James Bond

The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections. Since Fleming's death in 1964, eight other authors have written authorised Bond novels or novelizations: Kingsley Amis, Christopher Wood, John Gardner, Raymond Benson, Sebastian Faulks, Jeffery Deaver, William Boyd and Anthony Horowitz. The latest novel is Forever and a Day by Anthony Horowitz, published in May 2018. Additionally Charlie Higson wrote a series on a young James Bond, and Kate Westbrook wrote three novels based on the diaries of a recurring series character, Moneypenny.

The character has also been adapted for television, radio, comic strip, video games and film. The films are the longest continually running film series of all time and have grossed over $7.040 billion in total, making it the fourth-highest-grossing film series to date, which started in 1962 with Dr. No, starring Sean Connery as Bond. As of 2019, there have been twenty-four films in the Eon Productions series. The most recent Bond film, Spectre (2015), stars Daniel Craig in his fourth portrayal of Bond; he is the sixth actor to play Bond in the Eon series. There have also been two independent productions of Bond films: Casino Royale (a 1967 spoof) and Never Say Never Again (a 1983 remake of an earlier Eon-produced film, Thunderball). In 2015 the series was estimated to be worth $19.9 billion,[1] making James Bond one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.

The Bond films are renowned for a number of features, including the musical accompaniment, with the theme songs having received Academy Award nominations on several occasions, and two wins. Other important elements which run through most of the films include Bond's cars, his guns, and the gadgets with which he is supplied by Q Branch. The films are also noted for Bond's relationships with various women, who are sometimes referred to as "Bond girls".

James Bond
Fleming007impression
Ian Fleming's image of James Bond; commissioned to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists
Created byIan Fleming
Original workCasino Royale (1953)
Print publications
Novel(s)List of novels
Short storiesSee list of novels
Films and television
Film(s)List of films
Short film(s)Happy and Glorious
Television series
Games
TraditionalVarious
Role-playingJames Bond 007: Role-Playing In Her Majesty's Secret Service
Video game(s)
Miscellaneous
ToysVarious
Portrayers

Publication history

Creation and inspiration

Ian Fleming created the fictional character of James Bond as the central figure for his works. Bond is an intelligence officer in the Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6. Bond is known by his code number, 007, and was a Royal Naval Reserve Commander. Fleming based his fictional creation on a number of individuals he came across during his time in the Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War, admitting that Bond "was a compound of all the secret agents and commando types I met during the war".[2] Among those types were his brother, Peter, who had been involved in behind-the-lines operations in Norway and Greece during the war.[3] Aside from Fleming's brother, a number of others also provided some aspects of Bond's make up, including Conrad O'Brien-ffrench, Patrick Dalzel-Job and Bill "Biffy" Dunderdale.[2]

The name James Bond came from that of the American ornithologist James Bond, a Caribbean bird expert and author of the definitive field guide Birds of the West Indies. Fleming, a keen birdwatcher himself, had a copy of Bond's guide and he later explained to the ornithologist's wife that "It struck me that this brief, unromantic, Anglo-Saxon and yet very masculine name was just what I needed, and so a second James Bond was born".[4] He further explained that:

When I wrote the first one in 1953, I wanted Bond to be an extremely dull, uninteresting man to whom things happened; I wanted him to be a blunt instrument ... when I was casting around for a name for my protagonist I thought by God, [James Bond] is the dullest name I ever heard.

— Ian Fleming, The New Yorker, 21 April 1962[5]

On another occasion, Fleming said: "I wanted the simplest, dullest, plainest-sounding name I could find, 'James Bond' was much better than something more interesting, like 'Peregrine Carruthers'. Exotic things would happen to and around him, but he would be a neutral figure—an anonymous, blunt instrument wielded by a government department."[6]

Hoagy Carmichael - 1947
Hoagy Carmichael—Fleming's view of James Bond

Fleming decided that Bond should resemble both American singer Hoagy Carmichael and himself[7] and in Casino Royale, Vesper Lynd remarks, "Bond reminds me rather of Hoagy Carmichael, but there is something cold and ruthless." Likewise, in Moonraker, Special Branch Officer Gala Brand thinks that Bond is "certainly good-looking ... Rather like Hoagy Carmichael in a way. That black hair falling down over the right eyebrow. Much the same bones. But there was something a bit cruel in the mouth, and the eyes were cold."[7]

