James M. Cox

James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 – July 15, 1957) was the 46th and 48th Governor of Ohio, a U.S. Representative from Ohio, and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in the election of 1920. He founded the chain of newspapers that continues today as Cox Enterprises, a media conglomerate.

Born and raised in Ohio, Cox began his career as a newspaper copy reader before becoming an assistant to Congressman Paul J. Sorg. As owner of the Dayton Daily News, Cox introduced several innovations and crusaded against the local Republican Party boss. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1909 to 1913 before winning election as Governor of Ohio. As governor, Cox introduced a series of progressive reforms and supported Woodrow Wilson's handling of World War I and its aftermath. He was chosen as the Democratic nominee for president on the forty-fourth ballot of the 1920 Democratic National Convention. Running on a ticket with Franklin D. Roosevelt, Cox suffered the worst defeat in presidential election history[1] as the country accepted Republican nominee Warren G. Harding's call for a "return to normalcy" after the Wilson years.

Cox retired from public office after the 1920 election to focus on his media conglomerate, which expanded into several cities. By 1939, his media empire extended from Dayton to Miami. He remained active in politics, supporting Roosevelt's campaigns and attending the 1933 London Economic Conference.

James Cox
James M. Cox 1920
46th and 48th Governor of Ohio
In office
January 8, 1917 – January 10, 1921
LieutenantEarl D. Bloom
Clarence J. Brown
Preceded byFrank B. Willis
Succeeded byHarry L. Davis
In office
January 13, 1913 – January 11, 1915
LieutenantW. A. Greenlund
Preceded byJudson Harmon
Succeeded byFrank B. Willis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 3rd district
In office
March 4, 1909 – January 12, 1913
Preceded byJ. Eugene Harding
Succeeded byWarren Gard
Personal details
Born
James Middleton Cox

March 31, 1870
Jacksonburg, Ohio, U.S.
DiedJuly 15, 1957 (aged 87)
Kettering, Ohio, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Mayme Simpson Harding
Margaretta Parker Blair
Children6, including James, Anne, and Barbara
Signature
James M. Cox's signature

Early life and career

Cox was born on a farm near the tiny Butler County, Ohio, village of Jacksonburg, the youngest son of Gilbert Cox and Eliza Andrew; he had six siblings.[2] He was educated in a one-room school until the age sixteen.[3] After his parents divorced, he moved with his mother in 1886 to Middletown, Ohio, where he started a journalistic apprenticeship at the Middletown Weekly Signal published by John Q. Baker. In 1892 he received a job at the Cincinnati Enquirer as a copy reader on the telegraph desk, and later started to report on spot news including the railroad news. In 1894, Cox became an assistant to Middletown businessman Paul J. Sorg who was elected to U.S. Congress, and spent three formative years in Washington, D.C. Sorg helped Cox to acquire the struggling Dayton Evening News, and Cox, after renaming it into the Dayton Daily News, turned it by 1900 into a successful afternoon newspaper outperforming competing ventures. He refocused local news, increased national, international and sports news coverage based on Associated Press wire service, published timely market quotes with stock-exchange, grain and livestock tables, and introduced several innovations including photo-journalistic approach to news coverage, suburban columns, book serializations and McClure's Saturday magazine supplement inserts, among others. Cox started a crusade against Dayton's Republican boss, Joseph E. Lowes, who used his political clout to profit from government deals. He also confronted John H. Patterson, president of Dayton's National Cash Register Co., revealing facts of antitrust violations and bribery.[4] In 1905, foretelling his future media conglomerate, Cox acquired the Springfield Press-Republic published in Springfield, Ohio, and renamed it, the Springfield Daily News.

