James Bond Stockdale (December 23, 1923 – July 5, 2005) was a United States Navy vice admiral and aviator awarded the Medal of Honor in the Vietnam War, during which he was a prisoner of war for over seven years.
Commander Stockdale was the senior naval officer held captive in Hanoi, North Vietnam. He had led aerial attacks from the carrier USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14) during the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident. On his next deployment, while Commander of Carrier Air Wing Sixteen aboard the carrier USS Oriskany (CV-34), his A-4 Skyhawk jet was shot down in North Vietnam on September 9, 1965. He served as President of the Naval War College from October 1977 until he retired from the Navy in 1979. As Vice Admiral, Stockdale became the President for The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina. Stockdale held this position from 1979 to 1980.
Rear Admiral James B. Stockdale
in full dress white uniform
|Born||December 23, 1923|
Abingdon, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||July 5, 2005 (aged 81)|
Coronado, California, U.S.
|Service/||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1943–1979|
Carrier Air Wing 16
|Awards||Medal of Honor|
Navy Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Silver Star (4)
Legion of Merit (with "V" device)
Distinguished Flying Cross (2)
Bronze Star Medal (2) (with "V" device)
Purple Heart (2)
Air Medal (Strike/Flight 10)
|Other work||Vice Presidential candidate, 1992|
Stockdale was born in Abingdon, Illinois, on December 23, 1923, the son of Mabel Edith (née Bond) and Vernon Beard Stockdale. Following a brief period at Monmouth College, he entered the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, in June 1943.
On June 5, 1946 he graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from the Naval Academy with the Class of 1947 due to the reduced schedule still in effect from World War II. Academically he ranked 130th among 821 graduates in his class. His first assignment was assistant gunnery officer aboard the destroyer minesweeper USS Carmick (DD-493) from June to October 1946. He next served aboard the USS Thompson (DD-627) from October 1946 to February 1947, the USS Charles H. Roan (DD-853) from February 1947 to July 1948, and the USS Deming (PCS-1392) from July 1948 to June 1949.
Stockdale was accepted for flight training in June 1949 and reported to Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida. He was designated a Naval Aviator at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, in September 1950. He was next assigned for additional training at Naval Air Station Norfolk in Virginia from October 1950 to January 1951. In January 1954, he was accepted into the United States Naval Test Pilot School at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River base in Southern Maryland, and he completed his training in July 1954. There he tutored the U.S. Marine Corps aviator John Glenn in mathematics and physics. He was a test pilot until January 1957.
In 1959, the U.S. Navy sent Stockdale to Stanford University where he earned a Master of Arts degree in international relations and comparative Marxist thought in 1962. Stockdale preferred the life of a fighter pilot over academia, but he later credited Stoic philosophy with helping him cope as a prisoner of war.
On 2 August 1964, while on a DESOTO patrol in the Tonkin Gulf, the destroyer USS Maddox (DD-731) engaged three North Vietnamese Navy P-4 torpedo boats from the 135th Torpedo Squadron. After fighting a running gun and torpedo battle, in which Maddox fired over 280 5-inch (130 mm) shells, and the torpedo boats expended their 6 torpedoes (all misses) and hundreds of rounds of 14.5mm machinegun fire; the combatants broke contact. As the torpedo boats turned for their North Vietnamese coastline, four F-8 Crusader fighter aircraft from USS Ticonderoga (CV-14) arrived, and immediately attacked the retreating torpedo boats.
Stockdale (commander VF-51 (Fighter Squadron 51)), with Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Richard Hastings attacked torpedo boats T-333 and T-336, while Commander R. F. Mohrhardt and Lieutenant Commander C. E. Southwick attacked torpedo boat T-339. The four F-8 pilots reported scoring no hits with their Zuni rockets, but reported hits on all three torpedo boats with their 20 mm cannon.
Two nights later, on 4 August 1964, Stockdale was overhead during the second reported attack in the Tonkin Gulf. Unlike the first event, which was an actual sea battle, no Vietnamese forces were, however, believed to have been involved in the second engagement. In the early 1990s, he recounted: "[I] had the best seat in the house to watch that event, and our destroyers were just shooting at phantom targets—there were no PT boats there. ... There was nothing there but black water and American fire power."
The next morning, on 5 August 1964, President Johnson ordered bombing raids on North Vietnamese military targets which he announced were retaliation for the alleged incident of 4 August. When Stockdale was awoken in the early morning and was told he was to lead these attacks he responded: "Retaliation for what?" Later, while a prisoner of war, he was concerned that he would be forced to reveal this secret about the Vietnam War.
On 9 September 1965, while flying from USS Oriskany on a mission over North Vietnam, Stockdale ejected from his Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, which had been struck by enemy fire and completely disabled. He parachuted into a small village, where he was severely beaten and taken prisoner.
Stockdale was held as a prisoner of war in the Hỏa Lò Prison (the infamous "Hanoi Hilton") for the next seven-and-a-half years. As the senior Naval officer, he was one of the primary organizers of prisoner resistance. Tortured routinely and denied medical attention for the severely damaged leg he suffered during capture, Stockdale created and enforced a code of conduct for all prisoners which governed torture, secret communications, and behavior. In the summer of 1969, he was locked in leg irons in a bath stall and routinely tortured and beaten. When told by his captors that he was to be paraded in public, Stockdale slit his scalp with a razor to purposely disfigure himself so that his captors could not use him as propaganda. When they covered his head with a hat, he beat himself with a stool until his face was swollen beyond recognition. When Stockdale was discovered with information that could implicate his friends' "black activities", he slit his wrists so they could not torture him into confession. During the course of his captivity, due to torture, his leg was broken twice.
