James Irwin

James Benson "Jim" Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991) (Col, USAF) was an American astronaut, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and a United States Air Force pilot. He served as Apollo Lunar Module pilot for Apollo 15, the fourth human lunar landing. He was the eighth person to walk on the Moon and the first, and youngest, of those astronauts to die.[1]

James B. Irwin
Jim Irwin Apollo 15 LMP
James Benson Irwin

March 17, 1930
DiedAugust 8, 1991 (aged 61)
Resting placeArlington National Cemetery
Alma materUSNA, B.S. 1951
University of Michigan, M.S. 1957
OccupationTest pilot
AwardsNASA Distinguished Service Medal.jpg
Space career
NASA Astronaut
RankUS-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, USAF
Time in space
12d 07h 12m
Selection1966 NASA Group 5
Total EVAs
4 (3 EVAs were on the moon, while his 4th EVA was a stand-up)
Total EVA time
18 hours 35 minutes
MissionsApollo 15
Mission insignia
Apollo 15-insignia.png
RetirementJuly 31, 1972

Early life and education

Irwin was born March 17, 1930, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,[2] of Scottish and Irish descent, to parents James Irwin and Elsa Mathilda Irwin (née Strebel). Irwin's grandparents emigrated to the U.S. from Altmore Parish at Pomeroy in County Tyrone, Ireland (now Northern Ireland) around 1859.[3] At about the age of 12, he informed his mother about his desire to go to the Moon, letting her know that he might be the first person to do so[4] (he ended up being the eighth). He graduated from East High School in Salt Lake City, Utah in 1947. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Naval Science from the United States Naval Academy in 1951, and Master of Science degrees in Aeronautical Engineering and Instrumentation Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1957.[5]

He received initial flight training at Hondo Air Base and follow-on training at Reese Air Force Base, Texas. He graduated from the Air Force Experimental Test Pilot School (Class 60C) in 1961, and the Aerospace Research Pilot School in 1963 (Class IV). Prior to joining NASA, he was chief of the Advanced Requirements Branch at Headquarters Air Defense Command. During his time in the United States Air Force he received the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal and two Air Force Commendation Medals. He also received an Air Force Outstanding Unit Citation while with the 4750th Training Wing.[5]

Irwin was also a developmental test pilot for the Lockheed YF-12, the Mach 3 fighter-interceptor variant which preceded the SR-71 Blackbird. His first flight of that aircraft was on the day that one of his five children was born.[6]

In 1961, a student pilot that Irwin was training crashed the plane they were flying on a training mission. They both survived, but Irwin suffered compound fractures, amnesia, and nearly lost a leg.[7] John Forrest, a U.S. Air Force orthopedic surgeon, was instrumental in preventing the amputation of Irwin's leg.[8]

During his military service, he accumulated more than 7,015 hours flying time, of which 5,300 hours were in jet aircraft.[7]

Personal life

Irwin was raised in a Christian household but stopped actively practicing the religion at age 10. He became a devout born-again Christian after returning from space.

In 1952, Irwin married his first wife, who was a Catholic. The two had an unhappy marriage made worse by his devotion to his work. By his own account, the marriage failed after two years due to his poor, borderline cruel treatment of her, and he later stated that finding religion again made familial relationships much easier.

In 1959, Irwin married his second wife, the former Mary Ellen Monroe. They were married until his death.

NASA career

James Irwin's EVA suit from Apollo 15
Irwin's Apollo 15 space suit

Irwin was one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966.[9] He was chosen as Commander, with John S. Bull as Lunar Module Pilot, for LTA-8, an environmental qualification test of the Apollo Lunar Module in a vacuum chamber at the Houston Space Environment Simulation Laboratory.[10] He then served as a member of the astronaut support crew for Apollo 10, the first mission to carry the full Apollo stack to the Moon and the dry run for the first manned Moon landing. Following that assignment, Irwin served as backup Lunar Module Pilot for the second Moon landing mission, Apollo 12.[11]