In 1908, he ran for Congress as a Democrat and was elected. Cox represented Ohio in the United States House of Representatives from 1909 to 1913, and resigned after winning election as Governor of Ohio.[3]

Governor of Ohio

Cox won the 1912 election for Governor of Ohio, in a three-way race gaining 41.5% of the vote. Cox served three terms; after winning the 1912 election, he served from 1913 to 1915; he lost reelection in 1914, but won the 1916 and 1918 elections, and served from 1917 to 1921. He presided over a wide range of measures such as laying the foundation of Ohio's unified highway system, creating no fault workers' compensation system and restricting child labor.[5] He introduced direct primaries and municipal home rule, started educational and prison reforms, and streamlined the budget and tax processes.[6]

During World War I, Cox encouraged voluntary cooperation between business, labor, and government bodies. In 1918, he welcomed constitutional amendments for Prohibition and woman suffrage.[3] Cox supported the internationalist policies of Woodrow Wilson and reluctantly supported US entry into the League of Nations.

In 1919, shortly after the Great War ended, Governor Cox backed the Ake law, introduced by H. Ross Ake, which banned the German language from being taught until the eighth grade, even in private schools. Cox claimed that teaching German was "a distinct menace to Americanism, and part of a plot formed by the German government to make the school children loyal to it."[7] Legislation restricting the teaching of foreign languages was declared unconstitutional in Meyer v. Nebraska.

Bid for presidency

Cox Roosevelt poster 1920
Cox/Roosevelt electoral poster
FDR and James M Cox cph.3b03395
Roosevelt (left) and Cox (right) at a campaign appearance in Washington, D.C., 1920

A capable and well-liked progressive reformer, Cox was nominated for the presidency by the Democratic party at the 1920 Democratic convention in San Francisco defeating A. Mitchell Palmer and William Gibbs McAdoo on the forty-fourth ballot.[8]

Cox conducted an activist campaign visiting 36 states and delivering 394 speeches mainly focusing on domestic issues, to the displeasure of the Wilsonians, who pictured the election "as a referendum on the League of Nations."[3] To fight unemployment and inflation, he suggested simultaneously lower income and business profits taxes. He promised to introduce national collective bargaining legislation and pledged his support to the Volstead Act. Cox spoke in support of Americanization to increase loyalty to the United States among immigrant population.

Despite all efforts, Cox was defeated in the 1920 presidential election by a fellow Ohioan and newspaperman, U.S. Senator Warren G. Harding of Marion. The public had grown weary of the turmoil of the Wilson years, and eagerly accepted Harding's call for a "return to normalcy." Cox's running mate was future president, then-Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt. One of the better known analyses of the 1920 election is in Irving Stone's book about defeated presidential candidates, They Also Ran. Stone rated Cox as superior in every way over Warren Harding, claiming the former would have made a much better president; the author argued that there was never a stronger case in the history of American presidential elections for the proposition that the better man lost. Of the four men on both tickets, all but Cox would ultimately become president: Harding won, and was succeeded by his running mate Calvin Coolidge after dying in office, while Roosevelt would be elected president in 1932. However, Cox would outlive all three men by several years.

Franklin D. Roosevelt and James Cox in Dayton, Ohio - NARA - 197236
Cox with FDR in Dayton, Ohio during 1920 presidential campaign

During the campaign, Cox several times recorded for The Nation's Forum, a record label that made voice recordings of American political and civic leaders in 1918-1920.[9][10] Among them was the campaign speech now preserved at the Library of Congress which accused the Republicans of failing to acknowledge that President Wilson's successful prosecution of the Great War had, according to Cox, "saved civilization."[11]

Later years

After stepping down from public service, he concentrated on building a large media conglomerate, Cox Enterprises. In 1923 he acquired the Miami Daily News and the Canton Daily News. In December 1939, he purchased the Atlanta Georgian and Journal, just a week before that city hosted the premiere of Gone with the Wind.[12]:389 This deal included radio station WSB, which joined his previous holdings, WHIO in Dayton and WIOD in Miami, to give him, "'air' from the Great Lakes on the north to Latin America on the south."[12]:387

He continued to be involved in politics, and in 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944, Cox supported and campaigned for the presidential candidacies of his former running mate Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1933, Cox was appointed by Roosevelt to the U.S. delegation to the failed London Economic Conference.[13]

When he was seventy-six, Cox published his memoir, Journey through My Years (1946).

