James Bond (ornithologist)

James Bond (January 4, 1900 – February 14, 1989) was an American ornithologist and expert on the birds of the Caribbean. His name was appropriated by writer Ian Fleming for his fictional British spy of the same name.

James Bond
James Bond 1974
Portrait of James Bond in 1974
BornJanuary 4, 1900
DiedFebruary 14, 1989 (aged 89)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
NationalityAmerican
OccupationOrnithologist
Known forNamesake of Ian Fleming's fictional British spy

Life and career

Bond was born on January 4, 1900 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Margaret Reeves (Tyson) and Francis Edward Bond. His interest in natural history was spurred by an expedition his father undertook in 1911 to the Orinoco Delta. Bond was originally educated at St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire, but after the death of his mother he moved with his father to England in 1914. There he studied at Harrow and later Trinity College, Cambridge, where he obtained a B.A. in 1922 and was the sole American member of the Pitt Club.[1] After graduating he moved back to the United States and worked for a banking firm for three years in Philadelphia. An interest in natural history prompted him to quit and accept a place on an expedition to the Amazon run by the Academy of Natural Sciences.[2] Subsequently, he worked as an ornithologist at the Academy of Natural Sciences in that city, rising to become curator of ornithology there.[3] He was an expert in Caribbean birds and wrote the definitive book on the subject: Birds of the West Indies, first published in 1936.

Bond won the Institute of Jamaica's Musgrave Medal in 1952;[3][4] the Brewster Medal of the American Ornithologists' Union in 1954; and the Leidy Award of the Academy of Natural Sciences in 1975.[5] He died in the Chestnut Hill Hospital in Philadelphia at age 89.[3] He is interred in the church yard at Church of the Messiah in Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania. Bond is survived by his wife; a stepdaughter, Mary Eiseman, and six stepgrandchildren.

Fictional namesake

Ian Fleming, who was a keen bird watcher living in Jamaica, was familiar with Bond's book, and chose the name of its author for the hero of Casino Royale in 1953, apparently because he wanted a name that sounded "as ordinary as possible". Fleming wrote to the real Bond's wife, "It struck me that this brief, unromantic, Anglo-Saxon and yet very masculine name was just what I needed, and so a second James Bond was born." He also contacted the real James Bond about using his name in the books, and Bond replied to him, "Fine with it." At some point during one of Fleming's visits to Jamaica he met the real Bond and his wife, as shown in a made-for-DVD documentary about Fleming. A short clip was shown with Fleming, Bond and his wife. Also in his novel Dr. No Fleming referenced Bond's work by basing a large ornithological sanctuary on Dr. No's island in the Bahamas. In 1964, Fleming gave Bond a first edition copy of You Only Live Twice signed, "To the real James Bond, from the thief of his identity". In December 2008 the book was put up for auction, eventually fetching $84,000 (£56,000).[6][7]

In the 2002 Bond film Die Another Day, the fictional Bond, played by Pierce Brosnan, can be seen examining Birds of the West Indies in an early scene that takes place in Havana, Cuba. The author's name (James Bond) on the front cover is obscured. In the same film, when Bond first meets Jinx (Halle Berry), he introduces himself as an ornithologist. In the 2015 Bond film Spectre, the same book was seen in a promotional on-set photo, which is supposed to be appearing in an alternate take of a scene taking place in Bond's Chelsea apartment.[8] However, it is nowhere to be found in the finalized film.

In the ITV Miss Marple murder mystery, A Caribbean Mystery, broadcast on 16 June 2013, Miss Marple meets Ian Fleming at a talk on "Birds of the West Indies", given by James Bond. Before the talk begins, Fleming tells Miss Marple that he's working on a new book, but trying to come up with a name for the character. When the speaker introduced himself, Fleming has a moment of inspiration and reaches for his notebook. The talk by the ornithologist James Bond is on guano which figures in the background and plot of the James Bond spy novel Dr. No.

References

  1. ^ Contosta 1993, p. 48.
  2. ^ Parkes, Kenneth (1989). "In Memoriam: James Bond" (PDF). The Auk. 106 (4): 718–720.
  3. ^ a b c "James Bond, Ornithologist, 89; Fleming Adopted Name for 007". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 17, 1989. p. D19. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  4. ^ The Institute of Jamaica's web site has him listed as winning a silver Musgrave Medal for ornithology in 1951.
  5. ^ "The Four Awards Bestowed by The Academy of Natural Sciences and Their Recipients". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 156 (1): 403–404. June 2007. doi:10.1635/0097-3157(2007)156[403:TFABBT]2.0.CO;2.
  6. ^ "Ian Fleming's 'You Only Live Twice' Sells For $84,000 At Auction". CommanderBond.net. Retrieved 2014-02-24.
  7. ^ "Lot 103, Ian Fleming sgd 1st British ed You Only Live Twice". LiveAuctioneers.com. Archived from the original on 2014-01-07. Retrieved 2014-02-24.
  8. ^ "Birds of the West Indies by James Bond". James Bond Lifestyle. 2008-06-29. Retrieved 2016-04-11.