Apollo 15

Apollo 15 Lunar Rover and Irwin
Irwin and the Lunar Roving Vehicle during Apollo 15

Between July 26 and August 7, 1971 – as the Apollo 15 Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) – Irwin logged 295 hours and 11 minutes in space. His extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Moon's surface amounted to 18 hours and 35 minutes of the mission time (an additional 33 minutes was used to do a stand-up EVA by opening the LM's docking hatch to survey the surroundings and take photographs).[12] Irwin and David Scott's mission was more science-based than previous missions, which meant that they received intensive geological training to meet the demanding nature of the J-Mission profile.[1] This extra training is credited with allowing them to make one of the most important discoveries of the Apollo era, the Genesis Rock.[12]

Apollo 15 flag, rover, LM, Irwin
James Irwin salutes the United States flag on the Moon on August 1, 1971

Apollo 15 landed in the Moon's Hadley-Apennine region, noted for its mountains and rilles.[1] As a J-Mission, they would spend more time on the Moon than previous missions, to allow for three EVAs. As well, Irwin was the first automobile passenger on the Moon as Scott drove the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) carried along for this mission in the Lunar Module (LM) Falcon's Descent Stage.[1] Scott and Irwin's stay on the Moon was just under three days at 66 hours and 54 minutes.[1]

Once the rendezvous procedure was completed between Falcon and the Endeavour CSM, Irwin and Scott were busy moving items like rock samples into the CSM and preparing the Lunar Module for final separation. During this intense period of work the earliest symptoms of a heart condition appeared.[13] Both Scott and Irwin had been working with no sleep for 23 hours, during which they conducted a final moonwalk, performed the ascent from the lunar surface, rendezvoused with Endeavour, and encountered the problems that delayed the Lunar Module jettison maneuver.[14] The astronauts' physiological vital signs were being monitored back on Earth, and the flight surgeons noticed some irregularities in Irwin's heart rhythms.[14] Irwin's heart had developed bigeminy.[15] Dr. Charles Berry stated to Chris Kraft, deputy director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) at the time: "It's serious, [i]f he were on Earth. I'd have him in ICU being treated for a heart attack."[15] However, Berry concluded that since Endeavour's cabin atmosphere was 100% oxygen when in space, Irwin was in the best of circumstances.[15] Specifically, "In truth, ... he's in an ICU. He's getting one hundred percent oxygen, he's being continuously monitored, and best of all, he's in zero g. Whatever strain his heart is under, well, we can't do better than zero g."[15]

During the post-trans-Earth injection (TEI) phase of the mission there wasn't much more for Irwin to do other than provide help with Al Worden's EVA to retrieve film magazines from the CSM's SIM bay, by donning a pressure suit and monitoring him. He was able to rest and apparently recover during the rest of the mission.[13] The flight surgeons continued to monitor his EKG until splashdown, but his heart rhythm was normal.[15] This incident was not discussed during the mission debriefing sessions, and the condition did not appear when he returned to Earth.[16]

Post-NASA career

After the return of Apollo 15 to Earth, it was discovered that, without authority, the crew had taken 398 commemorative first day covers to the Moon of which a hundred were then sold to a German stamp dealer. The profits of the sale were intended to be used to establish trust funds for the Apollo 15 crew's children. NASA had turned a blind eye to similar activities on earlier flights,[17] but on this occasion the administration reprimanded the astronauts, and they never got any funds from the sales. Irwin had announced his intent to retire from the Air Force and resign from NASA prior to the reprimand.[18] During a subsequent investigations by NASA, the Attorney General, and Congress, the astronauts surrendered the covers still in their possession; they were returned in 1983 thereby, effectively retracting the accusations and exonerating the crew.[19][20]

By his own admission, Irwin was not a committed Christian during his years at NASA. After his retirement as a Colonel in 1972, Irwin founded the High Flight Foundation. He spent the next 20 years as a "Goodwill Ambassador for the Prince of Peace", stating that "Jesus walking on the earth is more important than man walking on the moon".[21] He said that his experiences in space had made God more real to him than before.[18] Irwin and his wife stated that his Christian rebirth, which happened while he was in space, saved their marriage and made their lives much happier.[22]

