James II of England

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701[1]) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII,[3] from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, his reign is now remembered primarily for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it also involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown.[4]

James inherited the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries, largely based on the principle of divine right or birth.[5] Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree; it was a political principle, rather than a religious one that ultimately led to his removal.[6]

In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the first on 10 June was the birth of James's son and heir James Francis Edward, threatening to create a Catholic dynasty and excluding his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. The second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel; this was viewed as an assault on the Church of England and their acquittal on 30 June destroyed his political authority in England. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.[7]

Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne; after he landed in Brixham on 5 November 1688, James's army deserted and he went into exile in France on 23 December. In February 1689, Parliament held he had 'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had 'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV.

James II and VII
James II by Peter Lely
Portrait by Peter Lely
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
Reign6 February 1685 – 11 December 1688
Coronation23 April 1685
PredecessorCharles II
SuccessorsWilliam III & II and Mary II
Born14 October 1633
(N.S.: 24 October 1633)
St. James's Palace, London
Died16 September 1701 (aged 67)[1] (N.S.)
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Burial
Church of the English Benedictines, Paris[2]
Spouse
Issue
more...
HouseStuart
FatherCharles I of England
MotherHenrietta Maria of France
Religion
Signature
James II and VII's signature

Early life

Birth

Charles I and James II
James with his father, Charles I, by Sir Peter Lely, 1647

James, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633.[8] Later that same year, he was baptised by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury.[9] He was educated by private tutors, along with his older brother, the future King Charles II, and the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham, George and Francis Villiers.[10] At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral; the position was initially honorary, but would become a substantive office after the Restoration, when James was an adult.[11]

He was designated Duke of York at birth,[12] invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642,[13] and formally created Duke of York in January 1644.[9][12]

Civil War

The King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War. James accompanied his father at the Battle of Edgehill, where he narrowly escaped capture by the Parliamentary army.[14] He subsequently stayed in Oxford, the chief Royalist stronghold,[15] where he was made a M.A. by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot.[16] When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St. James's Palace.[17] Disguised as a woman,[18] he escaped from the Palace in 1648 with the help of Joseph Bampfield, and crossed the North Sea to The Hague.[19]

When Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother king as Charles II of England.[20] Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, and was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651. Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and consequently fled to France and exile.[20]

Exile in France

Henri-turenne 2
Turenne, James's commander in France

Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, and later against their Spanish allies.[21] In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done".[21] Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, and being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654.[18]

In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, and an alliance was made. In consequence, James was expelled from France and forced to leave Turenne's army.[22] James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, and James ultimately travelled to Bruges and (along with his younger brother, Henry) joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers[18] and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes.[23]

During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage, Peter and Richard Talbot, and became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers.[24] In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy.[25] Ultimately, he declined the position; by the next year the situation in England had changed, and Charles II was proclaimed King.[26]

Restoration

First marriage

James II and Anne Hyde by Sir Peter Lely
James and Anne Hyde in the 1660s, by Sir Peter Lely

After Richard Cromwell's resignation as Lord Protector in 1659 and the subsequent collapse of the Commonwealth in 1660, Charles II was restored to the English throne. Although James was the heir presumptive, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering children.[27] On 31 December 1660, following his brother's restoration, James was created Duke of Albany in Scotland, to go along with his English title, Duke of York.[28] Upon his return to England, James prompted an immediate controversy by announcing his engagement to Anne Hyde, the daughter of Charles's chief minister, Edward Hyde.[29]

In 1659, while trying to seduce her, James promised he would marry Anne.[30] Anne became pregnant in 1660, but following the Restoration and James's return to power, no one at the royal court expected a prince to marry a commoner, no matter what he had pledged beforehand.[31] Although nearly everyone, including Anne's father, urged the two not to marry, the couple married secretly, then went through an official marriage ceremony on 3 September 1660 in London.[31]

Their first child, Charles, was born less than two months later, but died in infancy, as did five further sons and daughters.[31] Only two daughters survived: Mary (born 30 April 1662) and Anne (born 6 February 1665).[32] Samuel Pepys wrote that James was fond of his children and his role as a father, and played with them "like an ordinary private father of a child", a contrast to the distant parenting common with royalty at the time.[33]

James's wife was devoted to him and influenced many of his decisions.[34] Even so, he kept mistresses, including Arabella Churchill and Catherine Sedley, and was reputed to be "the most unguarded ogler of his time".[35] Anne Hyde died in 1671.

Military and political offices

James II by John Riley
James in the 1660s by John Riley

After the Restoration, James was confirmed as Lord High Admiral, an office that carried with it the subsidiary appointments of Governor of Portsmouth and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.[36] Charles II also made his brother the Governor of the Royal Adventurers into Africa (later shortened to the Royal African Company) in October 1660; James retained the office until after the Glorious Revolution when he was forced to resign. When James commanded the Royal Navy during the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667) he immediately directed the fleet towards the capture of forts off the African coast that would facilitate English involvement in the slave trade (indeed English attacks on such forts occupied by the Dutch precipitated the war itself).[37][38] James remained admiral of the fleet during the Third Anglo-Dutch Wars (1672–1674) during which significant fighting also occurred off the African coast.[39] Following the raid on the Medway in 1667, James oversaw the survey and re-fortification of the southern coast.[40] The office of Lord High Admiral, combined with his revenue from post office and wine tariffs (granted him by Charles upon his restoration) gave James enough money to keep a sizeable court household.[41]

In 1664, Charles granted American territory between the Delaware and Connecticut rivers to James. Following its capture by the English the former Dutch territory of New Netherland and its principal port, New Amsterdam, were named the Province and City of New York in James's honour. After the founding, the duke gave part of the colony to proprietors George Carteret and John Berkeley. Fort Orange, 150 miles (240 km) north on the Hudson River, was renamed Albany after James's Scottish title.[31] In 1683, he became the governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, but did not take an active role in its governance.[31]

In September 1666, his brother Charles put him in charge of firefighting operations in the Great Fire of London, in the absence of action by Lord Mayor Thomas Bloodworth. This was not a political office, but his actions and leadership were noteworthy. "The Duke of York hath won the hearts of the people with his continual and indefatigable pains day and night in helping to quench the Fire", wrote a witness in a letter on 8 September.[42]

Conversion to Roman Catholicism and second marriage

WLA vanda Wedding suit of James II 2
Wedding suit of James II, 1673

James's time in France had exposed him to the beliefs and ceremonies of the Roman Catholic Church; he and his wife, Anne, became drawn to that faith.[43] James took Catholic Eucharist in 1668 or 1669, although his conversion was kept secret for almost a decade as he continued to attend Anglican services until 1676.[44] In spite of his conversion, James continued to associate primarily with Anglicans, including John Churchill and George Legge, as well as French Protestants, such as Louis de Duras, the Earl of Feversham.[45]

Growing fears of Roman Catholic influence at court led the English Parliament to introduce a new Test Act in 1673.[46] Under this Act, all civil and military officials were required to take an oath (in which they were required to disavow the doctrine of transubstantiation and denounce certain practices of the Roman Church as superstitious and idolatrous) and to receive the Eucharist under the auspices of the Church of England.[47] James refused to perform either action, instead choosing to relinquish the post of Lord High Admiral. His conversion to Roman Catholicism was thereby made public.[46]

King Charles II opposed James's conversion, ordering that James's daughters, Mary and Anne, be raised in the Church of England.[48] Nevertheless, he allowed James to marry Mary of Modena, a fifteen-year-old Italian princess.[49] James and Mary were married by proxy in a Roman Catholic ceremony on 20 September 1673.[50] On 21 November, Mary arrived in England and Nathaniel Crew, Bishop of Oxford, performed a brief Anglican service that did little more than recognise the marriage by proxy.[51] Many British people, distrustful of Catholicism, regarded the new Duchess of York as an agent of the Papacy.[52] James was noted for his devotion. He once said, "If occasion were, I hope God would give me his grace to suffer death for the true Catholic religion as well as banishment."[53]

Exclusion Crisis

In 1677, James reluctantly consented to his daughter Mary's marriage to the Protestant Prince William III of Orange (who was also James's nephew, the son of his sister Mary), acquiescing after his brother Charles and William had agreed upon the marriage.[54] Despite the Protestant marriage, fears of a potential Catholic monarch persisted, intensified by the failure of Charles II and his wife, Catherine of Braganza, to produce any children. A defrocked Anglican clergyman, Titus Oates, spoke of a "Popish Plot" to kill Charles and to put the Duke of York on the throne.[55] The fabricated plot caused a wave of anti-Catholic hysteria to sweep across the nation.

James Scott, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch by Jan van Wyck cropped
The Duke of Monmouth was involved in plots against James.

In England, the Earl of Shaftesbury, a former government minister and now a leading opponent of Catholicism, attempted to have James excluded from the line of succession.[56] Some members of Parliament even proposed that the crown go to Charles's illegitimate son, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth.[57] In 1679, with the Exclusion Bill in danger of passing, Charles II dissolved Parliament.[58] Two further Parliaments were elected in 1680 and 1681, but were dissolved for the same reason.[59] The Exclusion Crisis contributed to the development of the English two-party system: the Whigs were those who supported the Bill, while the Tories were those who opposed it. Ultimately, the succession was not altered, but James was convinced to withdraw from all policy-making bodies and to accept a lesser role in his brother's government.[60]

On the orders of the King, James left England for Brussels.[61] In 1680, he was appointed Lord High Commissioner of Scotland and took up residence at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh to suppress an uprising and oversee royal government.[62] James returned to England for a time when Charles was stricken ill and appeared to be near death.[63] The hysteria of the accusations eventually faded, but James's relations with many in the English Parliament, including the Earl of Danby, a former ally, were forever strained and a solid segment turned against him.[64]

Return to favour

In 1683, a plot was uncovered to assassinate Charles and James and spark a republican revolution to re-establish a government of the Cromwellian style.[65] The conspiracy, known as the Rye House Plot, backfired upon its conspirators and provoked a wave of sympathy for the King and James.[66] Several notable Whigs, including the Earl of Essex and the King's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, were implicated.[65] Monmouth initially confessed to complicity in the plot, implicating fellow-plotters, but later recanted.[65] Essex committed suicide and Monmouth, along with several others, was obliged to flee into Continental exile.[67] Charles reacted to the plot by increasing repression of Whigs and dissenters.[65] Taking advantage of James's rebounding popularity, Charles invited him back onto the privy council in 1684.[68] While some in the English Parliament remained wary of the possibility of a Catholic king, the threat of excluding James from the throne had passed.