In 1915, Cox built a home near those of industrialists Charles Kettering and Edward Deeds in what later became Kettering, Ohio where he lived for four decades. It was constructed in the classical French-Renaissance style with six bedrooms, six bathrooms, two tennis courts, a billiards room and an in-ground swimming pool.[14] Cox named the home, Trailsend and it was there he died in 1957 after a series of strokes.[15] He is interred in the Woodland Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio.

Cox was a member of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ.

Election history

President of the United States, 1920

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Warren G. Harding Republican Ohio 16,144,093 60.32% 404 Calvin Coolidge Massachusetts 404
James M. Cox Democratic Ohio 9,139,661 34.15% 127 Franklin D. Roosevelt New York 127
Eugene V. Debs Socialist Indiana 913,693 3.41% 0 Seymour Stedman Illinois 0
Parley P. Christensen Farmer-Labor Illinois 265,398 0.99% 0 Max S. Hayes Ohio 0
Aaron S. Watkins Prohibition Indiana 188,787 0.71% 0 D. Leigh Colvin New York 0
James E. Ferguson American Texas 47,968 0.18% 0 William J. Hough New York 0
William Wesley Cox Socialist Labor Missouri 31,084 0.12% 0 August Gillhaus New York 0
Robert Colvin Macauley Single Tax Pennsylvania 5,750 0.02% 0 Richard C. Barnum Ohio 0
Other 28,746 0.11% Other
Total 26,765,180 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1920 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005.

Governor of Ohio

Year Democratic Republican Others
1918[16] James M. Cox : 486,403 Frank B. Willis : 474,459  
1916[17] James M. Cox : 568,218 Frank B. Willis : 561,602 Tom Clifford : 36,908
John H. Dickason : 7,347
1914[18] James M. Cox : 493,804 Frank B. Willis : 523,074 James R. Garfield (Progressive) : 60,904
Scott Wilkins (Socialist) : 51,441
1912[16] James M. Cox : 439,323 Robert B. Brown : 272,500  

United States House of Representatives

Ohio's 3rd Congressional District

1910

  • James M. Cox (D), 31,539
  • George R. Young (R), 18,730
  • Harmon Evans (Socialist), 6,275
  • Richard E. O'Byrne (Prohibition), 286[19]

1908

  • James M. Cox (D), 32,534 votes
  • William G. Frizell (R), 12,593
  • J. Eugene Harding (Independent), 19,306
  • Howard H. Caldwell (Socialist), 2,943
  • Henry A. Thompson (Prohibition), 267[20]

Family

Cox was married twice. His first marriage to Mayme Simpson Harding lasted from 1893 to 1912, and ended in divorce.[3] He married Margaretta Parker Blair in 1917 and she survived him.[3][21] Cox had six children, three by Mayme Harding, sons James Middleton Jr. and John William and a daughter Helen Harding,[22][23][24][25] a son who died in infancy, and two daughters Anne Beau and Barbara Blair by Margaretta Blair.[3][21] His son James M. Cox Jr., who took over the business after his death, was chairman of Cox Enterprises and Cox Broadcasting Corporation in Atlanta.[22][26] His daughter Helen died in 1921 and her husband Daniel Joseph Mahoney was president of Cox Newspapers. His descendants through his two daughters by Blair, Anne and Barbara, are still major shareholders in Cox Enterprises.

Legacy

Cox practiced a variety of trades throughout his life, being a farmer, reporter, Congressional staff member, newspaper publisher and editor, politician, elected official and finally, a regional media magnate.[27]

In Ohio Cox is remembered as a crusading publisher of the Dayton Daily News and progressive governor; the newspaper's editorial meeting room is still referred to as the Governor's Library. The James M. Cox Dayton International Airport, more commonly referenced simply as Dayton International Airport, was named for Cox as well.

