James G. Watt

James Gaius Watt (born January 31, 1938) served as U.S. Secretary of the Interior from 1981 to 1983. Often described as "anti-environmentalist", he was one of Ronald Reagan's most controversial cabinet appointments. Watt's pro-development views played an instrumental role in ending the Sagebrush Rebellion.

James G. Watt
James g watt
43rd United States Secretary of the Interior
In office
January 23, 1981 – November 8, 1983
PresidentRonald Reagan
Preceded byCecil Andrus
Succeeded byWilliam Clark
Personal details
James Gaius Watt

January 31, 1938 (age 80)
Lusk, Wyoming, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
EducationUniversity of Wyoming (BS, JD)

Early life and career

Watt was born in Lusk, Wyoming, the son of Lois Mae (née Williams) and William Gaius Watt. He attended the University of Wyoming, earning a bachelor's degree in 1960 and a juris doctor degree in 1962. Watt's first political job was as an aide to Republican Party Senator Milward L. Simpson of Wyoming, whom he met through Simpson's son, Alan.

A lifelong Republican, he served as Secretary to the Natural Resources Committee and Environmental Pollution Advisory Panel of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, a pro-business organization that supports primarily Republican candidates.[1] In 1969, Watt was appointed the deputy assistant secretary of water and power development at the Department of the Interior. In 1975, Watt was appointed vice chairman of the Federal Power Commission. In 1977, Watt became the first president and chief legal officer of Mountain States Legal Foundation, a public interest law firm "dedicated to individual liberty, the right to own and use property, limited and ethical government and economic freedom."[2] A number of attorneys who worked for Watt at the firm later became high-ranking officers of the federal government, including Ann Veneman and Gale Norton.[3]

Secretary of the Interior

In 1980, President-elect Reagan nominated Watt as his Secretary of the Interior. The United States Senate subsequently confirmed the nomination.

His tenure as Secretary of the Interior was controversial, primarily because he was perceived as being hostile to environmentalism, and endorsed development of federal lands by foresting and ranching, and for other commercial interests.

According to the Center for Biological Diversity, Watt had the record, among those who served as Secretary of the Interior, of listing the fewest number of species protected under the Endangered Species Act. The record was later surpassed by Dirk Kempthorne, a George W. Bush appointee who, as of August 27, 2007 , had not listed a single species in the 15-month period since his confirmation.[4]

Greg Wetstone, the chief environment counsel at the House Energy and Commerce Committee during the Reagan administration, who subsequently served as director of advocacy at the Natural Resources Defense Council, argued that Watt was one of the two most "intensely controversial and blatantly anti-environmental political appointees" in American history. The other was Anne Gorsuch, director of the EPA at the time.[5] Environmental groups accused Watt of reducing funding for environmental programs,[6] restructuring the department to decrease federal regulatory power,[6] wanting to eliminate the Land and Water Conservation Fund which aimed at increasing the area of wildlife refuges and other protected land,[6] easing regulations of oil[6] and mining,[6][7] directing the National Park Service to draft rules that would de-authorize congressionally authorized national parks, and recommending lease of wilderness and shore lands such as Santa Monica Bay to explore and develop oil and gas.[6]

Watt resisted accepting donation of private land to be used for conservation.[8] He suggested that 80 million acres (320,000 km²) of undeveloped land in the United States all be opened for drilling and mining by 2000.[8] The area leased to coal mining quintupled during his term as Secretary of the Interior.[8] Watt boasted that he leased "a billion acres" (4 million km²) of coastal waters, even though only a small portion of that area would ever be drilled.[8] Watt once stated, "We will mine more, drill more, cut more timber."[9]

Watt periodically mentioned his Dispensationalist Christian faith when discussing his method of environmental management. Speaking before Congress, he once said, "I do not know how many future generations we can count on before the Lord returns, whatever it is we have to manage with a skill to leave the resources needed for future generations."

