James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury

James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, CB, PC (23 October 1861 – 4 April 1947), known as Viscount Cranborne from 1868 to 1903, was a British statesman.


The Marquess of Salisbury

Lord salsbury
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
27 April 1925 – 4 June 1929
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MinisterStanley Baldwin
Preceded byThe Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Succeeded byThe Lord Parmoor
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
In office
6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MinisterStanley Baldwin
Preceded byJohn Robert Clynes
Succeeded byJames Henry Thomas
In office
17 October 1903 – 4 December 1905
MonarchEdward VII
Prime MinisterThe Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Preceded byArthur Balfour
Succeeded byThe Marquess of Ripon
Lord President of the Council
In office
24 October 1922 – 22 January 1924
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MinisterBonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded byArthur Balfour
Succeeded byThe Lord Parmoor
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
24 October 1922 – 25 May 1923
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MinisterBonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded bySir William Sutherland
Succeeded byJ. C. C. Davidson
President of the Board of Trade
In office
12 March 1905 – 4 December 1905
MonarchEdward VII
Prime MinisterArthur Balfour
Preceded byGerald Balfour
Succeeded byDavid Lloyd George
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
12 November 1900 – 9 October 1903
MonarchVictoria
Edward VII
Prime MinisterThe Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Preceded byThe Earl Midleton
Succeeded byThe Earl Percy
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
22 August 1903 – 4 April 1947
Hereditary Peerage
Preceded byThe 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded byThe 5th Marquess of Salisbury
Member of Parliament
for Rochester
In office
1893 – 22 August 1903
Preceded byHoratio Davies
Succeeded byCharles Tuff
Member of Parliament
for Darwen
In office
18 December 1885 – 26 July 1892
Preceded byconstituency created
Succeeded bySir Charles Huntington
Personal details
Born23 October 1861
London, United Kingdom
Died4 April 1947 (aged 85)
London, United Kingdom
NationalityBritish
Political partyConservative
Spouse(s)Lady Cicely Gore
(1867–1955)
Alma materUniversity College, Oxford
Shield of Arms of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, CB, PC
Garter-encircled shield of arms of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel.

Background and education

Born in London, Salisbury was the eldest son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury,[1] who served as British Prime Minister, by his wife Georgina (née Alderson). The Right Reverend Lord William Cecil, Lord Cecil of Chelwood and Lord Quickswood were his younger brothers and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour his first cousin. He was educated at Eton and University College, Oxford, graduating BA in 1885.

Political career

He started public life early, being a very young age when he accompanied his father to the 1876-1877 Constantinople Conference and a year later to the Congress of Berlin.[2]

Lord Cranborne sat as Conservative Member of Parliament for Darwen then called North-East Lancashire from 1885 to 1892.[2] He lost his seat at the General Election. In a by-election in 1893, he was elected for Rochester where he was the MP until 1903,[2] when he succeeded his father and was elevated to the House of Lords.

Lord Cranborne was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 4th (Militia) battalion Bedfordshire Regiment (formerly the Hertfordshire Militia) on 29 October 1892, and was in command when the battalion saw active service in South Africa from March to November 1900, during the Second Boer War. The battalion, numbering 24 officers and 483 men, left Queenstown on 27 February in the transport Goorkha, with Lord Cranborne as the senior officer in command,[3] arriving in Cape Town the following month. He received the Queen's South Africa Medal and was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) for his service during the war. In July 1902 he received the Honorary Freedom of the borough of Hertford in recognition of his service during the war.[4] Following the death of his father, he was promoted to colonel of the battalion. He was also a colonel of the Hertfordshire Volunteer Regiment and of the 4th battalion Essex Regiment. Lord Salisbury was ADC to Edward VII, and George V until 1929.

He served under his father and then his cousin Arthur Balfour as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1900[2] to 1903, under Balfour as Lord Privy Seal from 1903 to 1905, and as Lord President of the Board of Trade in 1905.[5][6] In 1903 he was sworn of the Privy Council. In December 1908, he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Hertfordshire.[7] And from 1906, followed his uncle, as Chairman of the Canterbury House of Laymen.

Salisbury played a leading role in opposing David Lloyd George's People's Budget and the Parliament Bill of 1911. In 1917 he was made a Knight of the Garter. He returned to the government in the 1920s and served under Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1922 to 1923, as Lord President of the Council from 1922 to 1924, as Lord Privy Seal from 1924 to 1929 and as Leader of the House of Lords from 1925 to 1929[2] in successive Conservative governments of Bonar Law and Baldwin. He resigned as leader of the Conservative peers in June 1931[8] and became one of the most prominent opponents of Indian Home Rule in the Lords, supporting the campaign against the legislation waged in the House of Commons by Winston Churchill.