Reign

Accession to the throne

The Coronation Procession of King James II and Queen Mary of Modena (c. 1685)
Coronation procession of King James II and Queen Mary of Modena, 1685

Charles died in 1685 from apoplexy after converting to Catholicism on his deathbed.[69] Having no legitimate children, Charles was succeeded by his brother James, who reigned in England and Ireland as James II, and in Scotland as James VII. There was little initial opposition to his accession, and there were widespread reports of public rejoicing at the orderly succession.[70] James wanted to proceed quickly to the coronation, and was crowned with his wife at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685.[71] The new Parliament that assembled in May 1685, which gained the name of "Loyal Parliament", was initially favourable to James, and the new King sent word that even most of the former exclusionists would be forgiven if they acquiesced to his rule.[70] Most of Charles's officers continued in office, the exceptions being the promotion of James's brothers-in-law, the Earls of Clarendon and Rochester, and the demotion of Halifax.[72] Parliament granted James a generous life income, including all of the proceeds of tonnage and poundage and the customs duties.[73] James worked harder as king than his brother had, but was less willing to compromise when his advisers disagreed.[74]

Two rebellions

James II (1685)
James portrayed c. 1685 in his role as head of the army, wearing a general officer's state coat

Soon after becoming king, James faced a rebellion in southern England led by his nephew, the Duke of Monmouth, and another rebellion in Scotland led by Archibald Campbell, the Earl of Argyll.[75] Argyll and Monmouth both began their expeditions from Holland, where James's nephew and son-in-law, the Prince of Orange, had neglected to detain them or put a stop to their recruitment efforts.[76]

Argyll sailed to Scotland and, on arriving there, raised recruits mainly from his own clan, the Campbells.[77] The rebellion was quickly crushed, and Argyll was captured at Inchinnan on 18 June 1685.[77] Having arrived with fewer than 300 men and unable to convince many more to flock to his standard, he never posed a credible threat to James.[78] Argyll was taken as a prisoner to Edinburgh. A new trial was not commenced because Argyll had previously been tried and sentenced to death. The King confirmed the earlier death sentence and ordered that it be carried out within three days of receiving the confirmation.

Monmouth's rebellion was coordinated with Argyll's, but the former was more dangerous to James. Monmouth had proclaimed himself King at Lyme Regis on 11 June.[79] He attempted to raise recruits but was unable to gather enough rebels to defeat even James's small standing army.[80] Monmouth's rebellion attacked the King's forces at night, in an attempt at surprise, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor.[80] The King's forces, led by Feversham and Churchill, quickly dispersed the ill-prepared rebels.[80] Monmouth was captured and later executed at the Tower of London on 15 July.[81] The King's judges—most notably, George Jeffreys—condemned many of the rebels to transportation and indentured servitude in the West Indies in a series of trials that came to be known as the Bloody Assizes.[82] Some 250 of the rebels were executed.[81] While both rebellions were defeated easily, they hardened James's resolve against his enemies and increased his suspicion of the Dutch.[83]

Religious liberty and the dispensing power

To protect himself from further rebellions, James sought safety by enlarging his standing army.[84] This alarmed his subjects, not only because of the trouble soldiers caused in the towns, but because it was against the English tradition to keep a professional army in peacetime.[85] Even more alarming to Parliament was James's use of his dispensing power to allow Roman Catholics to command several regiments without having to take the oath mandated by the Test Act.[84] When even the previously supportive Parliament objected to these measures, James ordered Parliament prorogued in November 1685, never to meet again in his reign.[86] In the beginning of 1686 two papers were found in Charles II's strong box and his closet, in his own hand, stating the arguments for Catholicism over Protestantism. James published these papers with a declaration signed by his sign manual and challenged the Archbishop of Canterbury and the whole Anglican episcopal bench to refute Charles's arguments: "Let me have a solid answer, and in a gentlemanlike style; and it may have the effect which you so much desire of bringing me over to your church." The Archbishop refused on the grounds of respect for the late king.[87]

Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester
Rochester, once amongst James's supporters, turned against him by 1688, as did most Anglicans.

James advocated repeal of the penal laws in all three of his kingdoms, but in the early years of his reign he refused to allow those dissenters who did not petition for relief to receive it.[88] James sent a letter to the Scottish Parliament at its opening in 1685, declaring his wish for new penal laws against refractory Presbyterians and lamented that he was not there in person to promote such a law. In response, the Parliament passed an Act that stated, "whoever should preach in a conventicle under a roof, or should attend, either as preacher or as a hearer, a conventicle in the open air, should be punished with death and confiscation of property".[89] In March 1686, James sent a letter to the Scottish Privy Council advocating toleration for Catholics but not for rebellious Presbyterian Covenanters.[90] Presbyterians would later call this period "The Killing Time".

James allowed Catholics to occupy the highest offices of the kingdoms, and received at his court the papal nuncio, Ferdinando d'Adda, the first representative from Rome to London since the reign of Mary I.[91] James's Jesuit confessor, Edward Petre, was a particular object of Protestant ire.[92] When the King's Secretary of State, the Earl of Sunderland, began replacing office-holders at court with Catholic favourites, James began to lose the confidence of many of his Anglican supporters.[93] Sunderland's purge of office-holders even extended to the King's Anglican brothers-in-law (the Hydes) and their supporters.[93] Catholics made up no more than one-fiftieth of the English population.[94] In May 1686, James sought to obtain a ruling from the English common-law courts that showed his power to dispense with Acts of Parliament was legal. He dismissed judges who disagreed with him on this matter, as well as the Solicitor General Heneage Finch.[95] The case, Godden v. Hales, affirmed his dispensing power,[96] with eleven out of the twelve judges in Godden ruling in favour of the dispensing power.[97]

In 1687, James issued the Declaration of Indulgence, also known as the Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, in which he used his dispensing power to negate the effect of laws punishing Catholics and Protestant Dissenters.[98] He attempted to garner support for his tolerationist policy by giving a speaking tour in the West of England in the summer of 1687. As part of this tour, he gave a speech at Chester where he said, "suppose... there should be a law made that all black men should be imprisoned, it would be unreasonable and we had as little reason to quarrel with other men for being of different [religious] opinions as for being of different complexions."[99] At the same time, James provided partial toleration in Scotland, using his dispensing power to grant relief to Catholics and partial relief to Presbyterians.[100]

In 1688, James ordered the Declaration read from the pulpits of every Anglican church, further alienating the Anglican bishops against the Catholic governor of their church.[101] While the Declaration elicited some thanks from Catholics and dissenters, it left the Established Church, the traditional ally of the monarchy, in the difficult position of being forced to erode its own privileges.[101] James provoked further opposition by attempting to reduce the Anglican monopoly on education.[102] At the University of Oxford, James offended Anglicans by allowing Catholics to hold important positions in Christ Church and University College, two of Oxford's largest colleges. He also attempted to force the Protestant Fellows of Magdalen College to elect Anthony Farmer, a man of generally ill repute who was believed to be secretly Catholic,[103] as their president when the Protestant incumbent died, a violation of the Fellows' right to elect a candidate of their own choosing.[102]

In 1687 James prepared to pack Parliament with his supporters so that it would repeal the Test Act and the penal laws. James was convinced by addresses from Dissenters that he had their support and so could dispense with relying on Tories and Anglicans. James instituted a wholesale purge of those in offices under the crown opposed to James's plan, appointing new lords-lieutenant and remodelling the corporations governing towns and livery companies.[104] In October James gave orders for the lords-lieutenant in the provinces to provide three standard questions to all members of the Commission of the Peace: 1. Would they consent to the repeal of the Test Act and the penal laws? 2. Would they assist candidates who would do so? 3. Would they accept the Declaration of Indulgence? During the first three months of 1688, hundreds of those asked the three questions who gave hostile replies were dismissed.[105] Corporations were purged by agents, known as the regulators, who were given wide discretionary powers in an attempt to create a permanent royal electoral machine.[106] Most of the regulators were Baptists and the new town officials that they recommended included Quakers, Baptists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians and Catholics, as well as Anglicans.[107] Finally, on 24 August 1688, James ordered the issue of writs for a general election.[108] However, upon realising in September that William of Orange was going to land in England, James withdrew the writs and subsequently wrote to the lords-lieutenant to inquire over allegations of abuses committed during the regulations and election preparations as part of the concessions James made to win support.[109]

Glorious Revolution

Willem III (1650-1702), prins van Oranje. Stadhouder, sedert 1689 tevens koning van Engeland Rijksmuseum SK-A-1228.jpeg
James's nephew and son-in-law, William, was invited to "save the Protestant religion".

In April 1688, James re-issued the Declaration of Indulgence, subsequently ordering Anglican clergy to read it in their churches.[110] When seven Bishops, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, submitted a petition requesting the reconsideration of the King's religious policies, they were arrested and tried for seditious libel.[111] Public alarm increased when Queen Mary gave birth to a Roman Catholic son and heir, James Francis Edward, on 10 June that year.[112] When James's only possible successors were his two Protestant daughters, Anglicans could see his pro-Catholic policies as a temporary phenomenon, but when the prince's birth opened the possibility of a permanent Catholic dynasty, such men had to reconsider their position.[113] Threatened by a Catholic dynasty, several influential Protestants claimed the child was supposititious and had been smuggled into the Queen's bedchamber in a warming pan.[114] They had already entered into negotiations with the Prince of Orange when it became known the Queen was pregnant, and the birth of a son reinforced their convictions.[115]

On 30 June 1688, a group of seven Protestant nobles invited the Prince of Orange to come to England with an army.[116] By September, it had become clear that William sought to invade.[117] Believing that his own army would be adequate, James refused the assistance of Louis XIV, fearing that the English would oppose French intervention.[117] When William arrived on 5 November 1688, many Protestant officers, including Churchill, defected and joined William, as did James's own daughter, Anne.[118] James lost his nerve and declined to attack the invading army, despite his army's numerical superiority.[119] On 11 December, James tried to flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames.[120] He was captured in Kent; later, he was released and placed under Dutch protective guard. Having no desire to make James a martyr, the Prince of Orange let him escape on 23 December.[120] James was received by his cousin and ally, Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a pension.

La Reception faite au Roy d'Angleterre par le Roy à St. Germain en Laye le VIIe janvier 1689
Engraving showing Louis XIV greeting the exiled James II in 1689

William convened a Convention Parliament on 22 January 1689[121] to decide how to handle James's flight. While the Parliament refused to depose him, they declared that James, having fled to France and dropped the Great Seal into the Thames, had effectively abdicated the throne, and that the throne had thereby become vacant.[122] To fill this vacancy, James's daughter Mary was declared queen; she was to rule jointly with her husband William, who would be king. The Parliament of Scotland on 11 April 1689, declared James to have forfeited the throne.[123] The English Parliament passed a Bill of Rights that denounced James for abusing his power. The abuses charged to James included the suspension of the Test Acts, the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for merely petitioning the crown, the establishment of a standing army, and the imposition of cruel punishments.[124] The Bill also declared that henceforth, no Roman Catholic was permitted to ascend the English throne, nor could any English monarch marry a Roman Catholic.[125]

Later years

War in Ireland

With the assistance of French troops, James landed in Ireland in March 1689.[126] The Irish Parliament did not follow the example of the English Parliament; it declared that James remained King and passed a massive bill of attainder against those who had rebelled against him.[127] At James's urging, the Irish Parliament passed an Act for Liberty of Conscience that granted religious freedom to all Roman Catholics and Protestants in Ireland.[128] James worked to build an army in Ireland, but was ultimately defeated at the Battle of the Boyne on 1 July 1690[O.S.] when William arrived, personally leading an army to defeat James and reassert English control.[129] James fled to France once more, departing from Kinsale, never to return to any of his former kingdoms.[129] Because he deserted his Irish supporters, James became known in Ireland as Séamus an Chaca or "James the Shit".[130][131] Despite this popular perception, Breandán Ó Buachalla argued that "Irish political poetry for most of the eighteenth century is essentially Jacobite poetry",[132] and both Ó Buachalla and Éamonn Ó Ciardha argued that James and his successors played a central role as messianic figures throughout the eighteenth century for all classes in Ireland.[133]

Return to exile and death

Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye01
The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, James's home during his final exile
James II Tomb
Tomb of James II in the parish church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, commissioned in 1828 by George IV when the church was rebuilt.