One apocryphal quote attributed to Watt is "After the last tree is felled, Christ will come back", although the statement has not been confirmed. Glenn Scherer, writing for Grist magazine, erroneously attributed this remark to the 1981 testimony by Watt before Congress.[10] Journalist Bill Moyers, relying on the Grist article, also attributed the comment to Watt. After it was discovered that the quote was mistaken, Grist corrected the error, and Moyers apologized.[11] Watt denied the attribution, and protested such characterization of his policy.[12]

Beach Boys concert

From 1980 through 1982, The Beach Boys and The Grass Roots separately performed at Independence Day concerts at the National Mall in Washington, D.C., attracting large crowds.[13][14] In April 1983, Watt banned the concerts, on the grounds that "rock bands" who had performed on the Mall on Independence Day in 1981 and 1982 had encouraged drug use and alcoholism, and had attracted "the wrong element", who would subsequently rob attendees of similar events. [14] Watt then announced that Las Vegas singer Wayne Newton, a friend and an endorser of President Reagan and a contributor to the Republican Party, would perform at the Independence Day celebration at the mall in 1983.[14][15] During the ensuing controversy, Rob Grill, lead singer of The Grass Roots, stated that he felt "highly insulted" by Watt's remarks, which he termed "nothing but un-American." [14]

The Beach Boys stated that the Soviet Union, which had invited them to perform in Leningrad in 1978, "obviously... did not feel the group attracted the wrong element."[14] Vice President George H. W. Bush said of The Beach Boys, "They're my friends, and I like their music."[14] Watt apologized to The Beach Boys after learning that President Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan were fans of the band.[16] Nancy Reagan apologized for Watt.[17] The White House staff gave Watt a plaster foot with a hole for his "having shot himself in the foot."[18]

At the 1983 event, Newton was booed by the audience when he came on stage.[16][19] The Tonight Show host Johnny Carson poked fun at Watt's last name, saying, "James What? What?"

Other controversies

Mad magazine listed ten Watt controversies on the back cover of their October 1982 issue, under the title "Watt... We Worry!";[20] the list noted, among other quotes and actions, Watt's statement that "the Department of the Interior ... must be ... the Amicus for the minerals industry ... in Federal Policy."

In an interview with the Satellite Program Network, Watt said, "If you want an example of the failure of socialism, don't go to Russia, come to America and go to the Indian reservations."[21]


A controversy erupted after a speech to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in September 1983, when Watt mocked affirmative action with his description of a department coal leasing panel: "I have a black, a woman, two Jews and a cripple. And we have talent."[22]

Within three weeks of making this statement, on October 9, 1983, he announced his resignation at deputy undersecretary Thomas J. Barrack's ranch, near President Reagan's Rancho del Cielo.[22][23][24][25]


In 1983 after leaving the Department of the Interior he lobbied the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Ten years later, Watt was indicted on 25 counts of felony perjury and obstruction of justice and accused of making false statements before a federal grand jury investigating influence peddling at the Department of Housing and Urban Development at that time.[26] On January 2, 1996, Watt pleaded guilty to one count of misdemeanor of withholding documents and perjury. On March 12, 1996, he was sentenced to five years' probation, and ordered to pay a fine of $5,000 and perform 500 hours of community service.[27]

Later life

In a 2001 interview, Watt applauded the energy policy of the Bush administration, stating that its preference of oil drilling and coal mining to conservation was just what he recommended in the early 1980s.[28]

In 2008, Time magazine named Watt among the ten worst cabinet members in modern history.