Lord Salisbury was a committed and eager member of the Territorial Army. Honorary Colonel of 86th East Anglians, and the Hertfordshire Yeomanry Brigade. He was also Honorary Colonel of Royal Field Artillery in the Territorial Detachment and the 48th South Midland Division Royal Engineers (TA).

Salisbury was part of two parliamentary deputations which called on the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Neville Chamberlain, in the autumn of 1936 to remonstrate with them about the slow pace of British rearmament in the face of the growing threat from Nazi Germany. The delegation was led by Sir Austen Chamberlain, a former Foreign Secretary and its most prominent speakers included Winston Churchill, Leo Amery and Roger Keyes. The Marquess of Salisbury was Lord High Steward at the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937.[9]

Marriage and children

Lord Salisbury married Lady Cicely Alice Gore (born 15 July 1867, died 5 February 1955), second daughter of Arthur Gore, 5th Earl of Arran, on 17 May 1887 at St. Margaret's Church, Westminster.[1] She was appointed a JP for Hertfordshire. In 1907, she was made a Lady Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra, an Officer of the Order of St John of Jerusalem.

They had four children:[10]

Lord Salisbury died in April 1947, at 85, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Robert. The Marchioness of Salisbury died in February 1955.[11]

He was the grandfather of actor Jonathan Cecil by his youngest son, David.

References

  1. ^ a b "Marriage of Viscount Cranborne". Exeter and Plymouth Gazette. British Newspaper Archive. 18 May 1887. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e "MARQUESS OF SALISBURY DEATH OF GREAT FIGURE". Western Morning News. British Newspaper Archive. 5 April 1947. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  3. ^ "The War - The Militia". The Times (36077). London. 28 February 1900. p. 6.
  4. ^ "Court Circular". The Times (36812). London. 5 July 1902. p. 8.
  5. ^ "THE PEER PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE". Western Times. British Newspaper Archive. 15 March 1905. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  6. ^ "THE NEW MINISTRY AND THE OLD". Stamford Mercury. British Newspaper Archive. 29 December 1905. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  7. ^ "No. 28211". The London Gazette. 1 January 1909. p. 33.
  8. ^ "LORD SALISBURY RETIRES FROM LEADERSHIP". Western Daily Press. British Newspaper Archive. 17 June 1931. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  9. ^ "No. 34453". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1937. p. 7051.
  10. ^ The Peerage, entry for 4th Marquess of Salisbury
  11. ^ Burke's Peerage & Baronetage (106th ed.) (Salisbury)

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency Member of Parliament for Darwen
18851892
Succeeded by
Charles Philip Huntington
Preceded by
Horatio Davies
Member of Parliament for Rochester
1893 – 1903
Succeeded by
Charles Tuff
Political offices
Preceded by
Hon. St John Brodrick
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
1900–1903
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Earl Percy
Preceded by
Arthur Balfour
Lord Privy Seal
1903–1905
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Ripon
Preceded by
Gerald Balfour
President of the Board of Trade
1905
Succeeded by
David Lloyd George
Preceded by
Sir William Sutherland
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1922–1923
Succeeded by
John Davidson
Preceded by
Arthur Balfour
Lord President of the Council
1922–1924
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Preceded by
John Robert Clynes
Lord Privy Seal
1924–1929
Succeeded by
James Henry Thomas
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Leader of the House of Lords
1925–1929
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Party political offices
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords
1925–1931
Succeeded by
The Viscount Hailsham
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Marquess of Salisbury
1903–1947
Succeeded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Baron Cecil
(descended by acceleration)

1903–1941
Succeeded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Carlton Club

The Carlton Club is a London private members' club which describes itself as "the original home of the Conservative Party before the days of Conservative Central Office". Membership of the club is by nomination and election only.

Daniel Macmillan, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden

Daniel Maurice Alan Macmillan, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden (born 9 October 1974) is a British fashion designer and the only son of Alexander Macmillan, 2nd Earl of Stockton. As the heir apparent to an earldom, he uses his father's secondary title of Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden as a courtesy title. He is a great-grandson of the former Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton.

Edith Abney-Hastings, 12th Countess of Loudoun

Edith Maud Abney-Hastings, 12th Countess of Loudoun (13 May 1883 – 24 February 1960) was a British peeress.