In France, James was allowed to live in the royal château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.[134] James's wife and some of his supporters fled with him, including the Earl of Melfort; most, but not all, were Roman Catholic.[135] In 1692, James's last child, Louisa Maria Teresa, was born.[136] Some supporters in England attempted to assassinate William III to restore James to the throne in 1696, but the plot failed and the backlash made James's cause less popular.[137] Louis XIV's offer to have James elected King of Poland in the same year was rejected, for James feared that acceptance of the Polish crown might (in the minds of the English people) render him incapable of being King of England. After Louis concluded peace with William in 1697, he ceased to offer much in the way of assistance to James.[138]

During his last years, James lived as an austere penitent.[139] He wrote a memorandum for his son advising him on how to govern England, specifying that Catholics should possess one Secretary of State, one Commissioner of the Treasury, the Secretary at War, with the majority of the officers in the army.[140]

He died aged 67 of a brain haemorrhage on 16 September 1701 at Saint-Germain-en-Laye.[141][142] James's heart was placed in a silver-gilt locket and given to the convent at Chaillot, and his brain was placed in a lead casket and given to the Scots College in Paris. His entrails were placed in two gilt urns and sent to the parish church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the English Jesuit college at Saint-Omer, while the flesh from his right arm was given to the English Augustinian nuns of Paris.[143]

The rest of James's body was laid to rest in a triple sarcophagus (consisting of two wooden coffins and one of lead) at the Chapel of Saint Edmund in the Church of the English Benedictines in the Rue St. Jacques in Paris, with a funeral oration by Henri-Emmanuel de Roquette.[141] James was not buried, but put in one of the side chapels. Lights were kept burning round his coffin until the French Revolution. In 1734, the Archbishop of Paris heard evidence to support James's canonisation, but nothing came of it.[141] During the French Revolution, James's tomb was raided.[2]

Succession

Prince James Francis Edward Stuart by Alexis Simon Belle
James's son was known as "James III and VIII" to his supporters, and "The Old Pretender" to his enemies.

James's younger daughter Anne succeeded when William died in 1702. The Act of Settlement provided that, if the line of succession established in the Bill of Rights were extinguished, the crown would go to a German cousin, Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and to her Protestant heirs.[144] Sophia was a granddaughter of James VI and I through his eldest daughter, Elizabeth Stuart, the sister of Charles I. Thus, when Anne died in 1714 (less than two months after the death of Sophia), she was succeeded by George I, Sophia's son, the Elector of Hanover and Anne's second cousin.[144]

James's son James Francis Edward was recognised as king at his father's death by Louis XIV of France and James's remaining supporters (later known as Jacobites) as "James III and VIII".[145] He led a rising in Scotland in 1715 shortly after George I's accession, but was defeated.[146] Jacobites rose again in 1745 led by Charles Edward Stuart, James II's grandson, and were again defeated.[147] Since then, no serious attempt to restore the Stuart heir has been made. Charles's claims passed to his younger brother Henry Benedict Stuart, the Dean of the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church.[148] Henry was the last of James II's legitimate descendants, and no relative has publicly acknowledged the Jacobite claim since his death in 1807.[149]

Historiography

Thomas Babington Macaulay2
Macaulay wrote in the Whig tradition.
Belloc side
Belloc was a notable apologist for James II.

Historical analysis of James II has been somewhat revised since Whig historians, led by Lord Macaulay, cast James as a cruel absolutist and his reign as "tyranny which approached to insanity".[150] Subsequent scholars, such as G. M. Trevelyan (Macaulay's great-nephew) and David Ogg, while more balanced than Macaulay, still characterised James as a tyrant, his attempts at religious tolerance as a fraud, and his reign as an aberration in the course of British history.[151] In 1892, A. W. Ward wrote for the Dictionary of National Biography that James was "obviously a political and religious bigot", although never devoid of "a vein of patriotic sentiment"; "his conversion to the church of Rome made the emancipation of his fellow-catholics in the first instance, and the recovery of England for catholicism in the second, the governing objects of his policy."[152]

Hilaire Belloc, a writer and Catholic apologist, broke with this tradition in 1928, casting James as an honourable man and a true advocate for freedom of conscience, and his enemies "men in the small clique of great fortunes ... which destroyed the ancient monarchy of the English".[153] However, he observed that James "concluded the Catholic church to be the sole authoritative voice on earth, and thenceforward ... he not only stood firm against surrender but on no single occasion contemplated the least compromise or by a word would modify the impression made."

By the 1960s and 1970s, Maurice Ashley and Stuart Prall began to reconsider James's motives in granting religious toleration, while still taking note of James's autocratic rule.[154] Modern historians have moved away from the school of thought that preached the continuous march of progress and democracy, Ashley contending that "history is, after all, the story of human beings and individuals, as well as of the classes and the masses."[155] He cast James II and William III as "men of ideals as well as human weaknesses".[155] John Miller, writing in 2000, accepted the claims of James's absolutism, but argued that "his main concern was to secure religious liberty and civil equality for Catholics. Any 'absolutist' methods ... were essentially means to that end."[156]

In 2004, W. A. Speck wrote in the new Oxford Dictionary of National Biography that "James was genuinely committed to religious toleration, but also sought to increase the power of the crown."[157] He added that, unlike the government of the Netherlands, "James was too autocratic to combine freedom of conscience with popular government. He resisted any check on the monarch's power. That is why his heart was not in the concessions he had to make in 1688. He would rather live in exile with his principles intact than continue to reign as a limited monarch."[157]

Tim Harris's conclusions from his 2006 book summarised the ambivalence of modern scholarship towards James II:

The jury will doubtless remain out on James for a long time ... Was he an egotistical bigot ... a tyrant who rode roughshod over the will of the vast majority of his subjects (at least in England and Scotland) ... simply naïve, or even perhaps plain stupid, unable to appreciate the realities of political power ... Or was he a well-intentioned and even enlightened ruler—an enlightened despot well ahead of his time, perhaps—who was merely trying to do what he thought was best for his subjects?[158]

In 2009, Steven Pincus confronted that scholarly ambivalence in 1688: The First Modern Revolution. Pincus claims that James's reign must be understood within a context of economic change and European politics, and makes two major assertions about James II. The first of these is that James purposefully "followed the French Sun King, Louis XIV, in trying to create a modern Catholic polity. This involved not only trying to Catholicize England ... but also creating a modern, centralizing, and extremely bureaucratic state apparatus."[159] The second is that James was undone in 1688 far less by Protestant reaction against Catholicization than by nationwide hostile reaction against his intrusive bureaucratic state and taxation apparatus, expressed in massive popular support for William of Orange's armed invasion of England. Pincus presents James as neither naïve nor stupid nor egotistical. Instead, readers are shown an intelligent, clear-thinking strategically motivated monarch whose vision for a French authoritarian political model and alliance clashed with, and lost out to, alternative views that favoured an entrepreneurial Dutch economic model, feared French power, and were outraged by James's authoritarianism.

Scott Sowerby countered Pincus's thesis in 2013 in Making Toleration: The Repealers and the Glorious Revolution. He noted that English taxes remained low during James II's reign, at about 4% of the English national income, and thus it was unlikely that James could have built a bureaucratic state on the model of Louis XIV's France, where taxes were at least twice as high as a proportion of GDP.[160] Sowerby also contends that James's policies of religious toleration attracted substantial support from religious nonconformists, including Quakers, Baptists, Congregationalists and Presbyterians, who were attracted by the king's push for a new "Magna Carta for liberty of conscience".[161] The king was overthrown, in Sowerby's view, largely because of fears among the Dutch and English elites that James might be aligning himself with Louis XIV in a supposed "holy league" to destroy Protestantism across northern Europe.[162] Sowerby presents James's reign as a struggle between those who believed that the king was sincerely devoted to liberty of conscience and those who were sceptical of the king's espousals of toleration and believed that he had a hidden agenda to overthrow English Protestantism.

Titles, styles, honours, and arms

Titles and styles

James2coin
Half crown coin of James II, 1686
  • 14 October 1633 – 6 February 1685: The Duke of York
  • 10 May 1659 – 6 February 1685: The Earl of Ulster[12]
  • 31 December 1660 – 6 February 1685: The Duke of Albany
  • 6 February 1685 – 11 December 1688 (by Jacobites until 16 September 1701): His Majesty The King

The official style of James in England was "James the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." The claim to France was only nominal, and was asserted by every English king from Edward III to George III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. In Scotland, he was "James the Seventh, by the Grace of God, King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc."[3]

James was created "Duke of Normandy" by King Louis XIV of France on 31 December 1660.[12]

Honours

Arms

Prior to his accession, James's coat of arms was the royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a label of three points Ermine.[163] His arms as king were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland).

Coat of Arms of James Stuart, Duke of York

Coat of arms of James, Duke of York, KG

Coat of Arms of England (1660-1689)

Coat of arms of James II as king (outside Scotland)

Coat of Arms of Scotland (1660-1689)

Coat of arms of King James VII in Scotland

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
By Anne Hyde
Charles, Duke of Cambridge 22 October 1660 5 May 1661  
Mary II 30 April 1662 28 December 1694 married 1677, William III, Prince of Orange; no issue
James, Duke of Cambridge 11 or 12 July 1663 20 June 1667  
Anne 6 February 1665 1 August 1714 married 1683, Prince George of Denmark; no surviving issue
Charles, Duke of Kendal 4 July 1666 22 May 1667  
Edgar, Duke of Cambridge 14 September 1667 8 June 1671  
Henrietta 13 January 1669 15 November 1669  
Catherine 9 February 1671 5 December 1671  
By Mary of Modena
Unnamed child March or May 1674 miscarriage
Catherine Laura 10 January 1675 3 October 1675 died of convulsions.[164]
Unnamed child October 1675 stillborn
Isabel (or Isabella) 28 August 1676 2 or 4 March 1681 buried in Westminster Abbey on 4 March (Old Style) as "The Lady Isabella, daughter to the Duke of York"[165]
Charles, Duke of Cambridge 7 November 1677 12 December 1677 died of smallpox[164]
Elizabeth c. 1678  
Unnamed child February 1681 stillborn
Charlotte Maria 16 August 1682 16 October 1682 died of convulsions[164] and buried in Westminster Abbey on 8 October (Old Style) as "The Lady Charlott-Marie, daughter to the Duke of York"[166]
Unnamed child October 1683 stillborn
Unnamed child May 1684 miscarriage
James, Prince of Wales "the Old Pretender" 10 June 1688 1 January 1766 married 1719, Clementina Sobieska; had issue
Louisa Maria Teresa 28 June 1692 18 April 1712  
By Arabella Churchill
Henrietta FitzJames 1667 3 April 1730 Married first Henry Waldegrave; had issue. Married secondly Piers Butler, 3rd Viscount Galmoye; no issue.
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick 21 August 1670 12 June 1734 Married twice; had issue.
Henry FitzJames, 1st Duke of Albemarle August 1673 December 1702 Married Marie Gabrielle d'Audibert de Lussan; had issue.
Arabella FitzJames 1674 7 November 1704 Became a nun under the name Ignatia.[167]
By Catherine Sedley
Catherine Darnley c. 1681 13 March 1743 Alleged daughter. Married firstly, James Annesley, 3rd Earl of Anglesey and had issue. Married secondly, John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby and had issue.[167]
James Darnley 1684 22 April 1685
Charles Darnley Died young.[167]

