James Michael Cole (born May 2, 1952) is an American attorney who served as United States Deputy Attorney General from December 29, 2010 to January 8, 2015. He was first installed as Deputy Attorney General following a recess appointment by President Barack Obama on December 29, 2010. He then was confirmed by the United States Senate in a 55–42 vote on June 28, 2011.
|35th United States Deputy Attorney General|
December 29, 2010 – January 8, 2015
|Preceded by||David W. Ogden|
|Succeeded by||Sally Yates|
James Michael Cole
May 2, 1952
Evanston, Illinois, U.S.
|Education||University of Colorado, Boulder (BA)|
University of California, Hastings (JD)
Cole worked in the United States Department of Justice for 13 years, from 1979 until 1992, when he entered private practice. During his time in the DOJ's Public Integrity Section, Cole successfully prosecuted two federal judges on corruption charges, including Judge Robert Frederick Collins in 1991. Even after leaving the DOJ, Cole remained involved in matters related to the federal government, serving in 1996 and 1997 as the special counsel to the United States House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct (known as the House Ethics Committee) during the investigation of Newt Gingrich on ethics violations.
In 2004, Cole and his law firm were hired as part of a 2004 agreement with the government to monitor AIG's regulatory compliance, financial reporting, whistle-blower protection and employee retention policies, submitting confidential reports to the Justice Department and the Securities and Exchange Commission.
On May 21, 2010, President Obama nominated Cole for the position of Deputy Attorney General to replace David W. Ogden, who returned to private law practice. Senate Republicans blocked a confirmation vote on Cole throughout 2010. Cole had been waiting five months for a Senate vote on his nomination, the longest delay to fill that position in the 30 years. Cole received a recess appointment to the position from Obama on December 29, 2010.
On May 5, 2011, U.S. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid filed for cloture of Cole's nomination on which a roll call vote was held on May 9, 2011. The motion, which required 60 votes to be agreed to, was rejected by a vote of 50-40 with 10 Senators not voting.
On June 23, 2011, Reid announced on the Senate floor that a full Senate vote on Cole's nomination would take place on June 28, 2011. Earlier in the week, Reid had reached a unanimous consent agreement with Republican leaders in the Senate to pave the way for a vote on the nominations of Cole and two other nominees to Department of Justice positions without the need for another cloture vote. The Senate then confirmed Cole in a 55–42 vote on June 28, 2011.
On June 29, 2011, Cole authored a letter expressing the federal government's new policy regarding the enforcement of marijuana offenses in states which have medical marijuana laws. This memo effectively rescinded the previous mandate directing federal resources only for those not compliant with state law. The new policy disregards state law compliance and instead authorizes enforcement on all "persons who are in the business of cultivating, selling, or distributing marijuana and those who knowingly facilitate such activities".
In August 2011 Cole announced that the Department of Justice would file suit to prevent AT&T acquiring T-Mobile from Deutsche Telekom, saying that would lead to "tens of millions of consumers in the United States facing higher prices, poorer quality services, fewer choices, and lower quality products for their mobile wireless service." AT&T subsequently withdrew its application for Federal Communications Commission approval of the deal.
In February 2012, Joseph Rannazzisi, chief of the Drug Enforcement Administration's Office of Diversion Control, issued immediate suspension orders against Cardinal Health's supply of oxycodone to suspected pill mills. Deputy Attorney General Cole then called Rannazzisi to a meeting at Justice Department headquarters where Cole warned him "it made good sense to listen to what Cardinal had to say". Rannazzisi was fired from the drug diversion office in August 2015. Cardinal was never fined.
On August 29, 2013, the Department of Justice published a memorandum authored by Cole which described a new set of priorities for federal prosecutors operating in states which had legalized the medical or other adult use of marijuana. The "Cole memo" followed a 2009 memorandum from Deputy Attorney General David W. Ogden directing U.S. Attorneys in the Western United States to "not focus federal resources in your States on individuals whose actions are in clear and unambiguous compliance with existing state laws providing for the medical use of marijuana". The memorandum was rescinded by Attorney General Jeff Sessions on January 4, 2018.
| United States Deputy Attorney General
Sally Quillian Yates
In 2013, the United States Department of Justice, under Attorney General Eric Holder, came under scrutiny from the media and some members of Congress for subpoenaing phone records from the Associated Press (AP). Under similar justifications, a 2010 subpoena approved by Eric Holder implicated Fox News reporter, James Rosen, as a possible co-conspirator under the Espionage Act of 1917. Investigators gained access to the times of his phone calls, and two days of Rosen's emails. Stephen Jin-Woo Kim eventually pleaded guilty to violating the Espionage Act for communicating North Korean nuclear test plans to Rosen. These investigations provoked considerable criticism from major news organizations, and precipitated the revision of media guidelines at the Department of Justice.Associated Press
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. Its members are U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its standards and practices.The AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917.