  1. ^ Gold, Matea; Geiger, Kim (8 October 2010). "Republican-leaning U.S. Chamber of Commerce buys ads supporting Democrats". Los Angeles Times.
  2. ^ Mountain States Legal Foundation
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Kempthorne Wins 2007 Rubber Dodo Award : Protects Fewer Species Than Any Interior Secretary in History Archived 2012-12-08 at Archive.today
  5. ^ A look back at Reagan's environmental record | By Amanda Griscom | Grist | Muckraker | 10 Jun 2004
  6. ^ a b c d e f James G. Watt Summary Review and Analysis
  7. ^ Lipske, Michael (1995). "Cracking down on mining pollution – environmental lawyer Thomas Galloway develops Applicant/Violator System to find violators of mining law". National Wildlife.
  8. ^ a b c d The Legacy of James Watt Time Oct. 24, 1983
  9. ^ Mountain States Legal Foundation Archived 2007-04-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Scherer, Glenn (2004-10-27). "The Godly Must Be Crazy". Grist. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
  11. ^ Strupp, Joe (2005-02-09). "Bill Moyers Apologizes to James Watt for Apocryphal Quote". Editor & Publisher. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
  12. ^ Watt, James (2005-05-12). "The Religious Left's Lies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
  13. ^ "July 4: Day of Music, Parades, Fireworks", The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., July 3, 1982, p. D1.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Phil McCombs, "Watt Outlaws Rock Music on Mall for July 4", The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., April 6, 1983, p. A1; Phil McCombs and Richard Harrington, "Watt Sets Off Uproar with Music Ban", The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., April 7, 1983, pp. A1, A17.
  15. ^ Campaign contributions of Wayne Newton Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine. in website of NEWSMEAT Archived 2010-02-05 at the Wayback Machine. by Polity Media, Inc. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
  16. ^ a b Tim Ahern, Associated Press, "Newton concert goes off despite rain", Gettysburg Times, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 5, 1983, p. 7 in Google news. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  17. ^ "The Beach Boys Bio" Archived 2008-12-04 at the Wayback Machine. in website of yuddy.com by Yuddy, LLC. © and TM Yuddy, LLC. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
  18. ^ Associated Press, "Newton Performance Dampened by Rain", Reading Eagle, Reading, Pennsylvania, July 5, 1983, p. 27,in Google news. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  19. ^ John Katsilometes,"Newton’s recounting of Beach Boys controversy a telling moment in ‘Once Before I Go’", in "The Kats Report", October 30, 2009, in website of the Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
  20. ^ http://www.madcoversite.com/mad234.html
  21. ^ "Watt Sees Reservations As Failure of Socialism", The New York Times, 19 January 1983. Retrieved on 2010-5-29.
  22. ^ a b "556. James G Watt, US Secretary of the Interior. Simpson's Contemporary Quotations. 1988". Archived from the original on September 20, 2000. Retrieved 2012-10-04.
  23. ^ "James G. Watt Papers, 1958-2013". Rocky Mountain Online Archive. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  24. ^ Hoffman, David (10 October 1983). "Watt Submits Resignation as Interior Secretary". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  25. ^ Kranish, Michael (11 October 2017). "'He's better than this,' says Thomas Barrack, Trump's loyal whisperer". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  26. ^ Crimes Against Nature : Rolling Stone (p. 3)
  27. ^ "CNN – U.S. Briefs – March 12, 1996". Archived from the original on October 29, 2004.
  28. ^ http://courses.washington.edu/alisonta/pbaf590/pdf/watt_applauds_energy.pdf

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Cecil D. Andrus
U.S. Secretary of the Interior
Served under: Ronald Reagan

Succeeded by
William Patrick Clark
American Legation, Tangier

The Tangier American Legation is a building in the medina of Tangier, Morocco. The first American public property outside the United States, it commemorates the historic cultural and diplomatic relations between the United States and the Kingdom of Morocco. It is now officially called the Tangier American Legation Institute for Moroccan Studies, and is a cultural center, museum, and a research library, concentrating on Arabic language studies.

The legation was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places on January 8, 1981. U.S. Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt subsequently designated it a National Historic Landmark on December 17, 1982. It is the only listing or designation in a foreign country, excluding those in countries that grew out of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The building has been listed on the U.S. Secretary of State's Register of Culturally Significant Property, a listing of State Department properties around the world that have particular cultural or historical significance.

Beryl Wayne Sprinkel

Beryl Wayne Sprinkel (November 20, 1923 – August 22, 2009) was a member of the Executive Office of the US President and chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors (CEA) between April 4, 1985 and January 21, 1989, during the Reagan administration.