Notes

  1. ^ a b An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.
  2. ^ a b Miller, 240; Waller, 401; MacLeod, 349. MacLeod and Waller say all of James's remains were lost in the French Revolution. McFerran says parts of his bowel sent to the parish church of St. Germain-en-Laye were rediscovered in 1824 and are the only known remains left. The English Illustrated Magazines article on St. Germain from September 1901 concurs. Hilliam, 205. Hilliam disputes that his remains were either scattered or lost, stating that when revolutionaries broke into the church, they were amazed at the body's preservation and it was put on public exhibition where miracles were said to have happened. Hilliam states that the body was then kept "above ground" until George IV heard about it and ordered the body buried in the parish church of St Germain-en-Laye in 1824.
  3. ^ a b "No. 2009". The London Gazette. 16 February 1684. p. 1.
  4. ^ Quinn, Stephen. "The Glorious Revolution". Economic History Association EH.net. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  5. ^ Harris, 6–7
  6. ^ Harris, Tim; Taylor, Stephen, eds. (2015). The Final Crisis of the Stuart Monarchy. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 144–159. ISBN 1783270446.
  7. ^ Harris, 264–268
  8. ^ Miller, 1
  9. ^ a b Callow, 31
  10. ^ Callow, 34
  11. ^ Miller, 10; Callow, 101
  12. ^ a b c d e Weir, Alison (1996). 258. Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. Revised Edition. Random House, London. ISBN 0-7126-7448-9.
  13. ^ Callow, 36
  14. ^ The Complete Peerage, Volume XII. St Catherine's Press. 1959. p. 914. Edited by Geoffrey H. White and R.S. Lea, see under Duke of York.
  15. ^ Callow, 42; Miller, 3
  16. ^ The Complete Peerage, Volume XII. pp. 914–915.
  17. ^ Callow, 45
  18. ^ a b c The Complete Peerage, Volume XII. p. 915.
  19. ^ Callow, 48–50
  20. ^ a b Royle, 517
  21. ^ a b Miller, 16–17
  22. ^ Miller, 19–20
  23. ^ Miller, 19–25
  24. ^ Miller, 22–23
  25. ^ Miller, 24
  26. ^ Miller, 25
  27. ^ Callow, 89
  28. ^ George Edward Cokayne, ed. Vicary Gibbs, The Complete Peerage, volume I (1910) p. 83.
  29. ^ Callow, 90
  30. ^ Miller, 44
  31. ^ a b c d e Miller, 44–45
  32. ^ Waller, 49–50
  33. ^ The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Monday 12 September 1664; Miller, 46
  34. ^ Miller, 45–46
  35. ^ Miller, 46. Samuel Pepys recorded in his diary that James "did eye my wife mightily". Ibid. James's taste in women was often maligned, with Gilbert Burnet famously remarking that James's mistresses must have been "given him by his priests as a penance." Miller, 59.
  36. ^ Callow, 101
  37. ^ Brewer, Holly (October 2017). "Slavery, Sovereignty, and 'Inheritable Blood': Reconsidering John Locke and the Origins of American Slavery". American Historical Review. 122 (4): 1038–1078. doi:10.1093/ahr/122.4.1038.
  38. ^ Miller, 43–44
  39. ^ Davies, Kenneth Gordon (1957). The Royal African Company (first ed.). London: Longmans, Green & Co. p. 61. ISBN 978-0689702396. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  40. ^ Callow, 104
  41. ^ Miller, 42
  42. ^ Spelling modernized for clarity; quoted by Adrian Tinniswood (2003). 80. By Permission of Heaven: The Story of the Great Fire of London. London: Jonathan Cape.
  43. ^ Miller, 58–59; Callow, 144–145. Callow writes that Anne "made the greatest single impact upon his thinking" and that she converted shortly after the Restoration, "almost certainly before her husband". Ibid., 144.
  44. ^ Callow, 143–144; Waller, 135
  45. ^ Callow, 149
  46. ^ a b Miller, 69–71
  47. ^ Kenyon, 385
  48. ^ Waller, 92
  49. ^ Waller, 16–17
  50. ^ Miller, 73
  51. ^ Turner, 110–111
  52. ^ Waller, 30–31
  53. ^ Miller, 99
  54. ^ Miller, 84; Waller, 94–97. According to Turner, James's reaction to the agreement was "The King shall be obeyed, and I would be glad if all his subjects would learn of me to obey him". Turner, 132.
  55. ^ Miller, 87
  56. ^ Miller, 99–105
  57. ^ Harris, 74
  58. ^ Miller, 93–95
  59. ^ Miller, 103–104
  60. ^ Miller, 90
  61. ^ Miller, 87–91
  62. ^ Miller, 95
  63. ^ Miller, 98–99
  64. ^ Miller, 89; Callow, 180–183
  65. ^ a b c d Miller, 115–116
  66. ^ Miller, 116; Waller, 142–143
  67. ^ Miller, 116–117
  68. ^ Miller, 117
  69. ^ Miller, 118–119
  70. ^ a b Miller, 120–121
  71. ^ Harris, 45. The English coronation only crowned James King of England and Ireland; James was never crowned in Scotland, but was proclaimed King of Scotland around the same time.
  72. ^ Miller, 121
  73. ^ Harris, 44–45
  74. ^ Miller, 123
  75. ^ Miller, 140–143; Harris, 73–86
  76. ^ Miller, 139–140
  77. ^ a b Harris, 75–76
  78. ^ Harris, 76
  79. ^ Harris, 82–85
  80. ^ a b c Miller, 141
  81. ^ a b Harris, 88
  82. ^ Miller, 141–142
  83. ^ Miller, 142
  84. ^ a b Miller, 142–143
  85. ^ Harris, 95–100
  86. ^ Miller, 146–147
  87. ^ Macaulay, 349–350
  88. ^ Macaulay, 242; Harris, 480–481. Covenanters, as they did not recognize James (or any uncovenanted king) as a legitimate ruler, would not petition James for relief from the penal laws.
  89. ^ Macaulay, 242; Harris, 70
  90. ^ Macaulay, 385–386; Turner, 373
  91. ^ Miller 142; Macaulay, 445
  92. ^ Harris, 195–196
  93. ^ a b Miller, 150–152
  94. ^ Macaulay, 444
  95. ^ Macaulay, 368
  96. ^ Miller, 156–157; Harris, 192–195
  97. ^ Macaulay, 368–369; Harris, 192
  98. ^ Kenyon, 389–391
  99. ^ Sowerby, 42
  100. ^ Macaulay, 429; Harris, 480–482
  101. ^ a b Harris, 216–224
  102. ^ a b Harris, 224–229
  103. ^ Farmer's exact religious affiliation is unclear. Macaulay says Farmer "pretended to turn Papist". Prall, at 148, calls him a "Catholic sympathizer". Miller, at 170, says "although he had not declared himself a Catholic, it was believed he was no longer an Anglican." Ashley, at 89, does not refer to Farmer by name, but only as the King's Catholic nominee. All sources agree that Farmer's bad reputation as a "person of scandalous character" was as much a deterrent to his nomination as his uncertain religious loyalties. See, e.g., Prall, 148.
  104. ^ Jones, 132
  105. ^ Jones, 132–133
  106. ^ Jones, 146
  107. ^ Sowerby, 136–143
  108. ^ Jones, 150
  109. ^ Jones, 159
  110. ^ Harris, 258–259
  111. ^ Harris, 260–262; Prall, 312
  112. ^ Miller 186–187; Harris, 269–272
  113. ^ Harris, 271–272; Ashley, 110–111
  114. ^ Gregg, Edward. Queen Anne. Yale University Press (2001), 58.
  115. ^ Waller, 43–46; Miller, 186–187
  116. ^ Ashley, 201–202
  117. ^ a b Miller, 190–196
  118. ^ Waller, 236–239
  119. ^ Miller, 201–203
  120. ^ a b Miller, 205–209
  121. ^ Claydon; Plumb
  122. ^ Miller, 209. Harris, 320–328, analyses the legal nature of the abdication; James did not agree that he had abdicated.
  123. ^ Devine, 3; Harris, 402–407
  124. ^ Ashley, 206–209; Harris, 329–348
  125. ^ Harris, 349–350
  126. ^ Miller, 222–224
  127. ^ Miller, 226–227
  128. ^ Harris, 440
  129. ^ a b Harris, 446–449
  130. ^ Fitzpatrick, Brendan (1988). New Gill History of Ireland 3: Seventeenth-Century Ireland – The War of Religions. Dublin. p. 253. ISBN 0-7171-1626-3.
  131. ^ Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites, Britain and Europe, 1688–1788. Manchester University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-7190-3774-3.
  132. ^ Ó Buachalla, Breandán (Spring–Summer 1992). "Irish Jacobite Poetry". The Irish Review. No. 12 , p. 40.
  133. ^ Ó Buachalla, Breandán (1996). Aisling Ghéar. An Clóchomhar Tta: Baile Átha Cliath, and Ó Ciardha, Éamonn (2002). Ireland and the Jacobite Cause, 1685–1766. Four Courts, Dublin.
  134. ^ Miller, 235
  135. ^ Miller, 235–236
  136. ^ Scottish Royal Lineage – The House of Stuart Part 4 of 6 online at burkes-peerage.net. Retrieved 9 February 2008
  137. ^ Miller, 238; Waller, 350
  138. ^ Miller, 239
  139. ^ Miller, 234–236
  140. ^ Macaulay, 445
  141. ^ a b c Miller, 240
  142. ^ Parish register of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, with transcription, at Association Frontenac-Amériques (in French)
  143. ^ Mann, 223
  144. ^ a b Harris, 493
  145. ^ MacLeod, 349
  146. ^ MacLeod, 361–363
  147. ^ MacLeod, 365–371
  148. ^ MacLeod, 371–372
  149. ^ MacLeod, 373–374
  150. ^ Macaulay, 239
  151. ^ See Prall, vii–xv, for a more detailed historiography.
  152. ^ "James II of England" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  153. ^ Belloc, vii
  154. ^ See Ashley, 196–198; Prall, 291–293
  155. ^ a b Ashley, 9
  156. ^ Miller, ix
  157. ^ a b W. A. Speck, "James II and VII (1633–1701)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, May 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2007. He "wished that all his subjects could be as convinced as he was that the Catholic church was the one true church. He was also convinced that the established church was maintained artificially by penal laws that proscribed nonconformity. If these were removed, and conversions to Catholicism were encouraged, then many would take place. In the event his optimism was misplaced, for few converted. James underestimated the appeal of Protestantism in general and the Church of England in particular. His was the zeal and even bigotry of a narrow-minded convert..."
  158. ^ Harris, 478–479
  159. ^ Pincus, 475
  160. ^ Sowerby, 51–53
  161. ^ Sowerby, 43–44
  162. ^ Sowerby, 227–239
  163. ^ Velde, Francois R. "Marks of cadency in the British royal family".
  164. ^ a b c Weir, 260
  165. ^ J. L. Chester, The Marriage, Baptismal, and Burial Registers of the Collegiate Church or Abbey of St. Peter, Westminster, Volume 10 (Harleian Society, 1876), p. 201
  166. ^ Chester (1876), p. 206
  167. ^ a b c Weir, 263
  168. ^ a b Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 27.
  169. ^ a b Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 50.
  170. ^ a b c d Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 140.