Cox is credited with words, "If there is anything in the theory of reincarnation of the soul then in my next assignment, if I be given the right of choice, I will ask for the aroma of printers ink."[4]

The Cox Fine Arts Building at the Ohio Expo Center and State Fair in Columbus, Ohio, is named in honor of Cox.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Largest Landslide Victories In US Presidential Election History". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  2. ^ Goodman, Rebecca (2005). This Day in Ohio History. Emmis Books. p. 217. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Cebula, James. "Cox, James Middleton". American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  4. ^ a b Dayton Daily News history: James M. Cox
  5. ^ Stockwell, Mary (2001). Ohio Adventure. Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith. pp. 156–157. ISBN 9781423623823. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  6. ^ James M. Cox, Ohio History Central
  7. ^ Persecution of the German Language in Cincinnati and the Ake Law in Ohio, 1917-1919. Archived.
  8. ^ James M. Cox, Democratic Candidate for President, Library of Congress
  9. ^ Nation's Forum Recordings: 1918-1920, AuthenticHistory.com
  10. ^ American leaders speak, Library of Congress
  11. ^ Governor James M. Cox. The World War, Library of Congress sound recording
  12. ^ a b Cox, James M. (2004). Journey through my years. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press.
  13. ^ US Delegation on Way to New York. The Free Lance-Star - May 31, 1933
  14. ^ Former Cox mansion sold in cash deal, Dayton Daily News, April 27, 2015.
  15. ^ James M. Cox obituary, The New York Times, 16 July 1957.
  16. ^ a b Cleveland.com
  17. ^ Journal of the House of Representatives of the Eighty Second General Assembly of the State of Ohio. 1917. p. 26.
  18. ^ Hildebrant, Charles Q. (1916). Ohio general statistics for the period commencing November 16, 1914 and ending June 30, 1915. 1. Ohio Secretary of State. p. 20.
  19. ^ Langland, James (1911). The Chicago Daily News Almanac and Year Book for 1912. 28. Chicago, IL: Chicago Daily News Company. p. 444.
  20. ^ Thompson, Carmi (1910). Annual Report of the Ohio Secretary of State, 1909. Springfield, OH: Springfield Publishing Company. p. 255.
  21. ^ a b "James M. Cox". NNDB. Soylent Communications. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  22. ^ a b "James M. Cox Jr. Is Dead at 71; Led News, Broadcasting Chain". The New York Times. 28 October 1974.
  23. ^ https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/179129316/daniel-j-mahoney
  24. ^ https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/presidential-campaign-advertisement-for-the-democratic-team-news-photo/976007560
  25. ^ https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/presidential-campaign-advertisement-for-the-democratic-team-news-photo/976010210
  26. ^ http://www.grady.uga.edu/coxinstitute/jcoxmem/LaterYearsPg.htm
  27. ^ History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio. Cincinnati: S. B. Nelson & Company. 1894. p. 590. Retrieved 1 October 2015.

Further reading

Secondary sources

  • Bagby, Wesley M. The Road to Normalcy: The Presidential Campaign and Election of 1920. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962.
  • Cebula, James E. James M. Cox: Journalist and Politician. New York: Garland, 1985.
  • Morris, Charles E. The Progressive Democracy Of James M. Cox. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1920. (From Project Gutenberg, full text.)
  • Warner, Hoyt L. Progressivism in Ohio, 1897-1917. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1964.

Primary sources

External links

1920 Democratic National Convention

The 1920 Democratic National Convention was held at the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco, California from June 28 to July 6, 1920. It resulted in the nomination of Governor James M. Cox of Ohio for President and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt from New York for Vice President.

Neither President Woodrow Wilson, in spite of his failing health, nor former Secretary of State and three-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan had entirely given up hope that their party would turn to them, but neither was, in the event, formally nominated. In addition to the eventual nominee, Cox, the other high-scoring candidates as the voting proceeded were: Secretary of the Treasury William McAdoo and Attorney General Mitchell Palmer. On the forty-fourth ballot, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio was nominated for the Presidency. Cora Wilson Stewart of Kentucky, head of the National Education Association's new illiteracy commission, was chosen to second the nomination for Governor Cox. Mrs. Stewart was selected to replace Kentucky Congressman J. Campbell Cantrill, highlighting the candidate's support for what would become the 19th Amendment.The platform adopted by the convention supported the League of Nations, albeit with qualifications, and women's suffrage.

1920 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1920 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1920 U.S. presidential election. Ohio Governor James M. Cox was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1920 Democratic National Convention held from June 28 to July 6, 1920, in San Francisco, California.

