James Ingo Freed

James Ingo Freed (June 23, 1930 – December 15, 2005) was an American architect born in Essen, Germany during the Weimar Republic. After coming to the United States at age nine with his sister Betty, followed later by their parents, he studied at the Illinois Institute of Technology, where he graduated with a degree in architecture.

In the late 1970s, he was a member of the Chicago Seven and dean for three years of the School of Architecture at his alma mater. He worked for most of his career based in New York, and went beyond the Internationalist and modernist styles. In partnership with I.M. Pei, in their firm known as Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, he worked on major United States public buildings and museums.

James I. Freed
Ronald Reagan Building - Washington, DC
James Ingo Freed

June 23, 1930
DiedDecember 15, 2005 (aged 75)
Alma materIllinois Institute of Technology
Spouse(s)Hermine Freed
BuildingsJacob K. Javits Convention Center, San Francisco Main Public Library, United States Air Force Memorial, Capella Tower
ProjectsRonald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Early life and education

James Ingo Freed was born in 1930 in Essen, Germany to a German-Jewish family. The family left Germany in 1939, when Freed was nine years old, to escape the regime of Nazi Germany. They immigrated to the United States and settled in Chicago.

In 1953, Freed received a bachelor's degree in architecture from the Illinois Institute of Technology.


Freed first worked in Chicago and New York, including with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, a prominent modernist architect.

In 1956, he began working with I.M. Pei in New York at the firm eventually known as Pei Cobb Freed & Partners.

In the late 1970s, Freed was a member of the Chicago Seven, a group which emerged in opposition to the doctrinal application of modernism, as represented particularly in Chicago by the followers of Mies van der Rohe.

From 1975 to 1978, Freed was dean of the School of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology, whose campus had been designed by van der Rohe. He also taught at Cooper Union, Cornell University, the Rhode Island School of Design, Columbia University, and Yale University.

Freed's major works include the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York City, the San Francisco Main Public Library, and the United States Air Force Memorial in Arlington, Virginia next to the Pentagon, which was still under construction at the time of his death. He designed several major buildings in Washington, D.C.: the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. He worked with I.M. Pei on the design of the Kips Bay Plaza project in New York City. In 1988, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, and became a full Academician in 1994.

In 1995, Freed was awarded the National Medal of Arts.[1]

He died on December 15, 2005, of Parkinson's disease, at age 75 in his home in Manhattan, in New York City.

See also


  1. ^ Lifetime Honors - National Medal of Arts Archived 2010-01-20 at the Wayback Machine

External links

  • Biography: James Freed, Pei Cobb Freed & Partners website
  • Special focus page: Biography on James Freed, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  • Dunlap, David W. (December 17, 2005). "James Ingo Freed, 75, Dies; Designed Holocaust Museum". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010.



Ronald Reagan Building, Washington, D.C.

1000 Connecticut Avenue

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2005 in architecture

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Barbara Handman

Barbara "Bobbie" Handman (March 11, 1928 – November 14, 2013) was an American political consultant and arts activist, known for her role in preserving historic Broadway theater houses. She was the executive vice-president and New York City office director of People for the American Way from 1981 until 2003.Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Handman was the wife of stage director and teacher Wynn Handman. In 1982, she helped organize Save the Theatres, an organization that tried unsuccessfully to prevent the razing of the Morosco, Helen Hayes, and Bijou Theaters. In 1988, the group succeeded in having 28 Broadway houses designated as landmarks by the New York City Board of Estimate.Handman served on the board of the Eleanor Roosevelt Foundation and on the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial Commission.She was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1998 for her work as an arts advocate.

Handman's daughter Laura Handman is married to Harold M. Ickes.

Capella Tower

Capella Tower (also 225 South Sixth) is an office skyscraper in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. The building opened in 1992, replacing One Financial Plaza as the headquarters for First Bank System. In 1997, First Bank System acquired US Bancorp and changed the name of the building to US Bancorp Place. The headquarters of US Bancorp moved into the US Bancorp Center in 2000, whereupon the tower changed to 225 South 6th Street. In March 2009, the building took its present name.

The ranking of the building as the tallest in Minneapolis is in dispute. The IDS Center is usually said to be taller by one foot, even by the owners of Capella Tower. It was initially said to be built one foot shorter out of respect for the IDS Center; however, in 2005, it was revealed that contractors had surreptitiously added 14 inches (36 centimeters) of height to Capella, therefore making it taller than the main roof of IDS Center. In February 2005, the IDS counted a 16-foot-tall (5-meter) window washing garage built on its roof in 1979 as part of its actual height, making it 14 ft (4.3 m) taller than Capella Tower. This ambiguity between official measurements and public relations statements might be due in some part to the "halo" that extends out from the roof, which is apparently included in the building's official height (though this is unclear).The IDS is taller on two measures. The IDS's communications spires add a significant amount of height making it 910 ft (280 m), and it remains the tallest building in Minneapolis if measured by number of stories (57 vs. 56; actually tied for first with neighbor Wells Fargo Center).Capella Tower is connected to the Minneapolis Skyway System and has 1,400,000 sq ft (130,000 m2). of office space.

Chicago Seven (architects)

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David Lloyd Kreeger

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Hermine Freed

Hermine Freed (May 29, 1940 New York City – November 21, 1998 New York City) was an American painter and video artist.