Early in Stockdale's captivity, his wife, Sybil Stockdale, organized The League of American Families of POWs and MIAs, with other wives of servicemen who were in similar circumstances. By 1968, she and her organization, which called for the President and the U.S. Congress to publicly acknowledge the mistreatment of the POWs (something that had never been done despite evidence of gross mistreatment), gained the attention of the American press. Sybil Stockdale personally made these demands known at the Paris Peace Talks.
Stockdale was one of eleven U.S. military prisoners known as the "Alcatraz Gang": George Thomas Coker, USN; George G. McKnight, USAF; Jeremiah Denton, USN (who had graduated with Stockdale from the Naval Academy); Harry Jenkins, USN; Sam Johnson, USAF; James Mulligan, USN; Howard Rutledge, USN; Robert Shumaker, USN (originator of the name "Hanoi Hilton"); Ronald Storz, USAF (died in captivity); and Nels Tanner, USN. Because they had been resistance leaders they were separated from other captives and placed in solitary confinement in "Alcatraz", a special facility in a courtyard behind the North Vietnamese Ministry of National Defense, located about one mile away from Hỏa Lò Prison. In Alcatraz, each of the prisoners was kept in an individual windowless and concrete cell measuring 3 by 9 feet (0.9 by 2.7 m) with a light bulb kept on around the clock, and locked in leg irons each night. Of the eleven, Storz died in captivity there in 1970.
I never lost faith in the end of the story, I never doubted not only that I would get out, but also that I would prevail in the end and turn the experience into the defining event of my life, which, in retrospect, I would not trade.
When Collins asked who didn't make it out of Vietnam, Stockdale replied:
Oh, that's easy, the optimists. Oh, they were the ones who said, 'We're going to be out by Christmas.' And Christmas would come, and Christmas would go. Then they'd say, 'We're going to be out by Easter.' And Easter would come, and Easter would go. And then Thanksgiving, and then it would be Christmas again. And they died of a broken heart.
Stockdale then added:
This is a very important lesson. You must never confuse faith that you will prevail in the end—which you can never afford to lose—with the discipline to confront the most brutal facts of your current reality, whatever they might be.
Witnessing this philosophy of duality, Collins went on to describe it as the Stockdale Paradox.
Stockdale was released as a prisoner of war on February 12, 1973 during Operation Homecoming.
On March 4, 1976, Stockdale received the Medal of Honor. Stockdale filed charges against two other officers (Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Edison W. Miller and Navy Captain Walter E. "Gene" Wilber) who, he felt, had given aid and comfort to the enemy. However, the Department of the Navy under the leadership of then-Secretary of the Navy John Warner took no action and retired these men "in the best interests of the Navy." Both Miller and Wilber received letters of censure.
Debilitated by his captivity and mistreatment, Stockdale could not stand upright and could barely walk upon his return to the United States, which prevented his return to active flying status. In deference to his previous service, the Navy kept him on active duty, steadily promoting him over the next few years before he retired as a vice admiral on September 1, 1979. He completed his career by serving as the President of the Naval War College at Newport, Rhode Island from October 13, 1977, until August 22, 1979.
After his retirement in 1979, he became the President of The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina. His tenure there was short and stormy as he found himself at odds with the college's board as well as most of its administration, by proposing radical changes to the college's military system and other facets of the college. He left The Citadel to become a fellow of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University in 1981. During his twelve-year tenure at the Hoover Institution, Admiral Stockdale wrote and lectured extensively. His primary focus was ancient Stoicism and the Roman slave-turned-philosopher Epictetus, whose lessons captured in The Enchiridion Stockdale credited with providing him strength during his ordeals as a prisoner in the Hanoi Hilton. Between 1981 and 1988 Admiral Stockdale also served as chair of the White House Fellows under the Reagan administration.
In 1984 Admiral Stockdale and his wife Sybil co-authored In Love and War: the Story of a Family's Ordeal and Sacrifice During the Vietnam War which was published by Harper and Row. It recounts Stockdale's experiences while in Vietnam and in alternating chapters also tells the story of Mrs. Stockdale's early involvement in the League of American Families of POWs and MIAs which she helped to found and served as its first chairperson. Their story was later made into an NBC television movie under the name In Love and War starring James Woods and Jane Alexander.
Stockdale came to know businessman and presidential candidate Ross Perot through his wife's work in establishing an organization to represent the families of Vietnam POWs. On March 30, 1992, Perot announced that he had asked Stockdale to be his provisional Vice Presidential nominee on Ross Perot's 1992 independent ticket. Perot intended to replace Stockdale with another candidate, but did not do so before he dropped out of the race in July 1992.
Perot eventually re-entered the race in the fall of 1992, with Stockdale still in place as the vice-presidential nominee. Stockdale was not informed that he would be participating in the October 13 vice-presidential debate held in Atlanta, Georgia, until a week before the event. He had no formal preparation for the debate, unlike his opponents Al Gore and Dan Quayle, and did not discuss any political issues with Perot beforehand.
Stockdale opened the debate by saying, "Who am I? Why am I here?", when responding to a request for an opening statement from debate moderator, Hal Bruno, the political director of ABC News. Initially, the rhetorical questions drew applause from the audience. However, his unfocused style for the rest of the debate (including asking the moderator to repeat one question because he didn't have his hearing aid turned on) made him appear confused and almost disoriented. An unflattering recreation of the moment on Saturday Night Live later that week, with Phil Hartman as Stockdale, cemented a public perception of Stockdale as slow-witted. He was also often parodied for his repeated use of the term "gridlock" to describe slow governmental policy.