Sources

External links

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia

Chestnut Hill is a neighborhood in the Northwest Philadelphia section of the United States city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is known for its high incomes and real estate values, as well as its private schools.

Ian Fleming

Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels. Fleming came from a wealthy family connected to the merchant bank Robert Fleming & Co., and his father was the Member of Parliament for Henley from 1910 until his death on the Western Front in 1917. Educated at Eton, Sandhurst and, briefly, the universities of Munich and Geneva, Fleming moved through several jobs before he started writing.

While working for Britain's Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War, Fleming was involved in planning Operation Goldeneye and in the planning and oversight of two intelligence units, 30 Assault Unit and T-Force. His wartime service and his career as a journalist provided much of the background, detail and depth of the James Bond novels.

Fleming wrote his first Bond novel, Casino Royale, in 1952. It was a success, with three print runs being commissioned to cope with the demand. Eleven Bond novels and two collections of short stories followed between 1953 and 1966. The novels revolved around James Bond, an officer in the Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6. Bond was also known by his code number, 007, and was a commander in the Royal Naval Reserve. The Bond stories rank among the best-selling series of fictional books of all time, having sold over 100 million copies worldwide. Fleming also wrote the children's story Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang and two works of non-fiction. In 2008, The Times ranked Fleming 14th on its list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945".

Fleming was married to Ann Charteris, who was divorced from the second Viscount Rothermere because of her affair with the author. Fleming and Charteris had a son, Caspar. Fleming was a heavy smoker and drinker for most of his life and succumbed to heart disease in 1964 at the age of 56. Two of his James Bond books were published posthumously; other writers have since produced Bond novels. Fleming's creation has appeared in film twenty-six times, portrayed by seven actors.

Inspirations for James Bond

A number of real-life inspirations have been suggested for James Bond, the fictional character created in 1953 by British author, journalist and Naval Intelligence officer Ian Fleming; Bond appeared in twelve novels and nine short stories by Fleming, as well as a number of continuation novels and twenty-six films, with seven actors playing the role of Bond.

Although the stories and characters were fictional, a number of elements had a real-life background, taken from people whom Fleming knew or events he was aware of. These included the spy's name, which Fleming took from the American ornithologist James Bond, and the code number—007—which referred to the breaking of a World War I German diplomatic code. Some aspects of Bond's character and tastes replicate those of Fleming himself.

James Bond (literary character)

Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR, is a fictional character created by the British journalist and novelist Ian Fleming in 1953. He is the protagonist of the James Bond series of novels, films, comics and video games. Fleming wrote twelve Bond novels and two short story collections. His final two books—The Man with the Golden Gun (1965) and Octopussy and The Living Daylights (1966)—were published posthumously.

The Bond character is a Secret Service agent, code number 007, residing in London but active internationally. Bond was a composite character who was based on a number of commandos whom Fleming knew during his service in the Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War, to whom Fleming added his own style and a number of his own tastes; Bond's name was appropriated from the American ornithologist of the same name. Bond has a number of character traits which run throughout the books, including an enjoyment of cars, a love of food and drink, and an average intake of sixty custom-made cigarettes a day.

Since Fleming's death in 1964, there have been other authorised writers of Bond material, including John Gardner, who wrote fourteen novels and two novelizations; and Raymond Benson, who wrote six novels, three novelizations and three short stories. There have also been other authors who wrote one book each, Kingsley Amis (writing as Robert Markham), Sebastian Faulks, Jeffery Deaver, William Boyd, and Anthony Horowitz. Additionally, a series of novels based on Bond's youth – Young Bond – was written by Charlie Higson.

As spin-offs from the literary works, there was a television adaptation of the first novel, Casino Royale, in which Bond was played as an American agent. A comic strip series also ran in the Daily Express newspaper. There have been 26 Bond films; seven actors have played Bond in these films.

List of Old Harrovians

The following is a list of some notable Old Harrovians, former pupils of Harrow School in the United Kingdom.

Outline of James Bond

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to James Bond:

James Bond—fictional character created in 1953 by journalist and writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short story collections. The character has also been used in the long-running and fourth most financially successful English language film series to date (after Harry Potter, Star Wars, and the Marvel Cinematic Universe). The series started in 1962 with Dr. No—with Sean Connery as Bond—and has continued most recently with Spectre (2015), starring Daniel Craig as Bond.

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