Fleming endowed Bond with many of his own traits, including sharing the same golf handicap, the taste for scrambled eggs and using the same brand of toiletries.[8] Bond's tastes are also often taken from Fleming's own as was his behaviour,[9] with Bond's love of golf and gambling mirroring Fleming's own. Fleming used his experiences of his espionage career and all other aspects of his life as inspiration when writing, including using names of school friends, acquaintances, relatives and lovers throughout his books.[2]

It was not until the penultimate novel, You Only Live Twice, that Fleming gave Bond a sense of family background. The book was the first to be written after the release of Dr. No in cinemas and Sean Connery's depiction of Bond affected Fleming's interpretation of the character, to give Bond both a sense of humour and Scottish antecedents that were not present in the previous stories.[10] In a fictional obituary, purportedly published in The Times, Bond's parents were given as Andrew Bond, from the village of Glencoe, Scotland, and Monique Delacroix, from the canton of Vaud, Switzerland.[11] Fleming did not provide Bond's date of birth, but John Pearson's fictional biography of Bond, James Bond: The Authorized Biography of 007, gives Bond a birth date on 11 November 1920,[12] while a study by John Griswold puts the date at 11 November 1921.[13]

Novels and related works

Ian Fleming novels

GoldeneyeEstate
Goldeneye, in Jamaica, where Fleming wrote all the Bond novels[14]

Whilst serving in the Naval Intelligence Division, Fleming had planned to become an author[15] and had told a friend, "I am going to write the spy story to end all spy stories."[2] On 17 February 1952, he began writing his first James Bond novel, Casino Royale, at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica,[16] where he wrote all his Bond novels during the months of January and February each year.[17] He started the story shortly before his wedding to his pregnant girlfriend, Ann Charteris, in order to distract himself from his forthcoming nuptials.[18]

After completing the manuscript for Casino Royale, Fleming showed the manuscript to his friend (and later editor) William Plomer to read. Plomer liked it and submitted it to the publishers, Jonathan Cape, who did not like it as much. Cape finally published it in 1953 on the recommendation of Fleming's older brother Peter, an established travel writer.[17] Between 1953 and 1966, two years after his death, twelve novels and two short-story collections were published, with the last two books – The Man with the Golden Gun and Octopussy and The Living Daylights – published posthumously.[19] All the books were published in the UK through Jonathan Cape.

Post-Fleming novels

After Fleming's death a continuation novel, Colonel Sun, was written by Kingsley Amis (as Robert Markham) and published in 1968.[34] Amis had already written a literary study of Fleming's Bond novels in his 1965 work The James Bond Dossier.[35] Although novelizations of two of the Eon Productions Bond films appeared in print, James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me and James Bond and Moonraker, both written by screenwriter Christopher Wood,[36] the series of novels did not continue until the 1980s. In 1981 the thriller writer John Gardner picked up the series with Licence Renewed.[37] Gardner went on to write sixteen Bond books in total; two of the books he wrote – Licence to Kill and GoldenEye – were novelizations of Eon Productions films of the same name. Gardner moved the Bond series into the 1980s, although he retained the ages of the characters as they were when Fleming had left them.[38] In 1996 Gardner retired from writing James Bond books due to ill health.[39]

In 1996 the American author Raymond Benson became the author of the Bond novels. Benson had previously been the author of The James Bond Bedside Companion, first published in 1984.[54] By the time he moved on to other, non-Bond related projects in 2002, Benson had written six Bond novels, three novelizations and three short stories.[55]

After a gap of six years, Sebastian Faulks was commissioned by Ian Fleming Publications to write a new Bond novel, which was released on 28 May 2008, the 100th anniversary of Fleming's birth.[65] The book—titled Devil May Care—was published in the UK by Penguin Books and by Doubleday in the US.[66] American writer Jeffery Deaver was then commissioned by Ian Fleming Publications to produce Carte Blanche, which was published on 26 May 2011.[67] The book updated Bond into a post-9/11 agent, independent of MI5 or MI6.[68] On 26 September 2013 Solo, written by William Boyd, was published, set in 1969.[69] In October 2014 it was announced that Anthony Horowitz was to write a Bond continuation novel.[70] Set in the 1950s two weeks after the events of Goldfinger, it contains material written, but previously unreleased, by Fleming. Trigger Mortis was released on 8 September 2015.[71][72][73]