As his introduction to the large segment of American voters who had not previously heard of him, the debate was disastrous for Stockdale. He was portrayed in the media as elderly and confused, and his reputation never recovered. In a 1999 interview with Jim Lehrer, Stockdale explained that the statements were intended as an introduction of himself and his personal history to the television audience:
It was terribly frustrating because I remember I started with, "Who am I? Why am I here?" and I never got back to that because there was never an opportunity for me to explain my life to people. It was so different from Quayle and Gore. The four years in solitary confinement in Vietnam, seven-and-a-half years in prisons, drop the first bomb that started the ... American bombing raid in the North Vietnam. We blew the oil storage tanks of them off the map. And I never—I couldn't approach—I don't say it just to brag, but, I mean, my sensitivities are completely different.
Now I know (Stockdale's name has) become a buzzword in this culture for doddering old man, but let's look at the record, folks. The guy was the first guy in and the last guy out of Vietnam, a war that many Americans, including our present President, did not want to dirty their hands with. The reason he had to turn his hearing aid on at that debate is because those fucking animals knocked his eardrums out when he wouldn't spill his guts. He teaches philosophy at Stanford University, he's a brilliant, sensitive, courageous man. And yet he committed the one unpardonable sin in our culture: he was bad on television.
Perot and Stockdale received 19 percent of the vote in the 1992 presidential election, one of the best showings by an independent ticket in U.S. electoral history, although they did not carry any states.
Stockdale's decorations and awards include:
|Badge||Naval Aviator insignia|
|1st Row||Medal of Honor|
|2nd Row||Navy Distinguished Service Medal w/ two 5⁄16" Gold Stars||Silver Star Medal w/ three 5⁄16" Gold Stars||Legion of Merit w/ Combat "V"|
|3rd Row||Distinguished Flying Cross w/ one 5⁄16" Gold Star||Bronze Star Medal w/ Combat "V" and one 5⁄16" Gold Star||Purple Heart w/ one 5⁄16" Gold Star|
|4th Row||Air Medal w/ Strike/Flight Numeral 10||Combat Action Ribbon||Navy Unit Commendation w/ one 3⁄16" bronze star|
|5th Row||American Campaign Medal||World War II Victory Medal||Navy Occupation Service Medal|
|6th Row||National Defense Service Medal w/ one 3⁄16" bronze star||Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal w/ two 3⁄16" bronze stars||Vietnam Service Medal w/ three 3⁄16" silver stars and one 3⁄16" bronze star|
|7th Row||Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Citation (Gallantry Cross) w/ palm||Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal w/ 1960- device||Navy Pistol Marksmanship Medal w/ "E" device|
Stockdale's official Medal of Honor citation reads:
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while senior naval officer in the Prisoner of War camps of North Vietnam. Recognized by his captors as the leader in the Prisoners' of War resistance to interrogation and in their refusal to participate in propaganda exploitation, Rear Adm. Stockdale was singled out for interrogation and attendant torture after he was detected in a covert communications attempt. Sensing the start of another purge, and aware that his earlier efforts at self-disfiguration to dissuade his captors from exploiting him for propaganda purposes had resulted in cruel and agonizing punishment, Rear Adm. Stockdale resolved to make himself a symbol of resistance regardless of personal sacrifice. He deliberately inflicted a near-mortal wound to his person in order to convince his captors of his willingness to give up his life rather than capitulate. He was subsequently discovered and revived by the North Vietnamese who, convinced of his indomitable spirit, abated in their employment of excessive harassment and torture toward all of the Prisoners of War. By his heroic action, at great peril to himself, he earned the everlasting gratitude of his fellow prisoners and of his country. Rear Adm. Stockdale's valiant leadership and extraordinary courage in a hostile environment sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
Stockdale retired to Coronado, California, as he slowly succumbed to Alzheimer's disease. He died from the illness on July 5, 2005. Stockdale's funeral service was held at the Naval Academy Chapel and he was buried at the United States Naval Academy Cemetery.
The Vice Admiral James Bond Stockdale Award for Inspirational Leadership is a United States Navy award established in 1980 by United States Secretary of the Navy Edward Hidalgo to honor the inspirational leadership of James Stockdale, a Medal of Honor recipient in the Vietnam War, who exhibited exemplary leadership while a prisoner of war in North Vietnam for nearly eight years. The award was first made in 1981.
The U.S. Navy has named a number of structures after Stockdale, including the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Stockdale (DDG-106), christened on May 10, 2008. At the Naval Air Station North Island in Coronado, California, the main gate (inaugurated on August 30, 2007) and the headquarters building for the Pacific Fleet's Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) school were both named in his honor. In July 2008, a statue of him was erected in front of Luce Hall at the U.S. Naval Academy; the hall which houses the Vice Admiral James B. Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership.
In October 2014, Airbase Arizona of the Commemorative Air Force placed on display a restored Grumman AF-2S Guardian (BuNo 126731) flown by VADM Stockdale early in his Navy career with his name on the canopy rail and all markings as they were when he flew the aircraft in the 1950s.
Stockdale's naval experiences and his leadership decisions while senior Naval officer in prison in North Vietnam are an integral part of every Midshipman's educational experience at Annapolis.