References

  • Ashley, Maurice (1996). The Glorious Revolution of 1688. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-340-00896-2.
  • Belloc, Hilaire (1928). James the Second. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
  • Callow, John (2000). The Making of King James II: The Formative Years of a King. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2398-9.
  • Claydon, Tony (2008). "William III and II" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online ed. Oxford University Press.
  • Devine, T. M. (2006). The Scottish Nation 1700–2007. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-102769-X.
  • Harris, Tim (2006). Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy, 1685–1720. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-7139-9759-1.
  • Hilliam, David (1998). Kings, Queens, Bones & Bastards. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3553-7.
  • Jones, J. R. (1988). The Revolution of 1688 in England. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-99467-0.
  • Kenyon, J. P. (1986). The Stuart Constitution 1603–1688, Documents and Commentary, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31327-9.
  • Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1999) [1981]. Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (2nd ed.). London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-84820-6.
  • MacLeod, John (1999). Dynasty, the Stuarts, 1560–1807. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-70767-4.
  • Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1889). The History of England from the Accession of James the Second. Popular Edition in Two Volumes. London: Longmans.
  • Mann, Alastair (2014). James VII: Duke and King of Scots, 1633–1701. Edinburgh: John Donald.
  • Miller, John (2000). James II, 3rd ed. ISBN 0-300-08728-4.
  • McFerran, Noel S. (2003). "James II and VII."
  • Ó Buachalla, Breandán (1996). Aisling Ghéar. Baile Átha Cliath: An Clóchomhar Tta. ISBN 0-903758-99-7.
  • Ó Ciardha, Éamonn (2002). Ireland and the Jacobite Cause, 1685–1766. Dublin: Four Courts. ISBN 1-85182-534-7.
  • Pincus, Steven (2009). 1688: The First Modern Revolution. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11547-4.
  • Plumb, J. H. (1937). "The Elections to the Convention Parliament of 1689" The Cambridge Historical Journal Vol. 5 No. 3 pp. 235–254. JSTOR 3020731
  • Prall, Stuart (1972). The Bloodless Revolution: England, 1688. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.
  • Royle, Trevor (2004). The British Civil Wars: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, 1638–1660. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-312-29293-7.
  • Sowerby, Scott (2013). Making Toleration: The Repealers and the Glorious Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, & London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-07309-8.
  • Speck, W. A. (2002). James II.
  • Turner, Francis C. (1948). James II. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode.
  • Waller, Maureen (2002). Ungrateful Daughters: The Stuart Princesses who Stole Their Father's Crown. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-312-30711-X.

Further reading

  • Ashley, Maurice (1978). James II. online free to borrow
  • DeKrey, Gary S. (2008). "Between Revolutions: Re-appraising the Restoration in Britain" History Compass 6 (3): 738–773.
  • Earle, Peter (1972). The Life and Times of James II. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • Glassey, Lionel, ed. (1997). The Reigns of Charles II and James VII and II.
  • Goodlad, Graham (2007). "Before the Glorious Revolution: The Making of Absolute Monarchy? Graham Goodlad Examines the Controversies Surrounding the Development of Royal Power under Charles II and James II" History Review 58: 10 ff. in Questia
  • Johnson, Richard R. (1978). "Politics Redefined: An Assessment of Recent Writings on the Late Stuart Period of English History, 1660 to 1714." William and Mary Quarterly 35 (4): 691–732. doi:10.2307/1923211
  • Miller, John (1997). The Glorious Revolution, 2nd ed. ISBN 0-582-29222-0.
  • Miller, John (2004). The Stuarts.
  • Mullett, M. (1993). James II and English Politics 1678–1688. ISBN 0-415-09042-3.
  • Ogg, David (1957). England in the Reigns of James II and William III, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Walcott, Robert (1962). "The Later Stuarts (1660–1714): Significant Work of the Last Twenty Years (1939–1959)" American Historical Review 67 (2): 352–370 doi:10.2307/1843428

External links

James II of England
Born: 14 October 1633 Died: 16 September 1701
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles II
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
1685–1688
Vacant
Title next held by
William III and Mary II
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Winchilsea
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1660–1673
Succeeded by
John Beaumont
Political offices
Vacant
Title last held by
The Lord Cottington
Lord High Admiral of England
1660–1673
Succeeded by
Charles II
Preceded by
The Duke of Lennox
Lord High Admiral of Scotland
1673–1688
Vacant
Title next held by
The Duke of Hamilton
Preceded by
The Duke of Lauderdale
Lord High Commissioner to
the Parliament of Scotland

1680–1685
Succeeded by
The Duke of Queensberry
Preceded by
Charles II
Lord High Admiral
1685–1688
Succeeded by
William III
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
1688–1701
Succeeded by
James III & VIII
1680s

The 1680s decade ran from January 1, 1680, to December 31, 1689.

== Events ==

=== 1680 ===

==== January–June ====

January 2 – King Amangkurat II of Mataram personally stabs Trunajaya, who had led a failed rebellion against Mataram, during a ceremonial visit.

February – Rev. Ralph Davenant's will provides for foundation of the Davenant Foundation School for poor boys in Whitechapel, in the East End of London.

May – The volcano Krakatoa erupts, probably on a relatively small scale.

==== July–December ====

July 8 – The first documented tornado in America kills a servant at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

August 20 (August 10 Old Style) – The settlement of Karlskrona in Sweden is founded, as the Royal Swedish Navy relocates there.

August 21 – Pueblo Revolt: Pueblo Indians capture Santa Fe (New Mexico) from the Spanish.

August 24 – Comédie-Française is founded by decree of Louis XIV of France as La maison de Molière in Paris.

November 14 – The Great Comet of 1680 is first sighted.

November 17 – Whigs organize processions, to burn effigies of the Pope in London.

==== Date unknown ====

Chambers of Reunion (French courts under Louis XIV) decide on the complete annexation of Alsace.

The first Portuguese governor is appointed to Macau.

The Riksdag of the Estates in Sweden enacts the Great Reduction, under which fiefs granted to the Swedish nobility are returned to the Crown, and the country becomes an absolute monarchy under King Charles XI.

=== 1681 ===

==== January–June ====

January 3 – The Treaty of Bakhchisarai is signed, between the Ottoman vassal Crimean Khanate and the Russian Empire.

March 4 – Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn, for the area that will later become Pennsylvania.

April – Following the death of its last count, the Palatinate-Landsberg passes to the King of Sweden.

May 15 – The Canal du Midi in France is opened officially, as the Canal Royal de Languedoc.

==== July–December ====

July 1 – Oliver Plunkett, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, falsely convicted in June of treason, is hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn, London, the last Catholic martyr to die in England; he is canonised in 1975.

August – English sea captain Robert Knox of the East India Company escapes prison in Ceylon, and details his adventures across Kandy, and life in the kingdoms of the Tamil country Vanni, in his book An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon.

August 12 – Ahom King Gadadhar Singha (or Gadapani), who takes the Tai name Supaatphaa, ascends the throne.

August 31 – English perjurer Titus Oates is told to leave his state apartments in Whitehall; his fame begins to wane, and he is soon arrested and imprisoned for sedition.

September 30 – France annexes the city of Strasbourg (German: Strassburg), previously a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire.

October 28 – A London woman is publicly flogged, for the crime of "involving herself in politics."

December – Wu Shifan, grandson of Chinese general Wu Sangui, commits suicide in Yunnan province, ending the 8-year Revolt of the Three Feudatories against Qing Dynasty authority in China, at this time led by the Kangxi Emperor.

December 22 – King Charles II of England signs a warrant for the building of the Royal Hospital Chelsea in London for wounded and retired soldiers.

==== Date unknown ====

Collections are made in England for needy French refugees.

Havertown and Bryn Mawr are founded in Pennsylvania by Welsh Quakers.

The bell Emmanuel in Notre Dame de Paris is recast.

The Port of Honfleur, France, is re-modelled by Abraham Duquesne.

The basilica of Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, designed by Baldassarre Longhena in 1631, is dedicated.

The last dodo bird is killed.

=== 1682 ===

==== January–June ====

March 11 – Work begins on construction of the Royal Hospital Chelsea for old soldiers in London, England.

March 22 – A fire breaks out in Newmarket, Suffolk, consuming half the town and spreading into sections of surrounding Cambridgeshire. Historian Laurence Echard describes it later as "A Providential Fire", noting that King Charles II "by the approach of the fury of the flames was immediately driven out of his own palace", and, after moving to safety in another section of town, was forced to flee again "when the wind, as conducted by an invisible power, suddenly changed about, and blew the smoke and cinders directly on his new lodgings, and in a moment made them as untenable as the other."

April 7 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, exploring rivers in America, reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River.

April 9 – At the mouth of the Mississippi River, near modern Venice, Louisiana, Robert de La Salle buries an engraved plate and a cross, claiming the territory as La Louisiane for France.

May 6 – Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.

May 7 – The reign of Peter the Great officially begins in Russia.

May 11 – Moscow Uprising of 1682: A mob takes over the Kremlin and lynches the leading boyars and military commanders.

==== July–December ====

July 19 – Iyasus succeeds his father Yohannes I as Emperor of Ethiopia.

August 12 – Vesuvius begins a period of volcanic activity lasting for 10 days.

August 25 – Following the Bideford witch trial, three women become the last known to be hanged for witchcraft in England, at Exeter.

September 14 – Bishop Gore School is founded in Swansea, Wales.

September – A comet is observed, which later becomes known as Comet Halley, after Edmond Halley successfully predicts that it will return in 1758.

October 12 – Sultan Mehmed IV departs Istanbul for Adrianople.

October 19 – Kara Mustafa departs with the Ottoman army to Adrianople.

October 27 – The city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded by William Penn.

November 22 – Nearly 1,000 houses in Wapping, London are destroyed in a fire.

==== Date unknown ====

Celia Fiennes, noblewoman and traveller, begins her journeys across Britain, in a venture that will prove to be her life's work. Her aim is to chronicle the towns, cities and great houses of the country. Her travels continue until at least 1712, and will take her to every county in England, though the main body of her journal is not written until the year 1702.

The Richard Wall House, believed to be the longest continuously-inhabited residence in the US, is built in Pennsylvania.

=== 1683 ===

==== January–June ====

April 10 – Charles V, Duke of Lorraine is appointed commander of the Imperial Army.

May 3 – Sultan Mehmed IV enters Belgrade.

June 6 – The Ashmolean Museum opens, as the world's first university museum.

June 12 – The Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II of England is discovered.

==== July–December ====

July 8 – Qing Dynasty Chinese admiral Shi Lang leads 300 ships with 20,000 troops out of Tongshan, Fujian, and sails towards the Kingdom of Tungning, in modern-day Taiwan and Penghu, in order to quell the kingdom in the name of Qing.