1920 United States elections

The 1920 United States elections was held on November 2. In the aftermath of World War I, the Republican Party re-established the dominant position it lost in the 1910 and 1912 elections. This was the first election after the ratification of the 19th Amendment, which granted women the constitutional right to vote.

In the presidential election, Republican Senator Warren G. Harding from Ohio defeated Democratic Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Harding won a landslide victory, taking every state outside the South and dominating the popular vote. Harding won the Republican nomination on the tenth ballot, defeating former Army Chief of Staff Leonard Wood, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden, California Senator Hiram Johnson, and several other candidates. Cox won the Democratic nomination on the 44th ballot over former Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, New York Governor Al Smith, and several other candidates. Future president Calvin Coolidge won the Republican nomination for vice president, while fellow future president Franklin D. Roosevelt won the Democratic nomination for vice president. Harding was the first sitting Senator to be elected president.

The Republicans made large gains in the House and the Senate, strengthening their majority in both chambers. They picked up sixty-two seats in the House of Representatives, furthering their majority over the Democrats. The Republicans also strengthened their majority in the Senate, gaining ten seats.

1920 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1920 was the 34th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1920. In the first election held after the end of World War I and the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, Republican Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio defeated Democratic Governor James M. Cox of Ohio.

Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson privately hoped for a third term, but party leaders were unwilling to re-nominate the unpopular incumbent. Former President Theodore Roosevelt had been the front-runner for the Republican nomination, but he died in 1919 without leaving an obvious heir to his progressive legacy. With both Wilson and Roosevelt out of the running, the major parties turned to little-known dark horse candidates from the state of Ohio, a swing state with a large number of electoral votes. Cox won the 1920 Democratic National Convention on the 44th ballot, defeating William Gibbs McAdoo, A. Mitchell Palmer, and several other candidates. Harding emerged as a compromise candidate between the conservative and progressive wings of the party, and he clinched his nomination on the tenth ballot of the 1920 Republican National Convention.

The election was dominated by the American social and political environment in the aftermath of World War I, which was marked by a hostile response to certain aspects of Wilson's foreign policy and a massive reaction against the reformist zeal of the Progressive Era. The wartime economic boom had collapsed and the country was deep in a recession. Wilson's advocacy for America's entry into the League of Nations in the face of a return to non-interventionist opinion challenged his effectiveness as president and overseas, there were wars and revolutions. At home, the year 1919 was marked by major strikes in the meatpacking and steel industries and large-scale race riots in Chicago and other cities. Anarchist attacks on Wall Street produced fears of radicals and terrorists. The Irish Catholic and German communities were outraged at Wilson's perceived favoritism of their traditional enemy Great Britain, and his political position was critically weakened after he suffered a stroke in 1919 that left him severely disabled.

Harding virtually ignored Cox in the race and essentially campaigned against Wilson by calling for a "return to normalcy". Harding won a landslide victory, sweeping every state outside of the South and becoming the first Republican since the end of Reconstruction to win a former state of the Confederacy. Harding's victory margin of 26.2% in the popular vote remains the largest popular-vote percentage margin in presidential elections since the unopposed re-election of James Monroe in 1820, though other candidates have since exceeded his share of the popular vote. Cox won just 34.1% of the popular vote, and Socialist Eugene V. Debs won 3.4% of the vote. As the election was the first in which women had the right to vote in all 48 states, the total popular vote increased dramatically, from 18.5 million in 1916 to 26.8 million in 1920. Harding would die in 1923 and be succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge, while the Democratic vice presidential nominee, Franklin D. Roosevelt, would later win the 1932 presidential election.

1920 United States presidential election in Arizona

The 1920 United States presidential election in Arizona took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 General Election in which all 48 states participated. Arizona voters chose three electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting Democratic nominee James M. Cox and his running mate, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt, against Republican challenger U.S. Senator Warren G. Harding and his running mate, Governor Calvin Coolidge.