A luxury suite at the Loews Annapolis Hotel, where Perot announced his candidacy, was named in Stockdale's honor.
Apart from the works written by Stockdale himself, the following work refers extensively to Stockdale's involvement in the Tonkin Gulf:
The following book is based on the series of lectures delivered for the course in moral philosophy established at the Naval War College by Admiral Stockdale in 1978, when Stockdale was president of the college. The course was designed by Stockdale and Professor Joseph Brennan, who continued to teach it after Stockdale retired from the Navy. The Foreword was written by Stockdale.
| President of the Naval War College
Edward F. Welch Jr.
The 1992 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party nominated Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas for President and Senator Al Gore from Tennessee for Vice President; Clinton announced Gore as his running-mate on July 9, 1992. The convention was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York from July 13 to July 16, 1992. The Clinton-Gore ticket then faced and defeated their Republican opponents, President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle as well as the independent ticket of Ross Perot and James Stockdale in the 1992 presidential election.
The convention's keynote speaker was Georgia Governor Zell Miller who said, "Not all of us can be born rich, handsome, and lucky, and that's why we have a Democratic Party" and added,
"Our Commander in Chief talks like Dirty Harry but acts like Barney Fife." Other notable speakers included Democratic National Committee Chair Ron Brown, Elizabeth Glaser, and New York Governor Mario Cuomo.
The convention, organized by chairman Ron Brown, was seen as a great success. Unlike some earlier Democratic conventions, it had been well planned and run with few gaffes or errors, as even Republicans conceded. As Clinton finished his acceptance speech Fleetwood Mac's "Don't Stop", which would become the theme song of Bill Clinton's 1992 campaign, was played several times during the balloon drop and celebration.
Clinton received a significant poll bounce from the convention, due to both the perceived success of the convention, as well as Ross Perot announcing he was withdrawing from the campaign just as the convention was ending (Perot got back into the race in October).
The convention bounce gave the Clinton/Gore ticket a lead that only shrank significantly when Ross Perot re-entered the race. Clinton and Gore went on to defeat President Bush and Vice-President Quayle, as well as independent candidate Ross Perot and his running mate, James Stockdale, in the general election.1992 Ross Perot vice presidential candidate selection
This article lists running mates considered by Ross Perot during his 1992 independent candidacy for President of the United States. On March 30, 1992, Perot announced that retired Vice Admiral James Stockdale would serve as his "interim" running mate, so that Perot could qualify for the ballot in several states. At the time, Perot planned to pick a permanent running mate during the summer, around the time of the 1992 Democratic National Convention and the 1992 Republican National Convention. Perot suspended his campaign during the summer of 1992, possibly preventing him from choosing a different running mate. After he decided to run again, Perot decided to keep Stockdale as his running mate. John Silber, the president of Boston University, was also rumored as a potential running mate for Perot. Stockdale appeared at the 1992 vice presidential debate. The Perot-Stockdale ticket took 18.9% of the popular vote, but the Clinton-Gore ticket won the election.1992 United States presidential debates
The first 1992 presidential debate was held on Sunday, October 11th at Washington University in St. Louis and moderated by Jim Lehrer.
The 1992 vice-presidential debate was part of the 1992 presidential election. The participants were Democratic candidate, U.S. Senator Al Gore from Tennessee; Independent candidate, retired Vice Admiral James Stockdale; and Republican candidate, incumbent Vice President Dan Quayle. It was held on Tuesday, October 13, 1992. The debate was held at Georgia Tech in Atlanta, Georgia. Hal Bruno of ABC News served as moderator. Stockdale, Perot's running mate, became an object of ridicule afterwards including being lampooned on Saturday Night Live. Stockdale often seemed confused and disoriented; at one point he asked that a question be repeated because his hearing aid was not on. At another point when asked about abortion, Stockdale merely said "What a woman does with her body is her business period". However, it should be pointed out that Stockdale only had one week to prepare for the debate and had not discussed any of the issues with Perot beforehand. At one point, when Quayle and Gore were squabbling back and forth, Stockdale said, "I think you can see why this country is in gridlock".1992 United States presidential election in Colorado
The 1992 United States presidential election in Colorado took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.
Colorado was won by the Democratic nominees, Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas and his running mate Senator Al Gore of Tennessee. Clinton and Gore defeated the Republican nominees, incumbent President George H.W. Bush of Texas and Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana. Independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, and his running mate Navy Vice Admiral James Stockdale, finished in a relatively strong third in the state.
Clinton received 40.13% of the vote to Bush's 35.87%, a Democratic victory margin of 4.26%.Ross Perot performed relatively well for a third party candidate in the state, receiving 23.32% of the vote in Colorado, exceeding his nationwide 18.91% vote share. Perot also won pluralities of the vote in Moffat County and San Juan County, the state providing Perot two county victories out of only fifteen county equivalents which Perot won nationwide.
Clinton ultimately won the national vote, defeating incumbent President Bush.
Clinton's victory marked the first time since the nationwide Democratic landslide of 1964 that Colorado had voted Democratic, and his win signified Colorado's transition from a traditionally Republican state into a competitive swing state in modern elections. Colorado had not previously voted Democratic in a close national election since 1948.
Clinton would then very narrowly lose the state in the 1996 election to Bob Dole. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Garfield County voted for the Democratic candidate, as well as the last time that Moffat County did not support the Republican candidate. Conversely, this is the last election in which Summit County voted for the Republican candidate.1992 United States presidential election in Idaho
The 1992 United States presidential election in Idaho took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.