Raised on a farm near Richmond, Missouri, Sprinkel was a member of the 41st Armored Division, which led the attack that penetrated and defeated the German offensive near Celles, Belgium, in the Battle of the Bulge during World War II.

Contempt of Congress

Contempt of Congress is the act of obstructing the work of the United States Congress or one of its committees. Historically, the bribery of a U.S. Senator or U.S. Representative was considered contempt of Congress. In modern times, contempt of Congress has generally applied to the refusal to comply with a subpoena issued by a Congressional committee or subcommittee—usually seeking to compel either testimony or the production of requested documents.

Federal Power Commission

The Federal Power Commission (FPC) was an independent commission of the United States government, originally organized on June 23, 1930, with five members nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate. The FPC was originally created in 1920 by the Federal Water Power Act, which provided for the licensing by the FPC of hydroelectric projects on the land or navigable water owned by the federal government. The FPC has since been replaced by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

The FPC also regulated interstate electric utilities and the natural gas industry.

In June 1939, President Roosevelt appointed Leland Olds to the FPC, who served as chairman from January 1940 until 1949. Under Olds’ leadership, the FPC successfully pressured electric utilities to extend power into neglected rural areas and to lower electricity rates to increase use.

Olds' insistence on enforcing the Natural Gas Act of 1938 raised the ire of the oil industry in Texas and led to the end of his tenure at the FPC. Robert Caro's book Master of the Senate describes how Lyndon B. Johnson defeated Olds' re-appointment by orchestrating a smear campaign. The tactics involved having the staff of the House Un-American Activities Committee dig up old writings, which were then taken out of context to create a false image of Olds as a communist. The subcommittee in charge of reappointment was stacked against Leland and coached by Johnson.

James G. Watt was another prominent FPC commissioner, who conducted prayer meetings prior to the FPC sessions.

Grant Village

Grant Village is a developed area of Yellowstone National Park, offering lodging, camping and other visitor services. It is located on the southwest side of Yellowstone Lake, about 2 miles (3.2 km) south of West Thumb. Grant Village was developed by the National Park Service and concessioners under the Mission 66 program, in an effort to relocate land-consuming visitor services and accommodations away from the park's major attractions and sensitive features. Grant Village was planned to allow the removal of development encroaching on the thermal basin at West Thumb. Originally named "Thumb Bay," the development was first proposed in 1955 by Park Service director Conrad L. Wirth to accommodate 2500 visitors with restaurants, gas stations, concessions and a marina.

By 1960 there was a divergence of opinion on the project's design: the primary concessioner, the Yellowstone Park Company, wanted a compact layout, while the Park Service's Western Office of Design desired a dispersed arrangement. Financial difficulties left the Yellowstone Park Company unable to exert much influence. Construction of the first phase of Grant Village, named after President Ulysses S. Grant, was completed in June 1963, comprising a campground, picnic area and boat ramp. A marina was completed by 1965, with construction of motel-style lodging, service facilities and restaurants continuing into the 1980s. The development remained smaller than originally intended; in 1981 Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt responded to pressure from the park gateway town of West Yellowstone, Montana, cutting the project's scope.

High Court of American Samoa

The High Court of American Samoa is a Samoan court and the highest court below the United States Supreme Court in American Samoa. The Court is located in the capital of Fagatogo. It consists of one chief justice and one associate justice, appointed by the United States Secretary of the Interior, holding office during "good behavior" and removable for cause.The High Court of American Samoa also has several Samoan associate judges who sit with the two justices. Normally, two associate judges will sit with the chief justice and associate justice on every case.

The Secretary of the Interior retains ultimate authority over the courts.

History of the National Register of Historic Places

The History of the National Register of Historic Places began in 1966 when the United States government passed the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), which created the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Upon its inception, the U.S. National Park Service (NPS) became the lead agency for the Register. The Register has continued to grow through two reorganizations, one in the 1970s and one in 1980s and in 1978 the NRHP was completely transferred away from the National Park Service, it was again transmitted to the NPS in 1981.