Elizabeth Philipps, Viscountess St Davids

Elizabeth Frances Philipps, Viscountess St Davids (née Abney-Hastings) (10 June 1884 – 12 December 1974) was a British peeress.

She was the second daughter and coheir of Hon. Paulyn Abney-Hastings (the second son of Charles Abney-Hastings, 1st Baron Donington and Edith Rawdon-Hastings, 10th Countess of Loudoun) and his wife, Lady Maud née Grimston (the third daughter of James Grimston, 2nd Earl of Verulam). On 27 April 1916, she married John Philipps, 1st Baron St Davids (created Viscount St Davids in 1918); they had two children.

Evelyn Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire

Evelyn Emily Mary Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, DStJ, (née Petty-FitzMaurice; 27 August 1870 – 2 April 1960) was the wife of The 9th Duke of Devonshire. She was born the elder daughter of the politician and diplomat The 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, and grew up amidst public life. Evelyn's marriage to Cavendish, the heir of The 8th Duke of Devonshire, led to her becoming Duchess of Devonshire in 1908. With her position, she oversaw the reorganisation of the Devonshire estates and presided over four English houses and one Irish castle.

Evelyn held the position of Mistress of the Robes to Queen Mary from 1910 until 1916, when she accompanied her husband upon his appointment as Governor General of Canada. The Duchess held the position Viceregal Consort until the Duke's term ended in 1921. Upon returning to England, the Duchess again was appointed Mistress of the Robes to Queen Mary, holding the position until the latter's death in 1953. The Dowager Duchess, widowed since 1938, spent her final years living at Hardwick Hall, which was made over to HM Treasury in 1956, in part payment of death duties.

Gascoyne-Cecil

Gascoyne-Cecil is a surname, and may refer to:

Georgina Gascoyne-Cecil, Marchioness of Salisbury (1827–1899), Lady of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert

James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury (1791–1868), English Conservative politician

James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (1861–1947), Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

Jonathan Hugh Gascoyne-Cecil (1939–2011), known as Jonathan Cecil, English theatre, film and television actor

Lord Edward Gascoyne-Cecil (1867–1918), British soldier and colonial administrator in Egypt

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830–1903), British statesman and Prime Minister

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury (1893–1972), prominent Tory politician

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury (1916–2003), Conservative Member of Parliament for Bournemouth West

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury (born 1946), Conservative politician

William Gascoyne-Cecil (1863–1936), Bishop of Exeter

George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston

George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859–20 March 1925), who was styled as George Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911, and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and was known commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman, who served as Viceroy of India, from 1899 to 1905, during which time he created the territory of Eastern Bengal and Assam, and as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, from 1919 to 1924.

Despite his illustrious success as both Viceroy and Foreign Secretary, especially at the recent Conference of Lausanne, in 1923 Curzon was denied the office of Prime Minister. This was partly because Curzon was a member of the House of Lords, and partly because Lord Davidson—to whom Baldwin was loyal—and Sir Charles Waterhouse falsely claimed to Lord Stamfordham that the resigned Prime Minister Bonar Law had recommended that George V appoint Baldwin, not Curzon, as his successor. Curzon had been the candidate for Prime Minister preferred by James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, the son of the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, who had served in that office.

Winston S. Churchill, one of Curzon's main rivals, accurately contended that Curzon "sow[ed] gratitude and resentment along his path with equally lavish hands". However, even contemporaries who envied Curzon, such as Stanley Baldwin, conceded that Curzon were, in the words of his biographer Leonard Mosley, 'a devoted and indefatigable public servant, dedicated to the idea of Empire'.Sir David Gilmour, in his biography Curzon: Imperial Statesman (1994), contends that the insuperable extent of Curzon's efforts for the British Empire was forever unrecompensed by the British polity subsequent to his retirement from the office of Viceroy of India, including after his brilliance as Foreign Secretary at the Conference of Lausanne.

Georgina Gascoyne-Cecil, Marchioness of Salisbury

Georgina Charlotte Gascoyne-Cecil, Marchioness of Salisbury, (née Alderson; 1827 – 20 November 1899) was the wife of British statesman and Prime Minister Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury.