Idaho was won by incumbent President George H.W. Bush (R-Texas) with 42.03% of the popular vote over Governor Bill Clinton (D-Arkansas) with 28.42%. Businessman Ross Perot (I-Texas) finished in a close third, with 27.05% of the popular vote. Clinton ultimately won the national vote, defeating both incumbent President Bush and Perot. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Bonner County, Clearwater County, Lewis County, and Benewah County, Idaho gave a plurality to a Democratic presidential candidate.With 27.05% of the popular vote, Idaho would prove to be Perot's fourth strongest state after Maine, Alaska and Utah. This election the second of only two elections since Idaho's statehood in which it did not vote the same as neighboring Montana, the other being its first election 100 year prior.1992 United States presidential election in Indiana
The 1992 United States presidential election in Indiana took place on November 3, 1992, and was part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose 12 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.
Indiana was won by President George H.W. Bush (R-TX) and his running mate Vice President and former Indiana Senator Dan Quayle. The presidential contest in Indiana was not a surprise, with Bush winning 42.91% to 36.79% over Governor Bill Clinton (D). Still, the margin of victory was lesser than in earlier elections; Clinton won in every state bordering Indiana. Billionaire Businessman Ross Perot (I-TX) finished in third, with a significant 19.77% of the popular vote in Indiana. Indiana would continue to vote Republican in presidential elections until 2008, in which Barack Obama won by a close margin, becoming the first Democrat to carry the state since 1964.
As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Greene County, Harrison County, and Washington County voted for the Democratic candidate.Alcatraz Gang
The Alcatraz Gang was a group of eleven American prisoners of war (POW) held separately in Hanoi, North Vietnam during the Vietnam War because of their particular resistance to their North-Vietnamese military captors. These eleven POWs were: George Thomas Coker, USN; Jeremiah Denton, USN; Harry Jenkins, USN; Sam Johnson, USAF; George McKnight, USAF; James Mulligan, USN; Howard Rutledge, USN; Robert Shumaker, USN; James Stockdale, USN; Ronald Storz, USAF; and Nels Tanner, USN.
These prisoners were held in solitary confinement from 25 October 1967 to 9 December 1969 at a special facility (dubbed "Alcatraz" by Commander Stockdale) in a courtyard behind the North Vietnamese Ministry of National Defense, about a mile away from Hoa Lo prison ("Hanoi Hilton"-named by Lt. Commander Schumaker, the earliest captured prisoner among the eleven). The prisoners were shackled with legcuffs every night in 3-by-9-foot windowless concrete cells with the light on around the clock. The eleven Americans were separated because they were leaders of the prisoners' resistance". Stockdale once tried to kill himself so that the North Vietnamese could not force him to make a propaganda film. The suicide attempt failed and the film was never made. Of Stockdale, Lt. Coker said "He was probably the strongest, most exemplary leader of the whole North Vietnamese POW environment". Coker and McKnight were the last POWs assigned to the Alcatraz Gang, being so assigned for previous fierce resistance to their treatment and an unsuccessful escape from the Power Plant or "Dirty Bird" prison camp.The group received special torture and were taken into torture sessions in order of rank, highest to lowest. Coker was the youngest and lowest ranking of the eleven POWs and was taken in last. He said he is still grateful for every minute the others held out. During the end of his session, something changed and the session stopped, which the POWs thought was because of a political decision from higher authorities to stop the sessions. All of the prisoners except Storz were moved to other prisons in December 1969. Storz, debilitated from sickness and untreated injuries, was left behind and died in captivity on 23 April 1970.When all the POWS were released from North Vietnam in February and March 1973 (Operation Homecoming), so much had changed back in the United States that Coker (and Commander Denton) said it was as if "...we weren't here (in America) at all. We were strangers in our own country, and we didn't like a lot of what we saw". Many still have throbbing in joints from the rope torture and Coker's wife says, "In his sleep, he holds up 'the wall'". Coker also said, "If you're never tested, you don't know (what you can do)".
Three of the ten out of eleven surviving "Alcatraz Gang" POWs including Stockdale (he was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1976), had died by November 2008. Denton died in 2014. The others keep in close touch.Andrew Stockdale
Andrew James Stockdale (born 20 July 1976) is an Australian rock musician, singer and songwriter best known as the lead vocalist, lead guitarist and only mainstay member of the rock band Wolfmother, which formed in 2000. In 2007, alongside his Wolfmother bandmates, he won 'Songwriter of the Year' at the APRA Awards. Aside from his work with Wolfmother, Stockdale was featured on the 2010 single "By the Sword" by Slash.Christopher Stockdale
Christopher James Stockdale (born 15 May 1965) is a former English cricketer. Stockdale was a right-handed batsman who bowled right-arm medium pace. He was born in Carlisle, Cumberland and grew up in Penrith, Cumberland.
Stockdale made his debut for Cumberland in the 1981 Minor Counties Championship against Durham. He played Minor counties cricket for Cumberland from 1981 to 2000, including 77 Minor Counties Championship and 15 MCCA Knockout Trophy matches. In his time with Cumberland, Stockdale played five List A matches for the county in the NatWest Trophy, the last of which came in the 1992 competition against Essex. Stockdale also represented the Minor Counties cricket team in five List A matches in the 1988 and 1989 Benson and Hedges Cup. Stockdale played a total of ten List A matches, scoring 147 runs at a batting average of 14.70. His only half century came for Cumberland against Worcestershire in 1988.He had previously played Second XI cricket for the Nottinghamshire Second XI., Middlesex Second XI and Warwickshire Second XI.