Beginning in 1973, Irwin led several expeditions to Mount Ararat, Turkey, in search of the remains of Noah's Ark. In 1982, he was injured during the descent and had to be transported down the mountain on horseback.[23] In More Than Earthlings, Irwin wrote expressing his view that the Genesis creation narrative was real, literal history.[24][25]


Col. James Benson Irwin (18974687520)
Grave of Col. James Benson Irwin

Irwin suffered three major heart attacks. One occurred less than two years after Apollo 15, when Irwin was 43, while he was playing handball. Irwin suffered another heart attack in 1986, when he collapsed during a run and was found pulseless on a curb.[26] Doctors from NASA doubted the incidents were related to space travel, and noted that pre-flight testing indicated a tendency for cardiac arrhythmias during strenuous exercise.[18]

On August 8, 1991, Irwin suffered another heart attack after a bike ride. Attempts at resuscitation were unsuccessful, and Irwin died later that day. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[27] He was survived by his widow, Mary Ellen, to whom he was married for three decades, and their five children.[18]

Of the 12 men who have walked on the Moon, Irwin was the first to die. The James Irwin Charter Schools were founded in Colorado in his honor.[28]

A patch cut by Irwin from a backpack abandoned on the Moon during the Apollo 15 mission was auctioned at Christie's in 2001 for US$310,500 in a consignment of material from Irwin's estate that garnered "a combined $500,000".[29]


Irwin was a member of the Air Force Association and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots.[5] He was also a Freemason, initiated in Tejon Lodge No. 104 in Colorado Springs.[30][31]

Irwin was a member of Civitan International a nonprofit organization promoting community service, scientific research, and service to people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Awards and honors

Irwin's other awards include: Belgium's Order of Leopold in 1971; Kitty Hawk Memorial Award, 1971; New York Police Department St. George Association's Golden Rule Award in 1972; Christian Service Award; Milan Hulbert Trophy of SWAP International in 1973.[5]

He was also awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Astronautical Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1971; an Honorary Doctorate of Science from the William Jewell College in 1971; and an Honorary D.Sc. from the Samford University in 1972.[5]

He was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1983,[11][32] and posthumously into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame, on October 4, 1997.[33][34] In 1973, When Irwin visited the city of Minden, Louisiana, to address a gathering at the First Baptise Church, Mayor Tom Colten declared "James Irwin Day" and made Irwin an "honorary citizen of Minden."[35]

In media

In the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon Irwin was played by Gareth Williams.[36]


  • To Rule the Night: The Discovery Voyage of Astronaut Jim Irwin (with William A. Emerson, Jr., 1973)
  • More Than Earthlings (1983)
  • More Than an Ark on Ararat: Spiritual Lessons Learned While Searching for Noah's Ark (with Monte Unger, 1985)
  • Destination: Moon (1989)
  • Flight Of The Falcon: The Thrilling Adventures Of Colonel Jim Irwin (1991)