July 14 – A 140,000-man Ottoman force arrives at Vienna, and starts to besiege the city.

July 16 and July 17 – Battle of Penghu: Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang defeats the naval forces of Zheng Keshuang, in a decisive victory.

September 5 – Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang receives the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang, ushering in the collapse of the Kingdom of Tungning, which is then incorporated into the Qing Empire.

September 12 – Battle of Vienna: The Ottoman siege of the city is broken, with the arrival of a force of 70,000 Poles, Austrians and Germans under Polish–Lithuanian king Jan III Sobieski, whose cavalry turns their flank (considered to be the turning point in the Ottoman Empire's fortunes).

October 3 – Shi Lang reaches Taiwan and occupies present day Kaohsiung.

October 6 – Germantown, Philadelphia is founded as the first permanent German settlement in North America (in 1983 U.S. President Ronald Reagan declares a 300th Year Celebration, and in 1987, it becomes an annual holiday, German-American Day).

November 1 – The English crown colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties.

December – The River Thames freezes, allowing a frost fair to be held.

==== Date unknown ====

Wild boars are hunted to extinction in Britain.

=== 1684 ===

==== January–June ====

January – Edmond Halley, Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke have a conversation, in which Hooke later claimed not only to have derived the inverse-square law, but also all the laws of planetary motion.

January 5 – King Charles II of England gives the title Duke of St Albans to Charles Beauclerk, his illegitimate son by Nell Gwyn.

January 26 – Marcantonio Giustinian is elected Doge of Venice.

March – The severe frost in Britain, which started the previous December, ends, during which the River Thames was frozen in London and the sea as far as 2 miles (3.2 km) out from land froze over (there has been great loss of beast and of wildlife, especially birds, and similar reports from across Northern Europe).

April 25 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice declares war on the Ottoman Empire.

==== July–December ====

July 24 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle sails again from France, with a large expedition designed to establish a French colony on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the Mississippi River.

July 21–August 6 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice captures the Ottoman Fortress of Santa Maura.

August 15

France under Louis XIV makes the Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Holy Roman Empire (Habsburg) and Spain.

Louis XIV decrees the foundation of the Maison royale de Saint-Louis, a boarding school for girls at Saint-Cyr, at the urging of Madame de Maintenon.

September 21 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice captures the fortress town of Preveza from the Ottoman Empire.

October 7 – Japanese Chief Minister Hotta Masatoshi is assassinated, leaving Shōgun Tsunayoshi without any adequate advisors, leading him to issue impractical edicts and create hardships for the Japanese people.

December 10 – Isaac Newton's derivation of Kepler's laws from his theory of gravity, contained in the paper De motu corporum in gyrum, is read to the Royal Society by Edmond Halley.

December – The Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal war of 1679–84 ends.

==== Date unknown ====

Pope Innocent XI forms a Holy League with the Habsburg Empire, Venice and Poland, to end the Ottoman Turkish rule in Europe.

Japanese poet Saikaku composes 23,500 verses in 24 hours at the Sumiyoshi Shrine at Osaka; the scribes cannot keep pace with his dictation and just count the verses.

Tokyo University, formally registered as a university in 1877, has its predecessor established.

The British East India Company receives Chinese permission to build a trading station at Canton. Tea sells in Europe for less than a shilling a pound, but the import duty of 5 shillings makes it too expensive for most English people to afford; hence smuggled tea is drunk much more than legally imported tea.

John Bunyan writes The Pilgrim's Progress, Part 2, in England.

The Chipperfield's Circus dynasty begins, when James Chipperfield introduces performing animals to England, at the River Thames frost fairs in London.

=== 1685 ===

==== January–June ====

February 6 – Catholic James Stuart, Duke of York, becomes King James II of England and Ireland, and King James VII of Scotland, in succession to his brother Charles II (1630–1685), King of England, Scotland, and Ireland since 1660. James II and VII reigns until deposed, in 1688.

February 20 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, intending to establish a colony near the mouth of the Mississippi River, lands with 200 surviving colonists at Matagorda Bay on the Texas coast, believing the Mississippi near. He establishes Fort St. Louis.

February–March – Morean War (part of the Great Turkish War): The Ottoman serasker Halil Pasha invades the Mani Peninsula, and forces it to surrender hostages.

March – Louis XIV of France passes the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies.

May 7 – Morean War – Battle on Vrtijeljka: Advancing Ottoman forces prevail over defending Venetian irregulars, on a hill in the Sanjak of Montenegro.

May 11 – The Killing Time: Five Covenanters in Wigtown, Scotland, notably Margaret Wilson, are executed for refusing to swear an oath declaring King James of England, Scotland and Ireland as head of the church, becoming the Wigtown martyrs.

June 11 – Monmouth Rebellion: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, lands at Lyme Regis with an invasion force brought from the Netherlands, to challenge his uncle, James II, for the Crown of England.

June 20 – Monmouth Rebellion: James, Duke of Monmouth declares himself at Taunton to be King, and heir to his father's Kingdoms as James II of England and Ireland, and James VII of Scotland.

==== July–December ====

July 6 – Monmouth Rebellion – Battle of Sedgemoor: The armies of King James II of England defeat rebel forces under James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, and capture the Duke himself, shortly after the battle.

July 15 – James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, is executed at Tower Hill, London, England.

August 11 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice captures the fortress of Koroni from the Ottoman Empire; its garrison is massacred.

August 25 – The Bloody Assizes begin in Winchester; over 1000 of Monmouth's rebels are tried, and condemned to death or transportation.

September 14 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice defeats an 8,000-strong Ottoman army at Kalamata.

September – The first organised street lighting is introduced in London, England, with oil lamps to be lit outside every tenth house, on moonless winter nights.

October 22 – Louis XIV issues the Edict of Fontainebleau, which revokes the Edict of Nantes and declares Protestantism illegal, thereby depriving Huguenots of civil rights. Their Temple de Charenton-le-Pont is immediately demolished.

November 11 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice captures the fortress town of Igoumenitsa from the Ottoman Empire, and razes it to the ground.

==== Date unknown ====

The Chinese army of the Qing Dynasty attacks a Russian post at Albazin, during the reigns of the Kangxi Emperor and the dual Russian rulers Ivan V of Russia and Peter I of Russia. The event leads to the Treaty of Nerchinsk.

Adam Baldridge finds a pirate base at Île Sainte-Marie, Madagascar.

=== 1686 ===

==== January–June ====

May 4 – The Municipality of Ilagan is founded in the Philippines.

May 14 – Joseph Dudley formally begins his tenure, as President of the Council of the newly formed Dominion of New England.

==== July–December ====

July – The League of Augsburg is founded, in response to claims made by Louis XIV of France on the Electorate of the Palatinate in western Germany. It comprises the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, Sweden, Spain and the electors of Bavaria, Saxony and the Electorate of the Palatinate.

July 17 – King James II of England appoints four Roman Catholics to the Privy Council of England, in defiance of the Test Acts, which bar Catholics from public office. Suspicions about James's intentions lead to a group of conspirators meeting at Charborough House in Dorset to plan his overthrow and replacement with the Protestant Dutch Stadtholder, William III of Orange-Nassau (James's son-in-law).

July 22 – New York City and Albany, New York are granted city charters by the colonial governor.

September 2 – Battle of Buda: The forces of the Holy League of 1684 liberate Buda from Ottoman Turkish rule (leading to the end of Turkish rule in Hungary during the subsequent years).

==== Date unknown ====

Russia, Saxony, Brandenburg and Bavaria join the Holy League, against the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Imperial forces under Austrian leadership invade Ottoman-occupied Hungary and advance on Buda.

The Swedish Church Law 1686 confirms and describes the rights of the Lutheran Church and confirms Sweden as a Lutheran state: all non-Lutherans are banned from immigration unless they convert to Lutheranism; the Romani people are to be incorporated to the Lutheran Church; the poor care law is regulated; and all parishes are forced by law to teach the children within them to read and write, in order to learn the scripture, which closely eradicates illiteracy in Sweden.

In Greece, Ottoman-occupied Morea (i.e., the Peloponnese) falls to the Venetians.

A hurricane saves Charleston, South Carolina from attack by Spanish vessels.

English historian and naturalist Robert Plot publishes The Natural History of Staffordshire, a collection of illustrations and texts detailing the history of the county. It is the first document known to mention crop circles and a double sunset.

The Café Procope, which remains in business in the 21st century, is opened in Paris by Procopio Cutò, as a coffeehouse.

=== 1687 ===

==== January–June ====

March 19 – The men under explorer Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle mutiny, and Pierre Duhaut murders him, while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River.

April 4 – King James II of England issues the Declaration of Indulgence (or Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience), suspending laws against Roman Catholics and nonconformists.

May 6 – Emperor Higashiyama succeeds Emperor Reigen, on the throne of Japan.

==== July–December ====

July 5 – Isaac Newton's Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known as the Principia, is published by the Royal Society of London. In it, Newton describes his theory of universal gravitation, explains the laws of mechanics, and gives a formula for the speed of sound. The writing of Principia Mathematica ushers in a tidal wave of changes in thought, significantly accelerating the scientific revolution by providing new and practical intellectual tools, and becomes the foundation of modern physics.

July 24 – Morean War – Battle of Patras: The Republic of Venice defeats the Ottomans, which flee in panic, allowing the Venetians to capture the fortresses of Patras, Rio, Antirrio, and Lepanto unopposed.

August 12 – Great Turkish War – Battle of Mohács: The Habsburg imperial army, and allies under Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, defeat the Ottoman Turks, and enable Austria to conquer most of Ottoman-occupied Hungary.

September – Morean War: The navy of the Republic of Venice raids the Dalmatian coast, and attacks Ottoman Turkish strongholds in Greece.

September 23–29 – Morean War: Venetian forces under Francesco Morosini besiege the Ottoman garrison in the Acropolis of Athens. The Temple of Athena Nike is demolished, the Propylaea suffer damage, and half the Parthenon is destroyed, when a cannon ball hits a powder magazine there on 26 September.

November 8 – Suleiman II (d. 1691) succeeds the deposed Mehmed IV, as Ottoman Emperor.

December 31 – In response to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, a group of Huguenots set sail from France, and settle in the recently established Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope, where, using their native skills, they establish the first South African vineyards.

=== 1688 ===

==== January–June ====

March – William Dampier makes the first recorded visit to Christmas Island.

March 1 – A great fire devastates Bungay, England.

April 3 – Francesco Morosini becomes Doge of Venice.

April 10 – Morean War: The Venetian forces under Francesco Morosini evacuate Athens and Piraeus.

April 18 (Julian calendar) – The Germantown Quaker Protest Against Slavery is drafted by four Germantown Quakers.

April 29 – Friedrich Wilhelm, the Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia, dies. Friedrich III becomes Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia until 1701, when he becomes the first King of Prussia, as Friedrich I.

May 4 – King James II of England orders his Declaration of Indulgence, suspending penal laws against Catholics, to be read from every Anglican pulpit in England. The Church of England and its staunchest supporters, the peers and gentry, are outraged; on June 8 the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Sancroft, is imprisoned in the Tower of London for refusing to proclaim it.