Stockdale also had an extensive career as a club professional and played in England, Wales, The Netherlands, South Africa and Australia. He also worked for the Isle of Man Association as their Cricket Development Officer and represented the Island in the Four Islands Tournament in Guernsey in 2004.Electoral history of George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush, 41st President of the United States (1989–1993), 43rd Vice President of the United States (1981–1989); Director of the CIA (1976–1977) and United States Representative from Texas (1967–1971).
Texas United States Senate election, 1964 (Republican primary):
George H. W. Bush – 62,985 (44.08%)
Jack Cox – 45,561 (31.89%)
Robert J. Morris – 28,279 (19.79%)
Milton Davis – 6,067 (4.25%)Texas United States Senate election, 1964 (Republican primary runoff):
George H. W. Bush – 49,751 (62.12%)
Jack Cox – 30,333 (37.88%)Texas United States Senate election, 1964:
Ralph Yarborough (D) (inc.) – 1,463,958 (56.22%)
George H. W. Bush (R) – 1,134,337 (43.56%)
Jack Carswell (Constitution) – 5,542 (0.21%)Texas' 7th congressional district, 1966:
George H. W. Bush (R) – 53,756 (57.07%)
Frank Briscoe (D) – 39,958 (42.42%)
Bob Gray (Constitution) – 488 (0.52%)Texas' 7th congressional district, 1968:
George H. W. Bush (R) (inc.) – 110,455 (100.00%)Texas United States Senate election, 1970 (Republican primary):
George H. W. Bush – 96,806 (87.64%)
Robert J. Morris – 13,654 (12.36%)Texas United States Senate election, 1970:
Lloyd Bentsen (D) – 1,194,069 (53.55%)
George H. W. Bush (R) – 1,035,794 (46.45%)1980 Republican presidential primaries:
Ronald Reagan – 7,709,793 (59.79%)
George H. W. Bush – 3,070,033 (23.81%)
John B. Anderson – 1,572,174 (12.19%)
Howard Baker – 181,153 (1.41%)
Phil Crane – 97,793 (0.76%)
John Connally – 82,625 (0.64%)
Unpledged delegates – 68,155 (0.53%)
Ben Fernandez – 25,520 (0.20%)
Harold Stassen – 25,425 (0.20%)
Gerald Ford – 10,557 (0.08%)
Bob Dole – 7,204 (0.06%)
Others – 33,217 (0.26%)1980 Republican National Convention (Presidential tally):
Ronald Reagan – 1,939 (97.44%)
John B. Anderson – 37 (1.86%)
George H. W. Bush – 13 (0.65%)
Anne Armstrong – 1 (0.05%)1980 Republican National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):
George H. W. Bush – 1,832 (93.33%)
Jesse Helms – 54 (2.75%)
Jack Kemp – 42 (2.14%)
Phil Crane – 23 (1.17%)
James R. Thompson – 5 (0.26%)
John M. Ashbrook – 1 (0.05%)
Howard Baker – 1 (0.05%)
Henry J. Hyde – 1 (0.05%)
Donald Rumsfeld – 1 (0.05%)
Eugene Schroeder – 1 (0.05%)
William E. Simon – 1 (0.05%)
Guy Vander Jagt – 1 (0.05%)1980 United States presidential election
Ronald Reagan/George H. W. Bush (R) – 43,903,230 (50.7%) and 489 electoral votes (44 states carried)
Jimmy Carter/Walter Mondale (D) (inc.) – 35,480,115 (41.0%) and 49 electoral votes (6 states and D.C. carried)
John B. Anderson/Patrick Joseph Lucey (I) – 5,719,850 (6.6%)
Ed Clark/David H. Koch (Libertatian) – 921,128 (1.1%)
Barry Commoner/LaDonna Harris (Citizens) – 233,052 (0.3%)
John Rarick/Eileen Shearer (American Independent) – 40,906 (0.0%)
Ellen McCormack/Carroll Driscoll (Right to Life) – 32,320 (0.0%)
Others – 252,303 (0.3%)1984 Republican National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):
George H. W. Bush (inc.) – 2,231 (99.82%)
Abstaining – 2 (0.09%)
Jack Kemp – 1 (0.05%)
Jeane Kirkpatrick – 1 (0.05%)1984 United States presidential election
Ronald Reagan/George H. W. Bush (R) (inc.) – 54,455,472 (58.8%) and 525 electoral votes (49 states carried)
Walter Mondale/Geraldine Ferraro (D) – 37,577,352 (40.6%) and 13 electoral votes (1 state and D.C. carried)
David Bergland/James A. Lewis (Libertarian) – 228,111 (0.3%)
Others – 392,298 (0.4%)1988 Republican presidential primaries:
George H. W. Bush – 8,258,512 (67.91%)
Bob Dole – 2,333,375 (19.19%)
Pat Robertson – 1,097,446 (9.02%)
Jack Kemp – 331,333 (2.72%)
Unpledged – 56,990 (0.47%)
Pierre S. du Pont, IV – 49,783 (0.41%)
Alexander M. Haig – 26,619 (0.22%)
Harold Stassen – 2,682 (0.02%)1988 Republican National Convention (Presidential tally):
George H. W. Bush – 2,277 (100.00%)1988 United States presidential election
George H. W. Bush/Dan Quayle (R) – 48,886,597 (53.4%) and 426 electoral votes (40 states carried)
Michael Dukakis/Lloyd Bentsen (D) – 41,809,476 (45.6%) and 111 electoral votes (10 states and D.C. carried)
Lloyd Bentsen/Michael Dukakis (D) – 1 electoral vote (West Virginia's faithless elector)
Ron Paul/Andre Marrou (Libertarian) – 431,750 (0.5%)
Lenora Fulani (New Alliance) – 217,221 (0.2%)
Others – 249,642 (0.3%)1992 Republican presidential primaries:
George H. W. Bush (inc.) – 9,199,463 (72.84%)
Pat Buchanan – 2,899,488 (22.96%)
Unpledged – 287,383 (2.28%)
David Duke – 119,115 (0.94%)
Ross Perot – 56,136 (0.44%)
Pat Paulsen – 10,984 (0.09%)
Maurice Horton – 9,637 (0.08%)
Harold Stassen – 8,099 (0.06%)1992 Republican National Convention (Presidential tally):
George H. W. Bush (inc.) – 2,189 (99.05%)
Pat Buchanan – 18 (0.81%)
