of compositions by Karol Szymanowski. The works are categorized by genre, Michałowski catalogue number, opus number, date of composition, titles and scoring.

Morskie Oko

Morskie Oko (literally "Sea Eye" or "Eye of the Sea"; Slovak: Morské oko, "Sea Eye"; Hungarian: Halas-tó, "Fish Lake") is the largest and fourth-deepest lake in the Tatra Mountains. It is located deep within the Tatra National Park, Poland, in the Rybi Potok (the Fish Brook) Valley, of the High Tatras mountain range at the base of the Mięguszowiecki Summits, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship.

Polish literature

Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland. Most Polish literature has been written in the Polish language, though other languages used in Poland over the centuries have also contributed to Polish literary traditions, including Latin, Yiddish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, German and Esperanto. According to Czesław Miłosz, for centuries Polish literature focused more on drama and poetic self-expression than on fiction (dominant in the English speaking world). The reasons were manifold, but mostly rested on historical circumstances of the nation. Polish writers typically have had a more profound range of choices to motivate them to write, including historical cataclysms of extraordinary violence that swept Poland (as the crossroads of Europe); but also, Poland's own collective incongruities demanding adequate reaction from the writing communities of any given period.The period of Polish Enlightenment began in the 1730s–40s and peaked in the second half of the 18th century. One of the leading Polish Enlightenment authors included Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801) and Jan Potocki (1761–1815). Polish Romanticism, unlike Romanticism elsewhere in Europe, was largely a movement for independence against the foreign occupation. Early Polish Romantics were heavily influenced by other European Romantics. Notable writers included Adam Mickiewicz, Seweryn Goszczyński, Tomasz Zan and Maurycy Mochnacki. In the second period, many Polish Romantics worked abroad. Influential poets included Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki and Zygmunt Krasiński.

In the aftermath of the failed January Uprising, the new period of Polish Positivism began to advocate skepticism and the exercise of reason. The modernist period known as the Young Poland movement in visual arts, literature and music, came into being around 1890, and concluded with the Poland's return to independence (1918). Notable authors included Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Stanisław Przybyszewski and Jan Kasprowicz. The neo-Romantic era was exemplified by the works of Stefan Żeromski, Władysław Reymont, Gabriela Zapolska, and Stanisław Wyspiański. In 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz received a Nobel Prize in literature for his patriotic Trilogy inspiring a new sense of hope. Literature of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939) encompasses a short, though exceptionally dynamic period in Polish literary consciousness. The socio-political reality has changed radically with Poland's return to independence. New avant-garde writers included Tuwim, Witkacy, Gombrowicz, Miłosz, Dąbrowska and Nałkowska.

In the years of German and Soviet occupation of Poland, all artistic life was dramatically compromised. Cultural institutions were lost. Out of 1,500 clandestine publications in Poland, about 200 were devoted to literature.

Much of Polish literature written during the Occupation of Poland appeared in print only after the conclusion of World War II, including books by Nałkowska, Rudnicki, Borowski and others. The situation began to worsen dramatically around 1949–1950 with the introduction of the Stalinist doctrine by minister Sokorski. Poland had three Nobel Prize winning authors in the later 20th century: Isaac Bashevis Singer (1978), Czesław Miłosz (1980) and Wisława Szymborska (1996).

Saint Mary Magdalene High School in Poznań

Saint Mary Magdalene High School in Poznań (officially in Polish: Liceum Ogólnokształcące św. Marii Magdaleny, in Latin version known also as Ad sanctam Mariam Magdalenam or colloquially simply as Marynka) is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious and selective High Schools in Poland. School is noted for its alumni, its academics, and the large number of graduates attending prestigious universities.

Spenserian stanza

The Spenserian stanza is a fixed verse form invented by Edmund Spenser for his epic poem The Faerie Queene (1590–96). Each stanza contains nine lines in total: eight lines in iambic pentameter followed by a single 'alexandrine' line in iambic hexameter. The rhyme scheme of these lines is ABABBCBCC.

Stanisław Przybyszewski

Stanisław Przybyszewski (Polish pronunciation: [staˈɲiswaf pʂɨbɨˈʂɛfskʲi]; 7 May 1868 – 23 November 1927) was a Polish novelist, dramatist, and poet of the decadent naturalistic school. His drama is associated with the Symbolist movement. He wrote both in German and in Polish.

Young Poland

Young Poland (Polish: Młoda Polska) was a modernist period in Polish visual arts, literature and music, covering roughly the years between 1890 and 1918. It was a result of strong aesthetic opposition to the earlier ideas of Positivism which followed the suppression of the 1863 January Uprising against the occupying army of Imperial Russia. Młoda Polska promoted trends of decadence, neo-romanticism, symbolism, impressionism and art nouveau.

Życie

Życie was an illustrated weekly established in 1897 and published in Kraków and Lwów in the Austrian partition of Poland. Founded by Ludwik Szczepański, with time it became one of the most popular Polish literary and artistic journals. Although short-lasting (it went bankrupt in 1900), it shaped an entire generation of Polish artists and art critics, notably those associated with the so-called Young Poland.Initially the weekly was focused on current news, politics, social and national matters in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Galicia. Among its collaborators and correspondents in the early period were Socialist journalists Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz, Iza Moszczeńska and Wilhelm Feldman.The magazine was initially a commercial failure and failed to gain enough readership. Under such circumstances the title was bought by Ignacy Sewer-Maciejowski, who offered the job of editor in chief to Stanisław Przybyszewski, who refocused the magazine to art and literary matters. Since then Życie gained much popularity thanks to publishing literary works by some of the most renowned Polish writers of the epoch, including Stanisław Przybyszewski, Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Gabriela Zapolska, Jan Kasprowicz, Maria Konopnicka, Adolf Dygasiński and Adam Asnyk. Stanisław Wyspiański became the new art director of the magazine. Thanks to his efforts each edition was richly illustrated with reproductions of symbolist, impressionist and Art Nouveau paintings and printsThe reformed Życie was soon turned into a bi-weekly published in large, broadsheet format, but on coated paper and in full colour. In addition to numerous reproductions and gravures published in every issue, the magazine also ordered a distinctive, elaborate font. Apart from the aforementioned authors, Wyspiański and Przybyszewski themselves, the Życie frequently also published texts by Kazimiera Zawistowska, Wincenty Brzozowski, Jerzy Żuławski and Tadeusz Rittner. It also published many works of foreign literature, including French, Czech and Scandinavian.

Among the most outstanding examples of Życie's influence on contemporary Polish culture was the January 10th, 1899 issue that contained Confiteor by Stanisław Przybyszewski (a monumental essay on the role of artist) and a set of essays by Artur Górski under a common title Young Poland that gave the name to the entire modernist period in Polish literature, graphic art and music.Despite relatively high influence and readership, the Życie struggled constantly with Austro-Hungarian State Censorship Office, which on numerous occasions ordered all the copies of several consecutive issues of the journal to be confiscated and destroyed. This resulted in financial difficulties and eventual bankruptcy in 1900.

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