The AP has counted the vote in U.S. elections since 1848, including national, state and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish, city and town across the U.S., and declares winners in over 5,000 contests.
The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English, Spanish and Arabic. AP content is also available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher.As of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters. The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It also operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative. As part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials.
Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.Cancellation (mail)
A cancellation (or cancel for short; French: "oblitération") is a postal marking applied on a postage stamp or postal stationery to deface the stamp and prevent its re-use. Cancellations come in a huge variety of designs, shapes, sizes and colors. Modern cancellations commonly include the date and post office location where the stamps were mailed, in addition to lines or bars designed to cover the stamp itself. The term "postal marking" sometimes is used to refer specifically to the part that contains the date and posting location, although the term often is used interchangeably with "cancellation." The portion of a cancellation that is designed to deface the stamp and does not contain writing is also called the "obliteration" or killer. Some stamps are issued pre-cancelled with a printed or stamped cancellation and do not need to have a cancellation added. Cancellations can affect the value of stamps to collectors, positively or negatively. The cancellations of some countries have been extensively studied by philatelists and many stamp collectors and postal history collectors collect cancellations in addition to the stamps themselves.Cardinal Health
Cardinal Health, Inc. is a Fortune Global 500 health care services company, and the 14th highest revenue generating company in the United States. Its headquarters is based in Dublin, Ohio. The company specializes in distribution of pharmaceuticals and medical products, serving more than 100,000 locations. The company also manufactures medical and surgical products, including gloves, surgical apparel and fluid management products. In addition, it operates the largest network of radiopharmacies in the U.S. Cardinal Health provides medical products to over 75 percent of hospitals in the United States.Cole Memorandum
The Cole Memorandum was a United States Department of Justice memorandum issued August 29, 2013, by United States Deputy Attorney General James M. Cole during the presidency of Barack Obama. The memorandum, sent to all United States Attorneys, governed federal prosecution of offenses related to marijuana. The memo stated that given its limited resources, the Justice Department would not enforce federal marijuana prohibition in states that "legalized marijuana in some form and ... implemented strong and effective regulatory and enforcement systems to control the cultivation, distribution, sale, and possession of marijuana," except where a lack of federal enforcement would undermine federal priorities (such as preventing violence in marijuana cultivation and distribution, preventing cannabis impaired driving, and preventing marijuana revenues from going to gangs and cartels).The Cole Memorandum was rescinded by Attorney General Jeff Sessions in January 2018, during the presidency of Donald Trump.Drug diversion
Drug diversion is a medical and legal concept involving the transfer of any legally prescribed controlled substance from the individual for whom it was prescribed to another person for any illicit use. The definition varies slightly among different jurisdictions, but the transfer of a controlled substance alone usually does not constitute a diversion, since certain controlled substances that are prescribed to a child are intended to be administered by an adult, as directed by a medical professional. The term comes from the "diverting" of the drugs from their original licit medical purpose. In some jurisdictions, drug diversion programs are available to first time offenders of diversion drug laws, which "divert" offenders from the criminal justice system to a program of education and rehabilitation.Eric Holder
Eric Himpton Holder Jr. (born January 21, 1951) is an American lawyer who served as the 82nd Attorney General of the United States from 2009 to 2015. Holder, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama, was the first African American to hold the position of U.S. Attorney General (in both a confirmed and acting position).Born in New York City to a middle class family of Barbadian origins, Holder was raised in a predominantly black community but attended school with mostly white students as part of a gifted education program. He graduated from Stuyvesant High School, Columbia College, and Columbia Law School. Following law school, he left New York to work for the Public Integrity Section of the Department of Justice for 12 years. He next served as a judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia before being appointed by President Bill Clinton as United States Attorney for the District of Columbia and subsequently Deputy Attorney General. While U.S. Attorney, he prosecuted Congressman Dan Rostenkowski for corruption charges related to his role in the Congressional Post Office scandal.