Howard Phillips – 2 (0.09%)
Alan Keyes – 1 (0.05%)1992 New York State Right to Life Party Convention:
George H. W. Bush – unopposed1992 United States presidential election
Bill Clinton/Al Gore (D) – 44,909,806 (43.0%) and 370 electoral votes (32 states and D.C. carried)
George H. W. Bush/Dan Quayle (R) (inc.) – 39,104,550 (37.4%) and 168 electoral votes (18 states carried)
Ross Perot/James Stockdale (I) – 19,743,821 (18.9%)
Andre Marrou/Nancy Lord (Libertarian) – 290,087 (0.3%)
Bo Gritz/Cy Minett (Populist) – 106,152 (0.1%)
Lenora Fulani/Maria Muñoz (New Alliance) – 73,622 (0.07%)
Howard Phillips/Albion Knight, Jr. (Taxpayers) – 43,369 (0.04%)
Others – 152,516 (0.13%)Epictetus
Epictetus (; Greek: Ἐπίκτητος, Epíktētos; c. 55 – 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born a slave at Hierapolis, Phrygia (present day Pamukkale, Turkey) and lived in Rome until his banishment, when he went to Nicopolis in northwestern Greece for the rest of his life. His teachings were written down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses and Enchiridion.
Epictetus taught that philosophy is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are beyond our control; we should accept calmly and dispassionately whatever happens. However, individuals are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline.Hal Bruno
Harold Robinson "Hal" Bruno, Jr. (October 25, 1928 – November 8, 2011) was an American journalist and political analyst, who worked as the political director of ABC News from 1980 to 1999. He served as the moderator of the 1992 vice presidential debate between Dan Quayle, Al Gore, and James Stockdale.In Love and War (1987 film)
In Love and War (1987) is a Vietnam war-based thriller/drama television film starring James Woods and Jane Alexander. It was directed by Paul Aaron. The film is based on the true story of James Stockdale and Sybil Stockdale. James Stockdale, a highest-ranking naval officer, was held as a prisoner of war in Vietnam, whilst Sybil Stockdale became a co-founder, and then later served as the national coordinator of the National League of Families, a nonprofit organization that worked on behalf of American Vietnam-era Missing in Action and Prisoner of War Families. The film's screenplay was written by Carol Schreder, who was also one of the film's producers. The screenplay was based on the book In Love and War: The Story of a Family's Ordeal and Sacrifice During the Vietnam Years, which was written by James and Sybil Stockdale themselves.The film's production companies were Carol Schneider Productions and Tisch/Avnet Productions Inc.List of Medal of Honor recipients educated at the United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy is an undergraduate college in Annapolis, Maryland with the mission of educating and commissioning officers for the United States Navy and Marine Corps. The Academy is often referred to as Annapolis, while sports media refer to the Academy as "Navy" and the students as "Midshipmen"; this usage is officially endorsed. During the latter half of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th, the United States Naval Academy was the primary source of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps officers, with the Class of 1881 being the first to provide officers to the Marine Corps. Graduates of the Academy are also given the option of entering the United States Army or United States Air Force. Most Midshipmen are admitted through the congressional appointment system. The curriculum emphasizes various fields of engineering.This list is drawn from alumni of the Naval Academy who are recipients of the Medal of Honor (MOH), the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. The Academy was founded in 1845 and graduated its first class in 1846. The first alumnus to graduate and go on to receive the Medal of Honor was Harry L. Hawthorne (class of 1882). The most recent alumnus to receive the Medal of Honor was James Stockdale (class of 1947). Two alumni, Orion P. Howe (class of 1870) and Henry Lakin Simpson (class of 1882), received the Medal of Honor before being appointed to the Academy.
At the Naval Academy, in Bancroft Hall, twenty-one rooms are dedicated to each Academy graduate Medal of Honor recipient since the start of World War II.
In addition to the 73 Medal of Honor recipients who are alumni of the Academy, over 990 noted scholars from a variety of academic fields are Academy graduates, including 45 Rhodes Scholars and 16 Marshall Scholars. Additional notable graduates include 1 President of the United States and 2 Nobel Prize recipients.President's House (Naval War College)
The President's House (also known as Quarters AA) is the home of the President of the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. The house is a wooden, three-story building in Colonial Revival style located on a hill on Coaster's Harbor Island, overlooking Coaster's Harbor, Dewey Field, and Narragansett Bay.