May 10 – King Narai of Ayutthaya nominates Princess Sudawadi as his successor, with Constantine Phaulkon, Mom Pi and Phetracha acting as joint regents.

May 17 – The arrest of King Narai of Ayutthaya launches a coup d'état.

June 5 – Constantine Phaulkon is arrested; he is later beheaded.

June 10 – The birth of James Francis Edward Stuart (later known as the Old Pretender), son and heir to James II of England and his Catholic wife Mary of Modena, at St James's Palace in London, increases public disquiet about a Catholic dynasty, particularly when the baby is baptised into the Catholic faith. Rumours about his true maternity swiftly begin to circulate.

June 24 – French forces under Chevalier de Beauregard abandon their garrison at Mergui, following repeated Siamese attacks; this ultimately leads to their withdrawal from the country.

June 30 – A high-powered conspiracy of notables (the Immortal Seven) invite Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange and Princess Mary to "defend the liberties of England", and depose King James VII and II.

==== July–December ====

July 13 – The Siege of Negroponte by the Venetians begins.

August 1 – Phetracha becomes king of Ayutthaya, after a coup d'état.

September 6 – Great Turkish War: The Habsburg army captures Belgrade.

October 21 – The Venetians raise the Siege of Negroponte.

October 27 – King James II of England dismisses his minister Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland.

November 11 (November 1 OS) – Glorious Revolution: William III of Orange sets sail a second time from Hellevoetsluis, the Netherlands, to take over England, Scotland and Ireland from King James II of England.

November 15 (November 5 OS) – The Glorious Revolution begins: William of Orange lands at Torbay, England with a multinational force of 15,000 mercenaries. He makes no claim to the British Crown, saying only that he has come to save Protestantism and to maintain English liberty, and begins a march on London.

November 19 (November 9 OS) – William of Orange captures Exeter, after the magistrates flee the city.

November 20 (November 10 OS) – The Wincanton Skirmish between forces loyal to James II led by Patrick Sarsfield and a party of Dutch troops is one of the few armed clashes in England during the Glorious Revolution.

November 23 – A group of 1,500 Old Believers immolate themselves to avoid capture, when troops of the tsar lay siege to their monastery on Lake Onega.

November 26 – Hearing that William of Orange has landed in England, Louis XIV declares war on the Netherlands. Perhaps revealingly, he does not attack the Netherlands, but instead strikes at the heart of the Holy Roman Empire, with about 100,000 soldiers. The Nine Years' War begins in Europe and America.

December 9 – The Battle of Reading takes place in Reading, Berkshire. It is the only substantial military action in England during the Glorious Revolution and ends in a decisive victory for forces loyal to William of Orange.

December 11 – Having led his army to Salisbury and been deserted by his troops, James VII and II attempts to flee to France.

December 18 – William of Orange enters London.

==== Date unknown ====

The Austrians incite the Chiprovtsi Uprising, against the Ottomans in Bulgaria.

Edward Lloyd opens the London coffee house that soon becomes a popular meeting place for shipowners, merchants, insurance brokers and underwriters. In time the business association they form will outgrow the coffee house premises, and become Lloyd's of London.

Neuruppin becomes a Prussian garrison town.

Johann Weikhard von Valvasor becomes a member of the Royal Society.

Antonio Verrio begins work on the Heaven Room at Burghley House.

The earliest known mention of the balalaika is made.

=== 1689 ===

==== January–June ====

January 11 (January 22 O.S.) – Glorious Revolution in England: The Convention Parliament is convened to determine if King James II of England, the last Roman Catholic British monarch, vacated the throne when he fled to France, at the end of 1688. The settlement of this is agreed on 8 February.

February 13 (O.S.) – William III and Mary II are proclaimed co-rulers of England, Scotland and Ireland.

March 2 – Nine Years' War: As French forces leave, they set fire to Heidelberg Castle, and the nearby town of Heidelberg.

March 22 (March 12 O.S.) – Start of the Williamite War in Ireland: The deposed James II of England lands with 6,000 French soldiers in Ireland, where there is a Catholic majority, hoping to use it as the base for a counter-coup. However, many Irish Catholics see him as an agent of Louis XIV of France, and refuse to support him.

March 27 – Japanese haiku master Bashō sets out on his last great voyage, which will result in the prose and verse classic Oku no Hosomichi ("Narrow Road to the Interior").

April 11 (O.S.) – William III and Mary II are crowned in London as King and Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland. Ireland does not recognise them yet, while the Estates of Scotland declare King James VII of Scotland deposed.

April 18

Boston revolt: Unpopular New England Governor Sir Edmund Andros and other officials are overthrown by a "mob" of Bostonians. Andros, an appointee of James II of England, is disliked for his support of the Church of England, and revocation of various colonial charters.

Williamite War in Ireland: Siege of Derry: James II arrives at the gates of Derry and asks for its surrender, which is refused by the Protestant defenders.

May 11 (May 1 O.S.) – Williamite War in Ireland – Battle of Bantry Bay: The French fleet under the Marquis de Châteaurenault is able to protect its transports, unloading supplies for James II, from the English Royal Navy under the Earl of Torrington, and withdraws unpursued.

May 12 – Nine Years' War: With England and the Netherlands now both ruled by William III, they join the Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg), thus escalating the conflict, which continues until 1697. This is also the effective beginning of King William's War, the first of four North American Wars (until 1763) between English and French colonists, both sides allied to Native American tribes. The nature of the fighting is a series of raids on each other's settlements, across the Canadian and New England borders.

May 24 – The Bill of Rights establishes constitutional monarchy in England, but with Roman Catholics barred from the throne. Parliament also passes the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants but with Roman Catholics intentionally excluded. This effectively concludes the Glorious Revolution.

May 25 – The last hearth tax is collected in England and Wales.

May 31 – Leisler's Rebellion: Calvinist Jacob Leisler deposes lieutenant governor Francis Nicholson and assumes control of the Province of New York.

==== July–December ====

July 25 – The Council of Wales and the Marches is abolished.

July 27 – First Jacobite rising – Battle of Killiecrankie near Pitlochry in Perthshire: Scottish Covenanter supporters of William III and Mary II (under Hugh Mackay) are defeated by Jacobite supporters of James II, but the latter's leader, John Graham, Viscount Dundee, is killed. Hand grenades are used in action.

July 28 – English sailors break through a floating boom across the River Foyle, to end the Siege of Derry after 105 days.

August 2 – Boston Revolt: Edmund Andros, former governor of the Dominion of New England, escapes from Boston to Connecticut, but is recaptured.

August 5 – A force of 1,500 Iroquois attacks the village of Lachine, New France.

August 12 – Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi; 1611–1689), Pope since 1676, dies. A man of integrity who has been described as the greatest Pope of the 17th century, he played a major part in founding both the League of Augsburg, against Louis XIV, and the Holy League, against the Ottoman Empire.

August 20 – A large Williamite force under Marshal Schomberg begins the Siege of Carrickfergus, which surrenders on August 27.

August 21 – First Jacobite rising – Battle of Dunkeld: Covenanters defeat the Jacobites in Scotland.

August 27 – China and Russia sign the Treaty of Nerchinsk.

October 6 – Pope Alexander VIII succeeds Pope Innocent XI, to become the 241st pope, the first Venetian to hold the office in over 200 years.

October 26 – The Fire of Skopje 1689 occurred burning for two days, it was started by General Enea Silvio Piccolomini.

November 22 – Peter the Great decrees the construction of the Great Siberian Road to China.

December 16 – Convention Parliament – The English Bill of Rights is officially declared in force.

==== Date unknown ====

Peter the Great plots to overthrow his half-sister Sophia, as regent of Russia.

Supporters of William of Orange seize Liverpool Castle.

The English East India Company expands its influence, with the establishment of administrative districts called presidencies in the Indian provinces of Bengal, Madras and Bombay, the effective beginning of the company's long rule in India.

Valvasor's The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola is printed in Nuremberg.

Anne Hyde

Anne Hyde (12 March 1637 – 31 March 1671) was Duchess of York and Albany as the first wife of the future King James II of England.

Anne was the daughter of a commoner — Edward Hyde (later created Earl of Clarendon) — and met her future husband when they were both living in exile in the Netherlands. She married James in 1660 and two months later gave birth to the couple's first child, who had been conceived out of wedlock. Some observers disapproved of the marriage, but James' brother, King Charles II, wanted the marriage to take place. Another cause of disapproval was the public affection James showed toward Anne, such as kissing and leaning against each other, which was considered improper behaviour from man to wife during the seventeenth century. James and Anne had eight children, but six died in early childhood. The two who survived to adulthood were future monarchs, Mary II and Anne. James was a known philanderer who kept many mistresses, for which Anne often reproached him, and fathered many illegitimate children.

Originally an Anglican, Anne converted to Catholicism soon after her marriage to James. She had been exposed to Catholicism during visits to the Netherlands and France and was strongly attracted thereto. Partly due to Anne's influence, James later also converted to Catholicism, which would ultimately lead to the Glorious Revolution. She suffered from advanced breast cancer and died shortly after giving birth to her last child.

Arabella Churchill (royal mistress)

Arabella Churchill (23 February 1648 – 30 May 1730) was the mistress of King James II, and the mother of four of his children (surnamed FitzJames, that is, "son of James").

Battle of the Boyne

The Battle of the Boyne (Irish: Cath na Bóinne IPA: [ˈkah n̪ˠə ˈbˠoːn̪ʲə]) was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James VII and II of Scotland, England and Ireland and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II (his cousin and James's daughter), had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688. The battle took place across the River Boyne near the town of Drogheda in the Kingdom of Ireland, modern day Republic of Ireland, and resulted in a victory for William. This turned the tide in James's failed attempt to regain the British crown and ultimately aided in ensuring the continued Protestant ascendancy in Ireland.

The battle took place on 1 July 1690 O.S. William's forces defeated James's army, which consisted mostly of raw recruits. Although the Williamite War in Ireland continued until October 1691, James fled to France after the Boyne, never to return. The symbolic importance of this battle has made it one of the best-known battles in the history of the British Isles and a key part of the folklore of the Orange Order. Its commemoration today is principally by the Orange Order, which records the first commemorative parades as having been held in 1791.

Cultural depictions of James II of England

James II of England is a character in the novel The Man Who Laughs by Victor Hugo. He was portrayed by Josef Moser in the 1921 Austrian silent film The Grinning Face and by Sam De Grasse in the 1928 silent film The Man Who Laughs.

He has also been portrayed by Gibb McLaughlin in the 1926 silent film Nell Gwynne, based on a novel by Joseph Shearing, Lawrence Anderson in the 1934 film Nell Gwyn, Vernon Steele in the 1935 film Captain Blood, based on the novel by Rafael Sabatini, Douglas Matthews in the 1938 BBC TV drama Thank You, Mr. Pepys, Henry Oscar in the 1948 film Bonnie Prince Charlie, John Westbrook in the 1969 BBC TV series The First Churchills, Guy Henry in the 1995 film England, My England, the story of the composer Henry Purcell, and Charlie Creed-Miles in the 2003 BBC TV miniseries Charles II: The Power & the Passion.

The squabbling surrounding James's kingship, the Monmouth Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution, James's abdication, and William of Orange's subsequent accession to the throne are themes in Neal Stephenson's 2003 novel Quicksilver.