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Reynolds, David West (2002). Apollo: The Epic Journey to the Moon. Tehabi Books. pp. 166–189. ISBN 0-15-100964-3.
  2. ^ "A Who's Who on Apollo Crew". Daily News. New York, New York. July 26, 1971. p. 12 – via Newspapers.com.
  3. ^ Allen, Sam (1985) [1985]. To Ulster's Credit. Killinchy, UK. p. 123.
  4. ^ Interview with Jim Irwin's parents after his selection to NASA (1966, published at YouTube on January 17, 2018)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Biographical Data: James Irwin". Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. August 1991. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
  6. ^ "Living With an American Hero | Latest Space News". Echoesofapollo.com. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
  7. ^ a b Flight of the Falcon: The Thrilling Adventures of Colonel Jim Irwin
  8. ^ "From Ike to athletes to Elmirans, surgeon touched many". Star Gazette. September 18, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  9. ^ Thompson, Ronald (April 5, 1966). "19 New Spacemen Are Named". The High Point Enterprise. High Point, North Carolina. p. 2A – via Newspapers.com.
  10. ^ "The Moon-Walker's New Clothes" (PDF). NASA. January 19, 1968. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  11. ^ a b c "International Space Hall of Fame :: New Mexico Museum of Space History :: Inductee Profile". Nmspacemuseum.org. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
  12. ^ a b Woods, David (September 14, 2006). "Mountains of the Moon". Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
  13. ^ a b Chaikin, Andrew (1998) [1994]. A Man on the Moon. Toronto: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-027201-1.
  14. ^ a b Woods, David (May 28, 2004). "Apollo 15 Flight Summary". Apollo Flight Journal. National Aeronautic and Space Administration. Archived from the original on March 24, 2007. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
  15. ^ a b c d e Kraft, Chris; Schefter, James L. (March 2001). Flight: My life in Mission Control. New York: Penguin Group. pp. 342–34. ISBN 0-525-94571-7.
  16. ^ "Apollo 15 Technical Crew Debriefing" (PDF). NASA. August 14, 1971. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  17. ^ Worden, Al (July 2011). Falling to Earth: An Apollo 15 Astronaut's Journey to the Moon. Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 978-1588343093.
  18. ^ a b c d Wilford, John Noble (August 10, 1991). "James B. Irwin, 61, Ex-Astronaut; Founded Religious Organization". The New York Times. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  19. ^ "U.S. Returns Stamps to Former Astronauts". The New York Times. Associated Press. July 30, 1983. p. 11. Archived from the original on June 22, 2018. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  20. ^ Powell, Corey S.; Shapiro, Laurie Gwen (December 16, 2013). "The Bizarre, Tangled Tale of the Only Sculpture on the Moon". Slate Magazine. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  21. ^ "Colonel James B. Irwin - About Us & Board". Highflightfoundation.org. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
  22. ^ Irwin, Mary; Harris, Madalene (1978). The Moon is Not Enough. Zondervan Publishing House. ISBN 9780310370505. OCLC 3845054.
  23. ^ Howe, Marvine. "Rush To Climb Ararat Gives Town A Lift". The New York Times. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  24. ^ Bergman, Jerry (2013). "Colonel James Irwin: Creationist Astronaut". Institute for Creation Research (from Acts & Facts. 42 (11)). Retrieved August 2, 2016.
  25. ^ Irwin, James B. (July 1983). More Than Earthlings: An Astronaut's Thoughts for Christ-Centered Living. Baptist Sunday School Board. ISBN 978-0805452556.
  26. ^ "Ex-Astronaut Apparently Has Heart Attack While Jogging". The New York Times. June 8, 1986. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  27. ^ James Benson Irwin at Find a Grave
  28. ^ "James Irwin Charter Schools". James Irwin Charter Schools. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  29. ^ "Irwin backpack patch sale". Antiques Roadshow Insider. 7 (2): 11. February 2007.
  30. ^ "Masonic Astronauts". Freemason Information. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  31. ^ "Freemasons in Space". Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  32. ^ Sheppard, David (October 2, 1983). "Space Hall Inducts 14 Apollo Program Astronauts". El Paso Times. El Paso, Texas. p. 18 – via Newspapers.com.
  33. ^ "James B. Irwin | Astronaut Scholarship Foundation". Astronautscholarship.org. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
  34. ^ Meyer, Marilyn (October 2, 1997). "Ceremony to Honor Astronauts". Florida Today. Cocoa, Florida. p. 2B – via Newspapers.com.
  35. ^ Pop McDonald, "Mayor Makes Col. James Irwin an 'Honorary Citizen of Minden,'" Minden Press-Herald, February 26, 1973, p. 1.
  36. ^ "From the Earth to the Moon, Full Cast and Crew". IMDb. Retrieved December 4, 2017.