The house was built in 1896 by local Newport, Rhode Island, architect and builder Creighton Withers at the cost of $16,226. Built originally as "Quarters B" for the commandant of the Naval Training Station, Newport, the first president of the Naval War College to occupy it was Rear Admiral French Ensor Chadwick, in June 1903.
Every Naval War College president except for Charles Stillman Sperry (1903–1906) and William Ledyard Rodgers (1911–1913) has lived in the house since that time. Among the most famous residents of the house have been Admirals William Sims, Raymond A. Spruance, Stansfield Turner, and James Stockdale.
It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.Ross Perot
Henry Ross Perot (; born Henry Ray Perot; June 27, 1930 – July 9, 2019) was an American business magnate, billionaire, philanthropist, and politician. He was the founder and chief executive officer of Electronic Data Systems and Perot Systems. He ran an independent presidential campaign in 1992 and a third-party campaign in 1996, establishing the Reform Party in the latter election. Both campaigns were among the strongest presidential showings by a third party or independent candidate in US history.
Born and raised in Texarkana, Texas, Perot became a salesman for IBM after serving in the United States Navy. In 1962, he founded Electronic Data Systems, a data processing service company. In 1984, General Motors bought a controlling interest in the company for $2.4 billion. Perot established Perot Systems in 1988 and was an angel investor for NeXT, a computer company founded by Steve Jobs after he left Apple. Perot also became heavily involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, arguing that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia after the Vietnam War. During the presidency of George H. W. Bush, Perot became increasingly active in politics and strongly opposed the Gulf War and ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
In 1992, Perot announced his intention to run for president and advocated a balanced budget, an end to the outsourcing of jobs, and the enactment of electronic direct democracy. A June 1992 Gallup poll showed Perot leading a three-way race against President Bush and presumptive Democratic nominee Bill Clinton. Perot briefly withdrew from the race in July, but re-entered the race in early October after he qualified for all 50 state ballots. He chose Admiral James Stockdale as his running mate and appeared in the 1992 debates with Bush and Clinton. In the election, Perot received 18.9% of the popular vote, but did not win any electoral votes. He won support from across the ideological and partisan spectrum, but performed best among self-described moderates. Perot ran for president again in 1996, establishing the Reform Party as a vehicle for his campaign. He won 8.4 percent of the popular vote against President Clinton and Republican nominee Bob Dole.
Perot did not seek public office again after 1996. He endorsed Republican George W. Bush over Reform nominee Pat Buchanan in the 2000 election and supported Republican Mitt Romney in 2008 and 2012. In 2009, Dell acquired Perot Systems for $3.9 billion. According to Forbes, Perot was the 167th richest person in the United States as of 2016.Ross Perot 1992 presidential campaign
In 1992, Ross Perot ran unsuccessfully as an independent candidate for President of the United States. Perot, a Texas industrialist, had never served as a public official but had experience as the head of several successful corporations and had been involved in public affairs for the previous three decades. Spawned by the American dissatisfaction with the political system, grassroots organizations sprang up in every state to help Perot achieve ballot access following his announcement on the February 20, 1992 edition of Larry King Live. James Stockdale, a retired United States Navy vice admiral, was Perot's vice presidential running mate.
Perot focused the campaign on his plans to balance the federal budget, further economic nationalism, strengthen the war on drugs and implement "electronic town halls" throughout the nation for direct democracy. His views were described as a combination of "East Texas populism with high-tech wizardry." Supporters saw Perot as a nonpolitical and witty "folk hero", but critics described the candidate as "authoritarian" and "short-tempered".Perot largely financed his own campaign and relied on marketing and wide grassroots support. In certain polls, Perot led the three-way race with Republican nominee George H. W. Bush, the incumbent President, and then-Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas, the Democratic nominee. He dropped out in July 1992 amid controversy, but re-entered in October, participating in all three presidential debates. Despite an aggressive use of campaign infomercials on prime time network television, his polling numbers never fully recovered from his initial exit. On Election Day, Perot appeared on every state ballot as a result of the earlier draft efforts. He won several counties, finished in second place in two states, and finished in third place overall, receiving close to 18.97 percent of the popular vote, the most won by a third-party presidential candidate since Theodore Roosevelt in 1912.Vice Admiral James Bond Stockdale Award for Inspirational Leadership
The Vice Admiral James Bond Stockdale Award for Inspirational Leadership is a United States Navy award established in 1980 by United States Secretary of the Navy Edward Hidalgo to honor the inspirational leadership of James Stockdale, a Medal of Honor recipient in the Vietnam War, who exhibited exemplary leadership while a prisoner of war in North Vietnam for nearly eight years. The award were first made in 1981.When Hell Was in Session
When Hell Was in Session is a memoir by U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Jeremiah Denton, recounting his experiences as an American prisoner of war (POW) during the Vietnam War. A Navy pilot, Denton's jet was shot down over North Vietnam in July 1965. Denton and his navigator, Bill Tschudy, parachuted down and were soon taken prisoner. Both men spent seven years and seven months in North Vietnam as often-tortured POWs. In 1979, the book was made into a television movie starring Hal Holbrook. It was adapted by screenwriter Jake Justiz, also known as Lee Pogostin.
Denton, James Stockdale (who graduated with Denton at the Naval Academy), Larry Guarino, and James Robinson Risner, distinguished themselves as members of the American POW resistance movement from 1965 to 1973, helping POWs accomplish their sworn goal to "return with honor". Return with Honor was later used as the title of a documentary film released in 2000 about American POWs during the Vietnam War, narrated and produced by actor Tom Hanks.
# denotes interim president