James Bratt

James Donald Bratt (born 1949) is a scholar of Abraham Kuyper, and is an emeritus professor at Calvin College.[1]

An alumnus of Calvin, Bratt received his PhD from Yale University after writing his dissertation, Dutch Calvinism in Modern America. He has published a biography of Kuyper in 2013. His other areas of specialty include colonial American history, and American intellectual and religious history.


  • Dutch Calvinism in Modern America (Eerdmans, 1984) ISBN 1-59244-122-X
  • Abraham Kuyper: A Centennial Reader (Eerdmans, 1998) ISBN 0-8028-4321-2
  • Antirevivalism in Antebellum America: A Collection of Religious Voices (editor) (Rutgers University Press, 2005) ISBN 0-8135-3692-8
  • Abraham Kuyper: Modern Calvinist, Christian Democrat (Eerdmans, 2013) ISBN 978-0-8028-6906-7


  1. ^ Calvin College - History - Faculty - James D. Bratt

Bratt may refer to the following:

Given nameBratt Sinclaire (born 1967), Italian music producerSurnameBenjamin Bratt (born 1963), American actor

Bill Bratt (born 1945), English football official

Carolyn Bratt (born 1943), American lawyer and activist

Eyvind Bratt (1907–1987), Swedish diplomat

Ivan Bratt, Swedish physician and politician

Bratt system, Swedish system to control alcohol consumption

Harold Bratt (born 1939), English association football player

James Bratt (born 1949), American scholar

Jens Bratt (c.1505–1548), Norwegian clergyman

Lisen Bratt (born 1976), Swedish Olympic equestrian

Peter Bratt (born 1944), Swedish journalist

Ruth Bratt, English actress and comedian

Steve Bratt (born 1957), American internet entrepreneur

Torbjørn Bratt (c.1502–1548), Norwegian clergyman

Will Bratt (born 1988), British racing driverPlacesBratt-Smiley House, a historic house in Arkansas, U.S.OtherBratt pan, a large cooking pan

Bratwurst, a type of German sausage


Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of God's law for believers, among other things. As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich. His followers were instantly deemed Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Very soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers. The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was already being developed. The movement was first called Calvinism, referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead. Some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, and Gordon Clark were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, R. C. Sproul, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, and Michael Horton.

Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity; most are presbyterian or congregationalist, though some are episcopalian. Calvinism is largely represented by Continental Reformed, Presbyterian, and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches.

Frederick Manfred

Frederick Feikema Manfred (January 6, 1912 – September 7, 1994) was a noted Western author. Manfred's novels are very much connected to his native region. His stories involve the American Midlands, and the prairies of the West. He named the area where the borders of Minnesota, Iowa, South Dakota, and Nebraska meet, "Siouxland."

Herman Hoeksema

Herman Hoeksema (13 March 1886 in Hoogezand – 2 September 1965 in Grand Rapids) was a Dutch Reformed theologian. Hoeksema served as a long time pastor of the First Protestant Reformed Church in Grand Rapids. In 1924 he refused to accept the three points of common grace as formulated which had then been declared official church dogma of the Christian Reformed Church, as an addition to its adopted creeds and confessions. The result of this controversy was that Hoeksema, and ministers George Ophoff, and Henry Danhof, were deposed by their respective classes before leaving the CRC with their congregations. These men then established the Protestant Reformed Churches. He also was professor of theology at the Protestant Reformed Theological School in Grandville, Michigan for 40 years.


Neo-Calvinism, a form of Dutch Calvinism, is the movement initiated by the theologian and former Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper. James Bratt has identified a number of different types of Dutch Calvinism: The Seceders, split into the Reformed Church "West" and the Confessionalists; the Neo-Calvinists; and the Positives and the Antithetical Calvinists. The Seceders were largely infralapsarian and the Neo-Calvinists usually supralapsarian.Kuyper wanted to awaken the church from what he viewed as its pietistic slumber. He declared:

No single piece of our mental world is to be sealed off from the rest and there is not a square inch in the whole domain of human existence over which Christ, who is sovereign over all, does not cry: 'Mine!'

This refrain has become something of a rallying call for Neo-Calvinists.

Peter De Vries

Peter De Vries (February 27, 1910 – September 28, 1993) was an American editor and novelist known for his satiric wit. He has been described by the philosopher Daniel Dennett as "probably the funniest writer on religion ever".

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