External links

Charles James Irwin Grant, 6th Baron de Longueuil

Charles James Irwin Grant, only son of Charles William Grant, 5th Baron de Longueuil and Caroline Coffin, was born in Montreal on 1 April 1815. He served in the 79th Regiment as a lieutenant for a while. He later married Henriet Colmore, from whom he fathered two sons (Alexander Frederick, died age 2 and Charles Colmore) as well as a daughter. His wife Henriet died in 1847 and he remarried in Charleston, South Carolina on 18 January 1849 to Anne Trapman, second daughter of Louis Trapman, a consul. He had many children from this union including Reginald Charles and John Charles Moore. He died on 26 February 1879 at age 63.

David Scott

David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932) (Col, USAF, Ret.) is a retired test pilot and NASA astronaut who was the seventh person to walk on the Moon. The commander of Apollo 15, Scott was selected as an astronaut as part of the third group in 1963. Scott flew three times in space, and is the only living commander of an Apollo mission that landed on the Moon and one of four surviving Moon walkers.Before becoming an astronaut, Scott graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point and joined the Air Force. After serving as a fighter pilot in Europe, he graduated from the Air Force Experimental Test Pilot School and the Aerospace Research Pilot School. Scott retired from the Air Force in 1975 with the rank of colonel, and more than 5,600 hours of logged flying time.

As an astronaut, Scott made his first flight into space as pilot of the Gemini 8 mission, along with Neil Armstrong, in March 1966, spending just under eleven hours in low Earth orbit. Scott then spent ten days in orbit in March 1969 as Command Module Pilot of Apollo 9, a mission that extensively tested the Apollo spacecraft, along with Commander James McDivitt and Lunar Module Pilot Rusty Schweickart.

After backing up Apollo 12, Scott made his third and final flight into space as commander of the Apollo 15 mission, the fourth manned lunar landing and the first J mission. Scott and James Irwin remained on the Moon for three days. Following the return to Earth, Scott and his crewmates fell from favor with NASA after it was disclosed they had carried 400 unauthorized postal covers to the Moon. After serving as director of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in California, Scott retired from the agency in 1977. Since then, he has worked on a number of space-related projects and served as consultant for several films about the space program, including Apollo 13.

Gareth Williams (actor)

Gareth Williams is an American actor. He is probably best known from his role as Mike Potter, a recurring character on the television drama Dawson's Creek.

He attended Palm Beach State College.He played astronaut James Irwin in the HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, and was in such films as Malcolm X, Volcano, and The Cell. He has a long list of television credits including Time of Your Life, Angel, Law & Order, and Mad About You.

Gareth Williams has an extensive list of film credits, including Hollywoodland with Adrien Brody, The Cell with Jennifer Lopez, and "Keith" with Jesse McCartney, "Palookaville," Malcolm X with Denzel Washington and was the lead in the Danish produced road movie P.O.V. He also has a long list of TV credits, including the Tom Hanks produced miniseries "From The Earth To The Moon" where he played James B. Irwin. He also had recurring roles in Dawsons Creek, The Shield, and Time of your Life. His career began in New York where he studied with Uta Hagen for six years and did countless productions in and around NYC as well as regional theatre.

Genesis Rock

The Genesis Rock is a sample of Moon rock retrieved by Apollo 15 astronauts James Irwin and David Scott in 1971 during the second lunar EVA, at Spur crater. It is currently stored at the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility in Houston, Texas. It is sample number 15415.

Chemical analysis of the Genesis Rock indicated it is an anorthosite, composed mostly of a type of plagioclase feldspar known as anorthite. The rock was formed in the early stages of the Solar System, at least 4 billion years ago.It was originally thought they had found a piece of the Moon's primordial crust, but later analysis initially showed that the rock was only 4.1 ± 0.1 billion years old, which is younger than the Moon itself; and was formed after the Moon's crust solidified. It is still an extremely old sample, formed during the Pre-Nectarian period of the Moon's history. Dating of pyroxenes from other lunar anorthosite samples gave a samarium–neodymium age of crystallization of 4.46 billion years.