By the beginning of 1920 skyrocketing inflation and Wilson's focus upon his proposed League of Nations at the expense of domestic policy had helped make the incumbent President very unpopular – besides which Wilson also had major health problems that had left First Lady Edith effectively running the nation. Political unrest seen in the Palmer Raids and the "Red Scare" further added to the unpopularity of the Democratic Party, since this global political turmoil produced considerable fear of alien revolutionaries invading the country. Demand in the West for exclusion of Asian immigrants became even stronger than it had been before, and the factionalism that would almost destroy the Democratic Party later in the decade had already simmered.Resultant opposition to the Democrats allowed Warren Harding to win the election in Arizona with 55.91 percent of the vote to James Cox' 43.72 percent. This was the first Republican presidential victory in Arizona as a whole, and in all but three of the state's fourteen contemporary counties: Pima County, which Charles Evans Hughes had won in 1916, Graham County, where no Republican would win until Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956, and Greenlee County, which no Republican would carry until George W. Bush in 2000.

1920 United States presidential election in Arkansas

The 1920 United States presidential election in Arkansas took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 General Election in which all 48 states participated. Arkansas voters chose nine electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting Democratic nominee James M. Cox and his running mate, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt, against Republican challenger U.S. Senator Warren G. Harding and his running mate, Governor Calvin Coolidge.

James Cox won the election in Arkansas with 58.05 percent of the vote. Warren Harding received 39.15% of the vote.

1920 United States presidential election in Iowa

The 1920 United States presidential election in Iowa took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States Presidential Election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose 13 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Iowa voted for Republican nominee, Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio, over the Democratic nominee, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Harding ran with Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, while Cox ran with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York. Harding won the state by a margin of 45.45 percent.

With 70.91% of the popular, Iowa would prove to be Harding fifth strongest state in the 1920 election terms of popular vote percentage after North Dakota, Vermont, Michigan and Wisconsin.

1920 United States presidential election in Massachusetts

The 1920 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose 18 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Massachusetts was won in a landslide by Republican Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio, who was running against Democratic Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Harding's running mate was Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, while Cox ran with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York. Also running that year was Socialist candidate Eugene V. Debs of Indiana and his running mate Seymour Stedman of Illinois.

Harding carried Massachusetts overwhelmingly with 68.55 percent of the vote to Cox's 27.84 percent, a Republican victory margin of 40.71 percent. Debs finished third, with 3.25 percent.

Massachusetts had long been a typical Yankee Republican bastion in the wake of the Civil War, having voted Republican in every election since 1856, except in 1912, when former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt had run as a third party candidate against incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft, splitting the Republican vote and allowing Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win Massachusetts with a plurality of only 35.53 percent of the vote. In 1916, the state had returned to the Republican column, although only by a fairly narrow 4-point margin.

With the deeply unpopular Democratic administration of Woodrow Wilson as the backdrop for the 1920 campaign, Warren G. Harding promised a "return to normalcy" that appealed to many voters, while Cox was tied to the policies of the Wilson administration, whose unpopularity was especially severe among Irish-Americans who saw Wilson as pro-Britain and against their independence. Harding won nationally in one of the most decisive landslides in American history, and Massachusetts, already a fiercely Republican state, went even harder for Harding than the nation, voting a solid fifteen percent more Republican than the national average.

Harding was also helped in the state by his running mate, Calvin Coolidge, a traditional Yankee Republican born in neighboring Vermont and being the popular sitting Governor of Massachusetts.

Harding swept every county in the state of Massachusetts, including even Suffolk County, home to the state's capital and largest city, Boston. Boston had been a Democratic-leaning city prior to this, and while Calvin Coolidge would win the city once more for the GOP in 1924, Boston would defect to the Democrats for Catholic Al Smith in 1928 and become reliably Democratic in every election that followed. As Coolidge won Suffolk County with a plurality in 1924, 1920 thus remains the last election in which a Republican has won an absolute majority of the vote in Suffolk County.

In thirteen of the state's fourteen counties (all but Suffolk), Harding broke sixty percent of the vote, and in nine, Harding broke seventy percent. He even reached eighty percent in the island county of Dukes and peninsular Barnstable.