Lady Salisbury was born Georgina Charlotte Alderson in Paddington, the daughter of Sir Edward Alderson, a judge and Baron of the Exchequer. On 11 July 1857, she married Lord Robert Cecil (later 3rd Marquess of Salisbury), a younger son of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury (despite the disapproval of the latter), and they had eight children:

Lady Beatrix Maud Gascoyne-Cecil (11 April 1858 – 27 April 1950), married William Waldegrave Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne (later styled the Countess of Selborne)

Lady Gwendolen Gascoyne-Cecil (28 July 1860 – 28 September 1945), author, biographer of her father; unmarried

James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (1861–1947)

Lord (Rupert Ernest) William (Gascoyne-)Cecil (1863–1936)

(Edgar Algernon) Robert (Gascoyne-)Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood (1864–1958)

Lady Fanny Georgina Mildred Gascoyne-Cecil (1865 – 24 April 1867), died as an infant

Lord Edward (Gascoyne-)Cecil (1867–1918)

Hugh Richard Heathcote (Gascoyne-)Cecil, 1st Baron Quickswood (1869–1956)Lady Salisbury died at Hatfield House, aged 72.

Hatfield War Memorial

The Hatfield War Memorial is a war memorial beside the Great North Road in Hatfield, Hertfordshire. It was one of 24 war memorials in England designed by Sir Herbert Baker, that were designated as a national collection by Historic England in 2017. The memorial is located near the gates of Hatfield House, and close to Hatfield railway station. It was unveiled in 1921, to commemorate 139 men from Hatfield killed on service during the First World War. A brick pavilion records the names of the dead, with further names added after the Second World War.

The memorial comprises a Portland stone memorial cross, standing within a garden surrounded by brick walls to the north, west and south sides, and a yew hedge to the east, with an entrance gate in the wall to the south. Portland stone tablets with dedications listing the names of the dead are located in a brick shelter pavilion to the north side of the garden.

The memorial cross is a typical Baker design, with an octagonal cross section, standing on an octagonal base. Baker had proposed a similar design of memorial cross to the Imperial War Graves Commission (now Commonwealth War Graves Commission), but a different design by Sir Reginald Blomfield was selected instead: the Cross of Sacrifice familiar at many CWGC cemeteries. Baker used versions of his cross in many of the municipal war memorials that he was commissioned to design after the First World War. He was also responsible for the design of 113 cemeteries on the Western Front, including Tyne Cot, Delville Wood South African National Memorial and Neuve-Chapelle Indian Memorial.

The central wheel-headed Latin cross is decorated with roses and lilies representing England and France. It stands on an octagonal shaft and simple octagonal plinth, surrounded by a small octagonal pavement, in the centre of a grass lawn. A rectangular pavilion constructed of red brick stands to the north side of the garden, with three round-headed arches facing towards the cross in the south; the arches were later closed by metal railings. The hipped roof of the pavilion is covered with clay tiles, and the brick floor is laid in a herringbone pattern. The solid side and rear walls bear stone plaques with dedications and lists of names. Baker used similar brick shelters at other memorials, including some for the CWGC on the Western Front.

The Portland stone plaques commemorate the 139 servicemen from Hatfield killed during the First World War. The names of a further 58 men and women were added after the Second World War, along with 34 civilians killed in the 503 bombing raids that affected the area, many targeting the de Havilland aircraft factory nearby .

The memorial was built on land to the east of the Great North Road, near the gates leading to Hatfield House. The site was donated by James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury. Construction cost £1,500. The memorial was unveiled on 12 June 1921 by Thomas Brand, 3rd Viscount Hampden (the Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire, who had commanded a battalion of the Hertfordshire Regiment) and dedicated by the Bishop of Exeter Lord William Cecil (the younger brother of the 4th Marquess). The names of the dead were read out at the ceremony by Lord Salisbury.

The names of a further 58 men and women were added after the Second World War, along with the names of 34 civilians killed in the 503 bombing raids in the district. Two further names were added in 2014. The memorial was repaired in 1998. The main column was heavily weathered by 2013, and it was replaced in 2015.

The memorial became a Grade II* listed building in May 2017. Nearby are the Grade II listed gates leading to the Grade I listed Hatfield House and its Grade I listed park, and a Grade II listed statue of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom three times.

High Steward of Westminster Abbey

The High Steward of Westminster Abbey is an honorary role at Westminster Abbey, London. He is appointed by the Dean and Chapter, and holds the office for life. Past holders have included Robert Cecil (in the 16th century [1]) and Douglas Hurd (fl. 2004 [2]).

Since October 2016, the role has been held by Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry.The official costume is an orange cape and white ruff.[3]

The deputy High Steward is an ex officio role of the Lord Mayor of Westminster.