James Watt (disambiguation)

James Watt (1736–1819), was a Scottish engineer and inventor of a revolutionary new steam engine.

James Watt or Jim Watt may also refer to:

James Watt junior (1769–1848), Scottish engineer, businessman and activist

James Cromar Watt (1862–1940), Scottish artist, architect and jeweller

Jim Watt (rugby union) (1914–1988), New Zealand rugby union player and paediatrician

James Russell Watt (born 1935), New Zealand rugby union player

Sir James Watt (Royal Navy officer) (1914–2009), British surgeon, Medical Director-General of the Royal Navy

James G. Watt (born 1938), former US Secretary of the Interior (1981–1983)

Jim Watt (boxer) (born 1948), Scottish boxer

Jim Watt (ice hockey) (born 1950), American ice hockey player

James Wilfrid Watt (born 1951), British ambassador

James Watt (loyalist) (born 1952), former Northern Irish loyalist paramilitary

HMS James Watt (launched 1853), steam- and sail-powered Royal Navy ship named after the inventor

James Watt College (founded 1908), Greenock, Scotland

John S. Herrington

John Stewart Herrington (born May 31, 1939) is an American Republican politician. He served as the United States Secretary of Energy under Ronald Reagan during his second term.

Joseph Coors

Joseph "Joe" Coors, Sr. (November 12, 1917 – March 15, 2003), was the grandson of brewer Adolph Coors and president of Coors Brewing Company.

Marc L. Marks

Marc Lincoln Marks (February 12, 1927 – February 28, 2018) was a former Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Marks served in the United States Army Air Corps from 1945 to 1946. He graduated from the University of Alabama in 1951, and the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, Virginia in 1954, and served as Mercer County Solicitor (district attorney) from 1960 to 1966.In the 1976 United States House of Representatives Elections, Marks defeated the Pennsylvania six-term Democratic incumbent Joseph Vigorito with an 11% margin, one of eight Democrats unseated nationwide. He defeated Vigorito again in the 1978 election with a 26% margin, and state Representative David C. DiCarlo in 1980 by 120 votes. A serious back ailment led him to not seek re-election for a fourth term in 1982. This decision prompted a speech to the House of Representatives in March 1982, before House Speaker Tip O'Neill, in which he brought into question his own support of Reaganite policies, that, he argued, had an undue emphasis on military spending, and had caused distress to those to whom he defined as "disadvantaged". Prior to leaving Congress, John B. Connally talked to Marks and considered him as a running mate, during Connally's failed 1980 Presidential bid.In a letter to Time Magazine he defended his position in voting for contempt proceedings against James G. Watt, Secretary of the Interior. His letter to The New York Times criticized what he saw as the Times' editorial board's irresponsibility in criticizing public officials, and apparent lack of knowledge of the plight of unemployed citizens. In 1994, Bill Clinton nominated Marks as Commissioner of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission. He died at the age of 91 in 2018.

Mountain States Legal Foundation

Mountain States Legal Foundation (MSLF) is a nonprofit law firm. The Foundation "describes itself as the litigation arm of the anti-environmental wise use movement", and organized the first wise use conference in 1988.

Richard Edmund Lyng

Richard Edmund Lyng (June 29, 1918 – February 1, 2003) was a U.S. administrator. A Republican, he served as the Secretary of Agriculture between 1986 and 1989. (See also: Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Ass'n)

The Three Soldiers

The Three Soldiers (also known as The Three Servicemen) is a bronze statue by Frederick Hart. Unveiled on Veterans Day, November 11, 1984 on the National Mall, it is part of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial commemorating the Vietnam War. It is the first representation of an African American on the National Mall.

United States Department of the Interior

The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States. About 75% of federal public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the United States Department of Agriculture's United States Forest Service.The department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, who is a member of the Cabinet of the President. The current Secretary is David Bernhardt, who serves in an acting capacity, and concurrently serves the in Department as Deputy Secretary. The Inspector General position is currently vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General.Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the interior ministries of other nations, which are usually responsible for police matters and internal security. In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security primarily and the Department of Justice secondarily.