Following the Clinton administration, he worked at the law firm of Covington & Burling in Washington, D.C. He was senior legal advisor to Barack Obama during Obama's presidential campaign and one of three members of Obama's vice-presidential selection committee. Holder was a close ally and confidant of Obama's and was selected as President Obama's first Attorney General. The Republican-controlled House of Representatives held Holder in contempt of Congress during an investigation of the ATF gunwalking scandal; the Justice Department's Inspector General later cleared Holder of any wrongdoing. Holder was succeeded as Attorney General by Loretta Lynch in April 2015. He returned to Covington & Burling, where he continues to practice, and is also involved with efforts at gerrymandering reform through the National Democratic Redistricting Committee.Legal history of cannabis in the United States
The legal history of cannabis in the United States pertains to the regulation of cannabis (legal term marijuana or marihuana) for medical, recreational, and industrial purposes in the United States. Increased restrictions and labeling of cannabis as a poison began in many states from 1906 onward, and outright prohibitions began in the 1920s. By the mid-1930s cannabis was regulated as a drug in every state, including 35 states that adopted the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act. The first national regulation was the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937.Cannabis was officially outlawed for any use (medical included) with the passage of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of 1970. Multiple efforts to reschedule cannabis under the CSA have failed, and the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled in United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative and Gonzales v. Raich that the federal government has a right to regulate and criminalize cannabis, even for medical purposes. Despite this, states and other jurisdictions have continued to implement policies that conflict with federal law, beginning with the passage of California's Proposition 215 in 1996. By 2016 a majority of states had legalized medical cannabis, and in 2012 the first states legalized recreational use.List of University of California, Hastings College of the Law people
This page lists notable alumni, students, and faculty of the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, a public law school in San Francisco, California.List of people from Evanston, Illinois
The following list includes notable people who were born or have lived in Evanston, Illinois. For a similar list organized alphabetically by last name, see the category page People from Evanston, Illinois.Medical cannabis in the United States
In the United States, the use of cannabis for medical purposes is legal in 33 states, four (out of five) permanently inhabited U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia, as of January 2019. Fourteen other states have more restrictive laws limiting THC content, for the purpose of allowing access to products that are rich in cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of cannabis. There is considerable variation in medical cannabis laws from state to state, including how it is produced and distributed, how it can be consumed, and what medical conditions it can be used for.The first state to effectively legalize medical cannabis was California in 1996, when voters approved Proposition 215 by a 56–44 margin. Several states followed with successful ballot initiatives in 1998, and in 2000 Hawaii became the first to legalize through an act of state legislature. By 2016, legalization of medical cannabis had spread to a majority of states.
At the federal level, cannabis remains a prohibited substance by way of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Under the CSA, the Drug Enforcement Administration classifies cannabis as a Schedule I drug, determined to have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use – thereby prohibiting its use for any purpose. The Justice Department has enforced this policy through various means, including criminal prosecutions, civil asset forfeiture, and paramilitary-style raids targeting medical cannabis providers, and various penalties threatened or initiated against other individuals involved in state-legal medical cannabis activities (doctors, landlords, state officials and employees). In December 2014, however, the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment was signed into law, prohibiting the Justice Department from spending funds to interfere with the implementation of state medical cannabis laws.Public support for allowing the medical use of cannabis has remained strong since Gallup first polled the subject in 1999, finding 73% in favor. An August 2017 Quinnipiac poll found national support at 94%.Newt Gingrich
Newton Leroy Gingrich (; né McPherson, June 17, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 50th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. A member of the Republican Party, he was the U.S. Representative for Georgia's 6th congressional district from 1979 until his resignation in 1999. In 2012, Gingrich was a candidate for the presidential nomination of his party.