Young Bond

The Young Bond series of novels was started by Charlie Higson[74] and, between 2005 and 2009, five novels and one short story were published.[75] The first Young Bond novel, SilverFin was also adapted and released as a graphic novel on 2 October 2008 by Puffin Books.[76] In October 2013 Ian Fleming Publications announced that Stephen Cole would continue the series, with the first edition scheduled to be released in Autumn 2014.[77]

The Moneypenny Diaries

The Moneypenny Diaries are a trilogy of novels chronicling the life of Miss Moneypenny, M's personal secretary. The novels are penned by Samantha Weinberg under the pseudonym Kate Westbrook, who is depicted as the book's "editor".[85] The first instalment of the trilogy, subtitled Guardian Angel, was released on 10 October 2005 in the UK.[86] A second volume, subtitled Secret Servant was released on 2 November 2006 in the UK, published by John Murray.[87] A third volume, subtitled Final Fling was released on 1 May 2008.[88]

  • 2005 The Moneypenny Diaries: Guardian Angel[89]
  • 2006 Secret Servant: The Moneypenny Diaries[90]
  • 2008 The Moneypenny Diaries: Final Fling[91]

Adaptations

Television

In 1954 CBS paid Ian Fleming $1,000 ($9,330 in 2018 dollars[92]) to adapt his novel Casino Royale into a one-hour television adventure as part of its Climax! series.[93] The episode aired live on 21 October 1954 and starred Barry Nelson as "Card Sense" James Bond and Peter Lorre as Le Chiffre.[94] The novel was adapted for American audiences to show Bond as an American agent working for "Combined Intelligence", while the character Felix Leiter—American in the novel—became British onscreen and was renamed "Clarence Leiter".[95]

In 1973 a BBC documentary Omnibus: The British Hero featured Christopher Cazenove playing a number of such title characters (e.g. Richard Hannay and Bulldog Drummond). The documentary included James Bond in dramatised scenes from Goldfinger—notably featuring 007 being threatened with the novel's circular saw, rather than the film's laser beam—and Diamonds Are Forever.[96] In 1991 a TV cartoon series James Bond Jr. was produced with Corey Burton in the role of Bond's nephew, also called James Bond.[97]

Radio

In 1956 the novel Moonraker was adapted for broadcast on South African radio, with Bob Holness providing the voice of Bond.[98] According to The Independent, "listeners across the Union thrilled to Bob's cultured tones as he defeated evil master criminals in search of world domination".[99]

The BBC have adapted five of the Fleming novels for broadcast: in 1990 You Only Live Twice was adapted into a 90-minute radio play for BBC Radio 4 with Michael Jayston playing James Bond. The production was repeated a number of times between 2008 and 2011.[100] On 24 May 2008 BBC Radio 4 broadcast an adaptation of Dr. No. The actor Toby Stephens, who played Bond villain Gustav Graves in the Eon Productions version of Die Another Day, played Bond, while Dr. No was played by David Suchet.[101] Following its success, a second story was adapted and on 3 April 2010 BBC Radio 4 broadcast Goldfinger with Stephens again playing Bond.[102] Sir Ian McKellen was Goldfinger and Stephens' Die Another Day co-star Rosamund Pike played Pussy Galore. The play was adapted from Fleming's novel by Archie Scottney and was directed by Martin Jarvis.[103] In 2012 the novel From Russia, with Love was dramatized for Radio 4; it featured a full cast again starring Stephens as Bond.[104] In May 2014 Stephens again played Bond, in On Her Majesty's Secret Service, with Alfred Molina as Blofeld, and Joanna Lumley as Irma Bunt.[105]

Comics

McLusky007
John McLusky's rendition of James Bond

In 1957 the Daily Express approached Ian Fleming to adapt his stories into comic strips, offering him £1,500 per novel and a share of takings from syndication.[106] After initial reluctance, Fleming, who felt the strips would lack the quality of his writing, agreed.[107] To aid the Daily Express in illustrating Bond, Fleming commissioned an artist to create a sketch of how he believed James Bond looked. The illustrator, John McLusky, however, felt that Fleming's 007 looked too "outdated" and "pre-war" and changed Bond to give him a more masculine look.[108] The first strip, Casino Royale was published from 7 July 1958 to 13 December 1958[109] and was written by Anthony Hern and illustrated by John McLusky.[110]

Most of the Bond novels and short stories have since been adapted for illustration, as well as Kingsley Amis's Colonel Sun; the works were written by Henry Gammidge or Jim Lawrence with Yaroslav Horak replacing McClusky as artist in 1966.[109] After the Fleming and Amis material had been adapted, original stories were produced, continuing in the Daily Express and Sunday Express until May 1977.[108]