The Department of the Interior has often been humorously called "The Department of Everything Else" because of its broad range of responsibilities.

United States Secretary of the Interior

The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. The Department of the Interior in the United States is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources; it oversees such agencies as the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Geological Survey, and the National Park Service. The Secretary also serves on and appoints the private citizens on the National Park Foundation board. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The U.S. Department of the Interior should not be confused with the Ministries of the Interior as used in many other countries. Ministries of the Interior in these other countries correspond primarily to the Department of Homeland Security in the U.S. Cabinet and secondarily to the Department of Justice.

Because the policies and activities of the Department of the Interior and many of its agencies have a substantial impact in the Western United States, the Secretary of the Interior has typically come from a western state; only two of the individuals to hold the office since 1949 have not been from a state lying west of the Mississippi River. The current Interior Secretary is Ryan Zinke, who was nominated by President Donald Trump on December 13, 2016 and approved by the Senate on March 1, 2017.

Watt (surname)

The surname Watt may refer to:

Watt of Sussex, Anglo-Saxon king

Adam Watt, Australian boxer

Alexander Watt, British plant ecologist

Andrew Watt, American singer

Alan Watt, Australian diplomat

Allan Watt, Scottish sprinter

Ben Watt, British musician and music producer

Davey Watt, Australian speedway rider

David Watt (computer scientist), British computer scientist

David Gibson-Watt, British politician

Derek Watt, American football player

Douglas Watt (politician), Canadian politician

Eddie Watt, Major League Baseball pitcher

Fiona Watt (author), British children's author

Francis Watt (disambiguation), various people

Geoff Watt, Australian runner

George Watt (disambiguation), multiple people

Hamish Watt, Scottish politician

Ian Watt, literary historian

James Watt, Scottish engineer, for whom is named the watt, the SI-derived unit of power

James Watt Jr., English manufacturer, son of James

James G. Watt, US Secretary of the Interior

Jim Watt (boxer), Scottish boxer

Joachim von Watt, birth name of Swiss scholar Joachim Vadian

Joseph Watt, Scottish VC recipient

Joseph M. Watt, American judge

J. J. Watt, American football player

Katherine Christie Watt, Scottish nurse and civil servant

Kathy Watt, Australian cyclist

Lawrence Watt-Evans, American fantasy writer

Leslie Watt, New Zealand cricketer

Mel Watt, American politician

Michael Watt (disambiguation), multiple people

Mike Watt, American musician

Mike Watt (disambiguation), multiple people

Mitchell Watt, Australian track and field athlete

Mitchell Watt (basketball), American basketball player

Nicole Watt, Canadian skater

Norman Watt-Roy, bassist of Ian Dury and The Blockheads

Phil Watt, English footballer

Richard Harding Watt, designer of buildings in Knutsford, Cheshire

Robert Watt, Canadian herald

Robert Watson-Watt, British developer of radar

Sanchez Watt, English footballer

Sarah Watt (1958–2011), Australian film director

Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Canadian activist

Steven Watt (footballer), footballer

T. J. Watt, American football player

Tom Watt, Canadian hockey coach

Tom Watt (actor), British actor, journalist and radio DJ

Tommy Watt (1925–2006), Scottish bandleader

Tony Watt, Scottish footballer

William Watt (disambiguation), multiple people

William P. Clark Jr.

William Patrick Clark Jr. (October 23, 1931 – August 10, 2013) was an American rancher, judge, and public servant who served under President Ronald Reagan as the Deputy Secretary of State from 1981 to 1982, United States National Security Advisor from 1982 to 1983, and the Secretary of the Interior from 1983 to 1985.

William Verity Jr.

Calvin William Verity Jr. (January 26, 1917 – January 3, 2007) was a U.S. administrator and steel industrialist. He served as the Secretary of Commerce between 1987 and 1989, under President Ronald Reagan.

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