Hugh Cecil, 1st Baron Quickswood

Hugh Richard Heathcote Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Baron Quickswood PC (14 October 1869 – 10 December 1956), styled Lord Hugh Cecil until 1941, was a British Conservative Party politician.

James Gascoyne-Cecil

James Gascoyne-Cecil may refer to:

James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury (1791–1868), English Conservative politician

James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (1861–1947), Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

Lady Anne Tree

Lady Anne Evelyn Beatrice Tree (née Cavendish, 6 November 1927 – 9 August 2010) was a British philanthropist, prison visitor, prisoner rights activist, and the founder of the charity Fine Cell Work, which gives prisoners the opportunity to do worthwhile work and acquire useful job skills for life after prison.

Lady Elizabeth Cavendish

Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Alice Cavendish (24 April 1926 –15 September 2018) was a British noblewoman who was a childhood friend of Queen Elizabeth II and a lady-in-waiting to Princess Margaret from the late 1940s until the latter's death in 2002.

By royal permission, Lady Elizabeth spoke on the record to HM the Queen's official biographer, Ben Pimlott.

Lady Elizabeth was the daughter of Edward Cavendish, 10th Duke of Devonshire and his wife, Mary née Gascoyne-Cecil. She was born three days after Princess Elizabeth of York in 1926.

It has been suggested that Lady Elizabeth introduced her friend Princess Margaret to Antony Armstrong-Jones in 1951, and although she herself never married, she did form a close romantic relationship with the writer and future Poet Laureate John Betjeman that same year. Betjeman's daughter Candida Lycett Green had called her her father's "beloved other wife". Lady Elizabeth was one of the godparents of David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon.When Betjeman died in Cornwall on 19 May 1984, Lady Elizabeth was at his side.She was appointed Lieutenant of the Royal Victorian Order (LVO) in 1976 and Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO) in 1997.Lady Elizabeth Cavendish died on 15 September 2018 at the age of 92.

Lady Sophia Topley

The Lady Sophia Louise Sydney Topley (née Cavendish; born 18 March 1957) is the third child and second daughter of the 11th Duke of Devonshire and his wife, Deborah Mitford. She is the younger sister of the (present) 12th Duke.

Lord David Cecil

Lord Edward Christian David Gascoyne-Cecil, CH (9 April 1902 – 1 January 1986) was a British biographer, historian and academic. He held the style of "Lord" by courtesy, as a younger son of a marquess.

Lord Privy Seal

The Lord Privy Seal (or, more formally, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal (as opposed to the Great Seal of the Realm, which is in the care of the Lord Chancellor) until the use of such a seal became obsolete. The office is currently one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.

Though one of the oldest offices in government anywhere, it has no particular function today because the use of a privy seal has been obsolete for centuries; thus the office has generally been used as a kind of minister without portfolio. Since the premiership of Clement Attlee, the position of Lord Privy Seal has frequently been combined with that of Leader of the House of Lords or Leader of the House of Commons. The office of Lord Privy Seal, unlike those of Leader of the Lords or Commons, is eligible for a ministerial salary under the Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975. The office does not confer membership of the House of Lords, leading to Ernest Bevin's remark on holding this office that he was "neither a Lord, nor a Privy, nor a Seal".During the reign of Edward I, prior to 1307, the Privy Seal was kept by the Controller of the Wardrobe. The Lord Privy Seal was the president of the Court of Requests during its existence.

The Hemel Hempstead School

The Hemel Hempstead School is a secondary school and sixth form located in the town of Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, in the United Kingdom.

Ancestors of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury
16. James Cecil, 6th Earl of Salisbury
8. James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury
17. Elizabeth Keet
4. James Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury
18. Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire
9. Lady Emily Hill
19. Lady Margaretta Fitzgerald
2. Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
20. Trevor Hill, 1st Viscount Hillsborough
10. Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire
21. Mary Rowe
5. Frances Mary Gascoyne
22. Robert FitzGerald, 19th Earl of Kildare
11. Lady Margaretta FitzGerald
23. Lady Mary O'Brien
1. James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury
24. James Alderson
12. Robert Alderson (1752-1833)
25.
6. Sir Edward Hall Alderson
26. Samuel Hurry
13. Elizabeth Hurry
27. Isabella Hall
3. Georgina Alderson
28. Francis Drewe
14. Rev Edward Drewe
29. Mary Johnson
7. Georgina Catherine Drewe
30. John Bartlett Allen
15. Antoinette Caroline Allen
31. Elizabeth Hensleigh
House of Commons
House of Lords
Cabinet of Bonar Law (1922–1923)

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