Harrison School District 2

Harrison School District 2 is the southern school district of Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States.

Hartwell railway station

Hartwell railway station is located on the Alamein line in Victoria, Australia. It serves the eastern Melbourne suburb of Camberwell opening as Hartwell Hill on 7 May 1906, being renamed Hartwell on 1 August 1909.It was originally part of the Deepdene Dasher service that connected Ashburton with Deepdene. After the closure of the Deepdene service in 1927, Hartwell became part of the Ashburton line, which in turn became the Alamein line in 1948.

Hartwell is named after one of the early estates in the area, "Hartwell House", which was the residence of James Irwin, who owned and operated Irwin's Hotel in the mid-1850s which was located on lot 149a the corner of Norwood (now Toorak) and Wattle Valley Roads, subsequently demolished about the time the railway line was built. In the 1850s, Hartwell was a small hamlet known as "Back Creek" named after the creek nearby. The Boroondara Roads Board minutes of meetings noted that c/- Irwin Hotel "Back Creek" was used as a Polling Station.

The station building was originally built as Walhalla station on the Walhalla line, but was moved to Hartwell in December 1938, six years before the Walhalla line closed in 1944. Hartwell is the only station on the Alamein branch to have an island platform. Until the Alamein line was converted from single line to double line in the 1950s, Hartwell was the only crossing loop on the line.

James I. Brownson

James Irwin Brownson, Sr., D.D. (March 14, 1817 - 1899) was a clergyman and academic in Washington, Pennsylvania. He served as pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Washington, Pennsylvania for over 50 years.

James Irwin (disambiguation)

James Irwin (1930–1991) was an Apollo 15 astronaut who walked on the Moon.

James or Jim Irwin may also refer to:

James Murray Irwin (1858–1938), British Army doctor

James Campbell Irwin (1906–1990), Australian soldier and architect, Lord Mayor of Adelaide

James C. Irwin (1929–2018), United States Coast Guard admiral

Jamie Irwin (James Campbell Irwin, 1937–2005), South Australian politician

Jim Irwin (sportscaster) (1934–2012), American sportscaster in Wisconsin

James Irwin, American singer in The Voice (U.S. season 5) in 2013

James Irwin Charter High School

James Irwin Charter High School is a charter secondary school in Colorado Springs, Colorado, serving student grades 9-12.

James Irwin Hartt

James Irwin Hartt (March 2, 1866 – February 17, 1935) was an Irish-born lumberman and political figure in Ontario. He represented Simcoe East in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1911 to 1919 as a Conservative member.

The son of Isaac B. Hartt and Jane Irwin, he came to Canada in 1884. In 1897, Hartt married Flora Carter. He ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the Ontario assembly in 1908. Hartt served on the municipal council for Orillia. He died at Orillia in 1935.

Jonnie Irwin

Jonathan James Irwin (born 18 November 1973) is an English television presenter, writer, lecturer, business and property expert.

Mons Hadley Delta

Mons Hadley Delta (δ) is a massif in the northern portion of the Montes Apenninus, a range in the northern hemisphere of the Moon adjacent to Mare Imbrium. It has a height of 3.6 km above the plains to the north and west.

To the north of this mountain is a valley that served as the landing site for the Apollo 15 expedition. To the northeast of this same valley is the slightly larger Mons Hadley peak with a height of about 4.6 km. To the west of these peaks is the sinuous Rima Hadley rille.

These features were named after John Hadley.On the Apollo 15 mission in 1971, the astronauts David Scott and James Irwin explored the lower reaches of the north slope of Mons Hadley Delta, and collected many samples which were returned to earth. Station 2 was near St. George crater, and Stations 6, 6A, and 7 were at or near Spur crater. They found the famous "Genesis Rock", sample 15415, at Spur. A clast of anorthosite within this rock is likely to be a piece of the primordial lunar crust.