A teacher of history and geography at the University of West Georgia in the 1970s, Gingrich won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in November 1978, the first Republican in the history of Georgia's 6th congressional district to do so. He served as House Minority Whip from 1989 to 1995. A co-author and architect of the "Contract with America", Gingrich was a major leader in the Republican victory in the 1994 congressional election. In 1995, Time named him "Man of the Year" for "his role in ending the four-decades-long Democratic majority in the House".As House Speaker, Gingrich oversaw passage by the House of welfare reform and a capital gains tax cut in 1997. Gingrich played a key role in several government shutdowns, and impeached President Clinton on a party-line vote in the House. The poor showing by Republicans in the 1998 Congressional elections, a reprimand from the House for Gingrich's ethics violation, pressure from Republican colleagues, and revelations of an extramarital affair with a congressional employee 23 years his junior resulted in Gingrich's resignation from the speakership on November 6, 1998. He resigned altogether from the House on January 3, 1999.
Political scientists have widely credited Gingrich with playing a key role in undermining democratic norms in the United States, and hastening political polarization and partisan prejudice.Since leaving the House, Gingrich has remained active in public policy debates and worked as a political consultant. He founded and chaired several policy think tanks, including American Solutions for Winning the Future and the Center for Health Transformation. He has written or co-authored 27 books. In May 2011, he announced his campaign for the Republican presidential nomination. On May 2, 2012, Gingrich ended his presidential campaign and endorsed front runner Mitt Romney, who won the nomination.Plantation Estate
Plantation Estate is a single-story, wood-frame, 5,000-square-foot (460 m2) Pacific Ocean-front house at 57 Kailuana Place in Kailua, Honolulu County, Hawaii, which former President Barack Obama rented for use during his Christmas vacations from 2008 to 2016.
The house is less than a mile south of the Marine Corps Base Hawaii. Obama worked out at the Semper Fit Center at the base and attended dinners there during his visits. He also swam in the ocean at the base of Pyramid Rock.United States Deputy Attorney General
The United States Deputy Attorney General is the second-highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice and oversees the day-to-day operation of the Department. The Deputy Attorney General acts as Attorney General during the absence of the Attorney General.
The Deputy Attorney General is a political appointee of the President of the United States and takes office after confirmation by the United States Senate. The position was created in 1950. Since April 26, 2017, Rod Rosenstein has been Deputy Attorney General.United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC, also called the FISA Court) is a U.S. federal court established and authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) to oversee requests for surveillance warrants against foreign spies inside the United States by federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies. Such requests are made most often by the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Congress created FISA and its court as a result of the recommendations by the U.S. Senate's Church Committee. In 2013, The New York Times said "it has quietly become almost a parallel Supreme Court."From its opening in 1978 until 2009, the court was housed on the sixth floor of the Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building. Since 2009, the court has been relocated to the E. Barrett Prettyman United States Courthouse in Washington, D.C.In 2013, a top-secret order issued by the court, which was later leaked to the media from documents culled by Edward Snowden, required a subsidiary of Verizon to provide a daily, on-going feed of all call detail records—including those for domestic calls—to the NSA.Washington Initiative 502
Washington Initiative 502 (I-502) "on marijuana reform" was an initiative to the Washington State Legislature, which appeared on the November 2012 general ballot, passing by a margin of approximately 56 to 44 percent. Originally submitted to the Washington Secretary of State during the summer of 2011, enough signatures were collected and submitted by December to meet the required 241,153 signatures, sending it to the legislature.
When the legislature adjourned without action in April, Initiative 502 automatically advanced to the November 2012 general ballot. It was approved by popular vote on November 6, and took effect over the course of a year, beginning with certification no later than December 6, 2012. Along with a similar Colorado measure, Initiative 502 was credited for encouraging voter turnout of 81%, the highest in the nation.Initiative 502 defined and legalized small amounts of marijuana-related products for adults 21 and over, taxes them and designates the revenue for healthcare and substance-abuse prevention and education. As noted at RCW 69.50.101, cannabis is still classified as a schedule I controlled substance under federal law and subject to federal prosecution under the doctrine of dual sovereignty. Possession by anyone younger than 21, possession of larger amounts, and the growing of unlicensed or unregulated marijuana remains illegal under state law.Yell County, Arkansas
Yell County is a county in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,185. The county has two county seats, Dardanelle and Danville. Yell County is Arkansas's 42nd county, formed on December 5, 1840 from portions of Scott and Pope counties. It was named after Archibald Yell, who was the state's first member of the United States House of Representatives and the second governor of Arkansas; he later was killed in combat at the Battle of Buena Vista during the Mexican–American War. It is an alcohol prohibition or dry county.
Yell County is part of the Russellville, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area.