1920 United States presidential election in New Hampshire

The 1920 United States presidential election in New Hampshire took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States presidential election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

New Hampshire voted for Republican nominee, Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio, over the Democratic nominee, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Harding ran with Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, while Cox ran with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York.

Harding won New Hampshire by a margin of 20.45%. His victory in the New England states was helped by the local popularity of his running mate, Calvin Coolidge, a traditional New England Yankee born in the small-town of Plymouth Notch in neighboring Vermont, who had started his political career nearby as Governor of Massachusetts. Despite this, New Hampshire would be Cox’s second-strongest antebellum free state (after Indiana) by popular vote percentage and third-strongest (after Indiana and Cox’s Ohio) in terms of percentage margin. Overall the Granite State voted by a two-party margin of 5.72 percentage points more Democratic than the nation at-large – which is the most Democratic relative thereto New Hampshire has ever voted since the Republican Party was founded. Although Cox carried no counties, Hillsborough and longtime national bellwether Coös would prove his strongest counties in New England.

1920 United States presidential election in North Dakota

The 1920 United States presidential election in North Dakota took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States Presidential Election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose five representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

North Dakota voted for Republican nominee, Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio, over the Democratic nominee, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Harding ran with Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, while Cox ran with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York. Harding won the state by a margin of 59.6 percent.

With 77.97% of the popular, North Dakota would prove to be Harding strongest state in terms of popular vote percentage.

1920 United States presidential election in South Carolina

The 1920 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States Presidential Election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

South Carolina voted for the Democratic nominee, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio, over Republican nominee, Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio. Cox ran with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York, while Harding ran with Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts.

Cox won South Carolina by a landslide margin of 92.14%.

In the midst of a massive nationwide Republican landslide, South Carolina was a staggering 118.3% more Democratic than the national average.

1920 United States presidential election in Vermont

The 1920 United States presidential election in Vermont took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States Presidential Election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Vermont voted overwhelmingly for the Republican nominee, Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding, over the Democratic nominee, Ohio Governor James M. Cox. Harding ran with Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge, while Cox ran with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York.

Harding won in a massive landslide, taking 75.82 percent of the vote, while Cox took 23.25 percent, a Republican victory margin of 52.57 percentage points.

Vermont historically was a bastion of liberal Northeastern Republicanism, and by 1920 the Green Mountain State had gone Republican in every presidential election since the founding of the Republican Party. From 1856 to 1916, Vermont had had the longest streak of voting Republican of any state, having never voted Democratic before, and this tradition easily continued amidst the nationwide Republican landslide in 1920.

Harding was also helped in the state by the local popularity of his running mate, Calvin Coolidge, a traditional New England Yankee born in the small-town of Plymouth Notch, Vermont, who had started his political career nearby as Governor of Massachusetts.

Harding swept every county in Vermont by landslide margins, taking more than sixty percent of the vote in all fourteen. Harding broke seventy percent of the vote in eleven counties, and even broke eighty percent in five.

Vermont would be the third most Republican state in the union in terms of victory margin, and the second most Republican state in terms of vote share after North Dakota. Vermont would weigh in as over 26 percentage points more Republican than the national average in the 1920 election.

1920 United States presidential election in Wyoming

The 1920 United States presidential election in Wyoming took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States presidential election. Wyoming voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Wyoming was won by Republican Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding, running with governor of Massachusetts and the future 30th president of the United States Calvin Coolidge, with 64.15 percent of the popular vote, against the Democratic 46th and 48th Governor of Ohio James M. Cox, running with the future Governor of New York and 32nd President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt, with 31.86 percent of the popular vote.Like all of the Western United States, severe anger at President Woodrow Wilson's failure to maintain his promise to keep the United States out of World War I produced extreme hostility among the strongly isolationist population of remote Wyoming. In addition, by the beginning of 1920 skyrocketing inflation and Wilson's focus upon his proposed League of Nations at the expense of domestic policy had helped make the incumbent president very unpopular – besides which Wilson also had major health problems that had left First Lady Edith effectively running the nation. Political unrest seen in the Palmer Raids and the "Red Scare" further added to the unpopularity of the Democratic Party, since this global political turmoil produced considerable fear of alien revolutionaries invading the country. Demand in the West for exclusion of Asian immigrants became even stronger than it had been before. Another factor hurting the Democratic Party was the migration of many people from the traditionally Republican Upper Midwest into the state.Because the West had been the chief presidential battleground ever since the "System of 1896" emerged following that election, Governor Cox traveled across the western states in August and September, but he did not visit Wyoming with its tiny population and poverty of electoral votes. No polls were taken in the state, but a Republican success was universally assumed.