NASA Astronaut Group 5

NASA's Astronaut Group 5 was a group of nineteen astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966. Of the six Lunar Module Pilots that walked on the Moon, three came from Group 5. The group as a whole is roughly split between the half who flew to the Moon (nine in all) and the other half who flew Skylab and Shuttle, providing the core of Shuttle Commanders early in that program. This group is also distinctive in being the only time when NASA hired a person into the astronaut corps who had already earned astronaut wings, X-15 pilot Joe Engle. John Young labelled the group the "Original Nineteen" in parody of the original seven Mercury astronauts.

Overview effect

The overview effect is a cognitive shift in awareness reported by some astronauts during spaceflight, often while viewing the Earth from outer space.It is the experience of seeing firsthand the reality of the Earth in space, which is immediately understood to be a tiny, fragile ball of life, "hanging in the void", shielded and nourished by a paper-thin atmosphere. From space, national boundaries vanish, the conflicts that divide people become less important, and the need to create a planetary society with the united will to protect this "pale blue dot" becomes both obvious and imperative.Astronauts Ron Garan, Rusty Schweikart, Edgar Mitchell, Tom Jones, Scott Kelly, James Irwin, Mike Massimino and Chris Hadfield are all reported to have experienced the effect. Third-party observers of these individuals may also report a noticeable difference in attitude.The term and concept were coined in 1987 by Frank White, who explored the theme in his book The Overview Effect — Space Exploration and Human Evolution (Houghton-Mifflin, 1987), (AIAA, 1998).

Roscoe James Irwin

Roscoe James Irwin (born 21 February 1984) is a singer-songwriter, trumpetist and arranger/composer from Melbourne, Australia

Simcoe East (provincial electoral district)

Simcoe East was an electoral riding in Ontario, Canada. It was created in 1875 and was abolished in 1996 before the 1999 election.

The Voice (U.S. season 5)

The fifth season of the American reality talent show The Voice premiered on September 23, 2013 on NBC. Adam Levine and Blake Shelton returned as coaches, while CeeLo Green and Christina Aguilera returned after being replaced by Usher and Shakira in season four. The team sizes for the season are 12 members. The season is also the first to feature steals in the knockout rounds. Carson Daly returned to host the show, but Christina Milian did not return as the social media correspondent. In February 2014, Green announced he would not return to The Voice, making this his final season. This season is also notable for being the only season in which Blake Shelton did not place an artist into the finale.

Tessanne Chin was announced as the winner of the season, marking Adam Levine's second win as a coach.

Thomas Irwin (Canadian politician)

Thomas James Irwin (21 June 1889 – 15 May 1962) was a Canadian politician serving in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia and the House of Commons of Canada.

Irwin was born in Dumbarton, Scotland and became a farmer by trade. He was elected to the BC legislature in the 1952 provincial election at the Delta electoral district as a provincial Social Credit candidate. He was re-elected there for two more terms following the 1953 and 1956 provincial elections. From 1953 to 1957, he served as Speaker of the Assembly.

He was first elected at the Burnaby—Richmond riding in the 1957 general election as a Social Credit party member of Parliament. He served only one term there, the 23rd Canadian Parliament, after which he was defeated by John Drysdale of the Progressive Conservative party in the 1958 election.

V.I.P. (talk show)

V.I.P. (subtitled Very Interesting People) was a Canadian talk show that aired from 1973 to 1983, generally during the Canadian summer months. Lorraine Thomson was host/interviewer.

Guests included:

Group of Seven artist A. J. Casson [1]

actress Nanette Fabray [2]

actor John Forsythe [3]

musician André Gagnon [4]

actor Lorne Greene [5]

British Prime Minister Edward Heath

astronaut James Irwin [6]

actor George "Spanky" McFarland of Our Gang [7]

British actress Anna Russell [8]

hockey player Darryl SittlerEpisodes from this series were rebroadcast on Canadian cable network Bravo from 1998 to 2002.

Walked on the Moon
Flew to the Moon
without landing
The Moon
Surface and
Time-telling and
Phases and

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