Hewlett Teaching Center

The William R. Hewlett Teaching Center is a building at Stanford University in California, United States named for William R. Hewlett, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard.

Located west of the main quad, the Hewlett building was built by project architect James Ingo Freed and landscape architect Laurie Olin in 1999. Hewlett, along with the Packard Building, Sequoia Hall, and McCullough Annex (renamed Moore Materials Research), were all built as a part of a project to create a new Science and Engineering Quad. The building was formerly known as the Teaching Center at the Science and Engineering Quad (TCSEQ).

The project was funded primarily by Hewlett and David Packard, who donated $77.4 million in 1994. It houses two large auditoriums and teaching halls, often used for teaching introductory courses in the sciences or for lecture series.

Irene Diamond

Irene Diamond (May 7, 1910 – January 21, 2003) was a Hollywood talent scout and later in life a philanthropist.

Javits Center

The Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, commonly known as the Javits Center, is a large convention center located on Eleventh Avenue, between 34th and 40th streets, in Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, New York City. It was designed by architect James Ingo Freed of Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. The controversial and revolutionary space frame structure was begun in 1980, finished in 1986, and named for United States Senator Jacob Javits, who died that year. The Center is operated and maintained by the New York Convention Center Operating Corporation, a New York State public-benefit corporation. The convention center has a total area space of 1,800,000 square feet (170,000 m2) and has 840,000 square feet (78,000 m2) of total exhibit space.When the Center opened, it replaced the New York Coliseum as the city's major convention facility, making way for the demolition of the Coliseum and future construction of the Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle. Today, it hosts events such as the New York International Auto Show and the New York Comic Con. It was the location of Hillary Clinton's 2016 United States presidential election watching venue, where supporters observed her defeat to Donald Trump. It is billed as one of the busiest convention centers in the United States, but it is only the twelfth-largest.

Kips Bay Towers

Kips Bay Towers is a large two-building condominium complex in the Kips Bay neighborhood of Manhattan with a total of 1,118 units. The complex was designed by architects I.M. Pei and S. J. Kessler, with the involvement of James Ingo Freed, in the brutalist style and completed in 1965. The project was developed by Webb & Knapp.The complex occupies an area of three city blocks, or approximately 7.5 acres (3.0 ha), bounded by First and Second avenues and East 30th and 33rd streets. The complex includes two residential high-rise buildings each with 20 floors. Additionally, there is a three-acre private garden between the two towers featuring landscaped lawns as well as recreational spaces. Kips Bay Towers is home to more than 4,000 residents.

Los Angeles Convention Center

The Los Angeles Convention Center is a convention center in the southwest section of downtown Los Angeles. It hosts multiple annual conventions and has often been used as a filming location in TV shows and movies (notably as a spaceport for Starship Troopers and used for the climactic fight scene in Rush Hour).

Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center

The Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, named after former United States President Ronald Reagan, is located in downtown Washington, D.C., and was the first federal building in Washington designed for both governmental and private sector purposes.

Each of the organizations located in the Pennsylvania Avenue building is dedicated to international trade and globalization. Organizations headquartered in this building include the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. The first private sector lease was signed with investment banking firm Quarterdeck Investment Partners, Inc. The building hosts conferences, trade shows, cultural events, and outdoor concerts. Post-9/11, security requirements for high-profile federal buildings have limited the amount of public/private access anticipated by the center's designers.

United States Air Force Memorial

The United States Air Force Memorial honors the service of the personnel of the United States Air Force and its heritage organizations. The Memorial is located in Arlington County, Virginia, on the grounds of Fort Myer near The Pentagon, and adjacent to Arlington National Cemetery, towards intersection of Columbia Pike and South Joyce Street. It was the last project of American architect James Ingo Freed (known for the design of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum) with the firm Pei Cobb Freed & Partners for the United States Air Force Memorial Foundation.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust. Adjacent to the National Mall in Washington, D.C., the USHMM provides for the documentation, study, and interpretation of Holocaust history. It is dedicated to helping leaders and citizens of the world confront hatred, prevent genocide, promote human dignity, and strengthen democracy.The museum has an operating budget, as of 2015, of $104.6 million. In 2008, the museum had a staff of about 400 employees, 125 contractors, 650 volunteers, 91 Holocaust survivors, and 175,000 members. It had local offices in New York City, Boston, Boca Raton, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Dallas.Since its dedication on April 22, 1993, the Museum has had nearly 40 million visitors, including more than 10 million school children, 99 heads of state, and more than 3,500 foreign officials from over 211 countries. The Museum's visitors came from all over the world, and less than 10 percent of the Museum's visitors are Jewish. Its website had 25 million visits in 2008 from an average of 100 different countries daily. 35% of these visits were from outside the United States.The USHMM's collections contain more than 12,750 artifacts, 49 million pages of archival documents, 85,000 historical photographs, a list of over 200,000 registered survivors and their families, 1,000 hours of archival footage, 93,000 library items, and 9,000 oral history testimonies. It also has teacher fellows in every state in the United States and almost 400 university fellows from 26 countries since 1994.Researchers at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum have documented 42,500 ghettos and concentration camps erected by the Nazis throughout German-controlled areas of Europe from 1933 to 1945.

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Vera G. List

Vera G. List (January 6, 1908, Brookline, MA – October 10, 2002 Greenwich, Connecticut) was an American art collector, and philanthropist.

She was awarded a 1996 National Medal of Arts.


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