Anne Cox Chambers

Anne Beau Cox Chambers (born December 1, 1919) is an American media proprietor, who had a stake of interest in Cox Enterprises, a privately held media empire that includes newspapers, television, radio, cable television, and other businesses.She is the daughter of James M. Cox, a newspaper publisher and 1920 Democratic Presidential nominee, and his second wife, Margaretta Parker Blair. She owns and controls her father's business interests, through Cox Enterprises. For 33 years she co-owned the family company with her sister, Barbara Cox Anthony, who died on May 28, 2007. She lives in Atlanta, Georgia.

Her net worth was estimated by Forbes at $16.1 billion in September 2014, based principally on her equity interest in Cox Enterprises. She is the wealthiest person in Georgia, the 28th-richest person in the United States and 53rd-richest person in the world.

Cox Enterprises

Cox Enterprises, Inc. is a privately held global conglomerate headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia with approximately 55,000 employees and $21 billion in total revenue. Its major operating subsidiaries are Cox Communications, Cox Automotive and Cox Media Group. The company's major national brands include AutoTrader, Kelley Blue Book, Cox Homelife, Gamut and more. Through Cox Automotive, the company's international operations stretch across Asia, Australia, Europe and Latin America. Cox Enterprises is currently led by Alexander C. Taylor, a fourth-generation Cox family member and great-grandson of founder James M. Cox. James M. Cox's grandson, James C. Kennedy and other members of the Cox family are on the company's board of directors.

Dayton International Airport

Dayton International Airport (IATA: DAY, ICAO: KDAY, FAA LID: DAY) (officially James M. Cox Dayton International Airport), formerly Dayton Municipal Airport and James M. Cox-Dayton Municipal Airport, is ten miles north of downtown Dayton, in Montgomery County, Ohio. The airport is in the city limits of Dayton, in an exclave of Dayton not contiguous with the rest of the city. Its address is 3600 Terminal Drive, Dayton, Ohio 45377. The airport is headquarters for American Eagle carrier PSA Airlines.

The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems called it a primary commercial service airport. Dayton International is the third busiest and third largest airport in Ohio behind Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and John Glenn Columbus International Airport. The airport is home to the annual Vectren Dayton Air Show.

Dayton International Airport handled 2,607,528 passengers in 2012 and had 57,914 combined take offs and landings in 2012. Dayton ranked No. 76 in U.S. airport boardings in 2008. The airport has non-stop flights to 17 destinations.

Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication

The Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication is a constituent college of the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia, United States. Established in 1915, Grady College offers undergraduate degrees in journalism, advertising, public relations, and entertainment and media studies, along with master’s and doctoral programs of study. Grady has consistently been ranked among the top schools of journalism education and research in the U.S. It is home to several prominent centers and institutes, including the Peabody Awards, recognized as one of the most prestigious awards in electronic journalism, the James M. Cox Jr. Center for International Mass Communication Training and Research, New Media Institute and National Press Photographers Association.

James C. Kennedy

James Cox Kennedy (born June 30, 1948) is an American media executive and the current chair of Cox Enterprises, the media conglomerate founded by his grandfather, James M. Cox. According to the 2017 Forbes billionaires list, he is the 105th-richest person in the world, the 37th-richest person in the United States, and the richest person in the state of Georgia, surpassing his aunt, Anne Cox Chambers.

W. A. Greenlund

William A. Greenlund (February 20, 1873 – August 23, 1935) was an American politician who served as the 33rd Lieutenant Governor of Ohio from 1913 to 1915 under Governor James M. Cox.

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