Daniel O'Brien, 3rd Viscount Clare

Daniel O'Brien, 3rd Viscount Clare was an Irish nobleman, the son of Connor O'Brien, 2nd Viscount Clare and Honora O'Brien.

Clare was appointed commander of a newly raised regiment of foot, Clare's Regiment of Foot, an Irish regiment in the Dutch States Army, on 8 August 1674. He was replaced within twelve months by Sir John Fenwick. From July 1751 this regiment was known as the 5th Regiment of Foot.

During the War of the Two Kings, Clare served with the Jacobite Irish Army loyal to James II. He was the commander of Clare's Dragoons regiment which he led against William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne and later exile in France as part of the Flight of the Wild Geese. He married Philadelphia Lennard, sister of the Earl of Sussex, and together they had three children:

Honora O'Brien

Daniel O'Brien, 4th Viscount Clare

Charles O'Brien, 5th Viscount Clare

Declaration of Indulgence

The Declaration of Indulgence or Declaration for Liberty of Conscience was a pair of proclamations made by James II of England and VII of Scotland in 1687. The Indulgence was first issued for Scotland on 12 February and then for England on 4 April 1687. It was a first step at establishing freedom of religion in the British Isles, although part of the king's intention was to promote his own minority religion, Catholicism, reviled by most of his subjects.

The Declaration granted broad religious freedom in England by suspending penal laws enforcing conformity to the Church of England and allowing persons to worship in their homes or chapels as they saw fit, and it ended the requirement of affirming religious oaths before gaining employment in government office.

By use of the royal suspending power, the king lifted the religious penal laws and granted toleration to the various Christian denominations, Catholic and Protestant, within his kingdoms. The Declaration of Indulgence was supported by William Penn, who was widely perceived to be its instigator. The declaration was greatly opposed by Anglicans in England on both religious and constitutional grounds. Some Anglicans objected to the fact that the Declaration had no specified limits and thus, at least in theory, licensed the practice of any religion, including Islam, Judaism, or paganism. Many also objected to the fact that the king, by issuing the Declaration, had implicitly claimed a power to suspend laws passed by Parliament.

Exclusion Crisis

The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 through 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. Three Exclusion bills sought to exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of York, from the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland because he was Roman Catholic. None became law. Two new parties formed. The Tories were opposed to this exclusion while the "Country Party", who were soon to be called the Whigs, supported it.

Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689.

King James's policies of religious tolerance after 1685 met with increasing opposition from members of leading political circles, who were troubled by the King's Catholicism and his close ties with France. The crisis facing the King came to a head in 1688, with the birth of his son, James, on 10 June (Julian calendar). This changed the existing line of succession by displacing the heir presumptive (his 26-year-old daughter Mary, a Protestant and the wife of William of Orange) with young James as heir apparent. The establishment of a Roman Catholic dynasty in the kingdoms now seemed likely. Some Tory members of parliament worked with members of the opposition Whigs in an attempt to resolve the crisis by secretly initiating dialogue with William of Orange to come to England, outside the jurisdiction of the English Parliament. Stadtholder William, the de facto head of state of the Dutch United Provinces, feared a Catholic Anglo–French alliance and had already been planning a military intervention in England.

After consolidating political and financial support, William crossed the North Sea and English Channel with a large invasion fleet in November 1688, landing at Torbay. After only two minor clashes between the two opposing armies in England, and anti-Catholic riots in several towns, James's regime collapsed, largely because of a lack of resolve shown by the king. This was followed, however, by the protracted Williamite War in Ireland and Dundee's rising in Scotland. In England's distant American colonies, the revolution led to the collapse of the Dominion of New England and the overthrow of the Province of Maryland's government. Following a defeat of his forces at the Battle of Reading on 9 December 1688, James and his wife Mary fled England; James, however, returned to London for a two-week period that culminated in his final departure for France on 23 December 1688. By threatening to withdraw his troops, William, in February 1689 (New Style Julian calendar), convinced a newly chosen Convention Parliament to make him and his wife joint monarchs.

The Revolution permanently ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England. For British Catholics its effects were disastrous both socially and politically: For over a century Catholics were denied the right to vote and sit in the Westminster Parliament; they were also denied commissions in the army, and the monarch was forbidden to be Catholic or to marry a Catholic, this latter prohibition remaining in force until 2015. The Revolution led to limited tolerance for Nonconformist Protestants, although it would be some time before they had full political rights. It has been argued, mainly by Whig historians, that James's overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: the Bill of Rights 1689 has become one of the most important documents in the political history of Britain and never since has the monarch held absolute power.

Internationally, the Revolution was related to the War of the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe. It has been seen as the last successful invasion of England. It ended all attempts by England in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century to subdue the Dutch Republic by military force. The resulting economic integration and military co-operation between the English and Dutch navies, however, shifted the dominance in world trade from the Dutch Republic to England and later to Great Britain.

The expression "Glorious Revolution" was first used by John Hampden in late 1689, and is an expression that is still used by the British Parliament. The Glorious Revolution is also occasionally termed the Bloodless Revolution, albeit inaccurately. The English Civil War (also known as the Great Rebellion) was still within living memory for most of the major English participants in the events of 1688, and for them, in comparison to that war (or even the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685) the deaths in the conflict of 1688 were few.

Gordon O'Neill

Gordon O'Neill, was an Irish colonel in King James II's army.

Jacobite risings

The Jacobite risings, also known as the Jacobite rebellions or the War of the British Succession, were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746. The uprisings had the aim of returning James II of England and VII of Scotland, the last Catholic British monarch, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart, to the throne of Great Britain after they had been deposed by Parliament during the Glorious Revolution. The series of conflicts takes its name Jacobitism, from Jacobus, the Latin form of James.

Jacobite rising may refer to any of the following:

Jacobite rising of 1689

Williamite War in Ireland, James's attempts to regain the throne in Ireland

Jacobite assassination plot 1696

Planned French invasion of Britain (1708), included Jacobite support.

Jacobite rising of 1715

Jacobite rising of 1719

Planned French invasion of Britain (1744), included Jacobite support.

Jacobite rising of 1745

Planned French invasion of Britain (1759), included Jacobite support.

Jacobite succession

The Jacobite succession is the line through which the crown in pretence of England, Scotland and Ireland (France also claimed) has descended since the flight of James II & VII from London at the time of the "Glorious Revolution". James and his Jacobite successors were traditionally toasted as "The King over the Water". After the death of James's grandson, Henry Benedict Stuart, in 1807, none of the notional Jacobite "successors" have claimed the thrones of England and Scotland or incorporated the arms of England and Scotland in their coats-of-arms.

James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick

James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, 1st Duke of Liria and Jérica, 1st Duke of Fitz-James, GE, KOGF (21 August 1670 – 12 June 1734) was an Anglo-French military leader, illegitimate son of King James II of England by Arabella Churchill, sister of the 1st Duke of Marlborough. Berwick was a successful general in the pay of Louis XIV of France.

John Hough (bishop)

John Hough (; 12 April 1651 – 8 March 1743) was an English bishop. He is best known for the confrontation over his election as President at Magdalen College, Oxford that took place at the end of the reign of James II of England.

Nonjuring schism

The nonjuring schism was a split in the Anglican churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, over whether William III and Mary II could legally be recognised as sovereigns.

The word nonjuring means "not swearing [an oath]", from the Latin verb iūrō or jūrō meaning "to swear an oath".

Many of the Anglican clergy felt legally bound by their previous oaths of allegiance to James II and, though they could accept William as regent, they could not accept him as king. It was not necessarily a split on matters of religious doctrine, but more of a political issue and a matter of conscience, though most of the nonjurors were high-church Anglicans. Thus, latitudinarian Anglicans were handed control of the Church of England, while Presbyterians took control of the Church of Scotland. The nonjurors thus were nominally Jacobite, although they generally did not actively support the Jacobite Uprisings in 1715 or 1745.

Patriot Parliament

The Patriot Parliament is the name given to the session of the Irish Parliament called by King James II of Ireland during the War of the Two Kings in 1689. The parliament met in one session, from 7 May 1689 to 20 July 1689, and was the only session of the Irish Parliament under King James II.

The Irish House of Lords had Lord Fitton as Lord Chancellor of Ireland on the woolsack. The Irish House of Commons elected Sir Richard Nagle as its Speaker. The Lord Deputy of Ireland was Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell.

The previous session of the Irish parliament had been in 1666.

Sir Neil O'Neill, 2nd Baronet

Sir Neil O'Neill (Irish: Niall Ua Néill; 1658–1690), 2nd Baronet of Shane's Castle, Killyleagh, County Antrim, was an Irish army officer.O'Neill's portrait from 1680 by John Michael Wright is historically significant because it is the only surviving contemporary presentation of the traditional costume of an Irish chieftain. At his feet is the armour of a Japanese samurai as a symbol of victory over oppression of Catholics; next to him is an Irish wolfhound as a symbol of Ireland.

Statue of James II, Trafalgar Square

The statue of James II is an outdoor bronze sculpture located in the front garden of the National Gallery at Trafalgar Square in London, United Kingdom. Probably inspired by French statues of the same period, it depicts James II of England as a Roman emperor, wearing Roman armour and a laurel wreath (traditionally awarded to a victorious Roman commander). It originally also depicted him holding a baton. It was produced by the workshop of Grinling Gibbons, though probably not by Gibbons himself. The statue has been relocated several times since it was first erected in the grounds of the old Palace of Whitehall in 1686, only two years before James II was deposed.

Williamite War in Ireland

The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) (Irish: Cogadh an Dá Rí, meaning "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Catholic King James II) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be monarch of the three kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland. It is also called the Jacobite War in Ireland or the Williamite–Jacobite War in Ireland.

The cause of the war was the overthrowing of James as king of the Three Kingdoms in the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688. James was supported by the mostly Catholic "Jacobites" in Ireland and hoped to use the country as a base to regain his Three Kingdoms. He was given military support by France to this end. For this reason, the war became part of a wider European conflict known as the Nine Years' War (or War of the Grand Alliance). James was opposed in Ireland by the mostly Protestant "Williamites", who were concentrated in the north of the country. Some Protestants of the established Church in Ireland also fought on the side of King James, however.William landed a multi-national force in Ireland, composed of English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish and other troops, to put down Jacobite resistance. James left Ireland after a reverse at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 and the Irish Jacobites were finally defeated after the Battle of Aughrim in 1691.

William defeated Jacobitism in Ireland and subsequent Jacobite risings were confined to Scotland and England. However, the war was to have a lasting effect on Ireland, confirming British and Protestant rule over the country for over two centuries. The iconic Williamite victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne are still celebrated by (mostly Ulster Protestant) unionists in Ireland today.

Ancestors of James II of England
8. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley[168]
4. James I of England (VI of Scotland)
9. Mary, Queen of Scots[168]
2. Charles I of England
10. Frederick II of Denmark[169]
5. Anne of Denmark
11. Sophia of Mecklenburg[169]
1. James II of England
12. Anthony, Duke of Vendôme[170]
6. Henry IV of France
13. Joan III of Navarre[170]
3. Henrietta Maria of France
14. Francis I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany[170]
7. Marie de' Medici
15. Joanna of Austria[170]
EnglishScottish and British monarchs

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