Several comic book adaptations of the James Bond films have been published through the years: at the time of Dr. No's release in October 1962, a comic book adaptation of the screenplay, written by Norman J. Nodel, was published in Britain as part of the Classics Illustrated anthology series.[111] It was later reprinted in the United States by DC Comics as part of its Showcase anthology series, in January 1963. This was the first American comic book appearance of James Bond and is noteworthy for being a relatively rare example of a British comic being reprinted in a fairly high-profile American comic. It was also one of the earliest comics to be censored on racial grounds (some skin tones and dialogue were changed for the American market).[112][111]

With the release of the 1981 film For Your Eyes Only, Marvel Comics published a two-issue comic book adaptation of the film.[113][114] When Octopussy was released in the cinemas in 1983, Marvel published an accompanying comic;[111] Eclipse also produced a one-off comic for Licence to Kill, although Timothy Dalton refused to allow his likeness to be used.[115] New Bond stories were also drawn up and published from 1989 onwards through Marvel, Eclipse Comics and Dark Horse Comics.[111][114]

Films

Eon Productions films

Sean Connery 1971 (cropped)
Sean Connery during the filming of Diamonds Are Forever in 1971

In 1962 Eon Productions, the company of Canadian Harry Saltzman and American Albert R. "Cubby" Broccoli, released the first cinema adaptation of an Ian Fleming novel, Dr. No, featuring Sean Connery as 007.[116] Connery starred in a further four films before leaving the role after You Only Live Twice,[117] which was taken up by George Lazenby for On Her Majesty's Secret Service.[118] Lazenby left the role after just one appearance and Connery was brought back for his last Eon-produced film Diamonds Are Forever.[119]

In 1973 Roger Moore was appointed to the role of 007 for Live and Let Die and played Bond a further six times over twelve years before being replaced by Timothy Dalton for two films. After a six-year hiatus, during which a legal wrangle threatened Eon's productions of the Bond films,[120] Irish actor Pierce Brosnan was cast as Bond in GoldenEye, released in 1995; he remained in the role for a total of four films, before leaving in 2002. In 2006, Daniel Craig was given the role of Bond for Casino Royale, which rebooted the series.[121] Craig has appeared for a total of four films and his fifth is scheduled for release in 2020.[122] The series has grossed almost $7 billion to date, making it the third-highest-grossing film series (behind Harry Potter and the films of the Marvel Cinematic Universe),[123] and the single most successful adjusted for inflation.[124]

Title Year Actor Director
Dr. No 1962 Sean Connery Terence Young
From Russia with Love 1963
Goldfinger 1964 Guy Hamilton
Thunderball 1965 Terence Young
You Only Live Twice 1967 Lewis Gilbert
On Her Majesty's Secret Service 1969 George Lazenby Peter R. Hunt
Diamonds Are Forever 1971 Sean Connery Guy Hamilton
Live and Let Die 1973 Roger Moore
The Man with the Golden Gun 1974
The Spy Who Loved Me 1977 Lewis Gilbert
Moonraker 1979
For Your Eyes Only 1981 John Glen
Octopussy 1983
A View to a Kill 1985
The Living Daylights 1987 Timothy Dalton
Licence to Kill 1989
GoldenEye 1995 Pierce Brosnan Martin Campbell
Tomorrow Never Dies 1997 Roger Spottiswoode
The World Is Not Enough 1999 Michael Apted
Die Another Day 2002 Lee Tamahori
Casino Royale 2006 Daniel Craig Martin Campbell
Quantum of Solace 2008 Marc Forster
Skyfall 2012 Sam Mendes
Spectre 2015
Bond 25 2020 Cary Joji Fukunaga[125]

Non-Eon films

In 1967 Casino Royale was adapted into a parody Bond film starring David Niven as Sir James Bond and Ursula Andress as Vesper Lynd. Niven had been Fleming's preference for the role of Bond.[126] The result of a court case in the High Court in London in 1963 allowed Kevin McClory to produce a remake of Thunderball titled Never Say Never Again in 1983.[127] The film, produced by Jack Schwartzman's Taliafilm production company and starring Sean Connery as Bond, was not part of the Eon series of Bond films. In 1997 the Sony Corporation acquired all or some of McClory's rights in an undisclosed deal,[127] which were then subsequently acquired by MGM, whilst on 4 December 1997, MGM announced that the company had purchased the rights to Never Say Never Again from Taliafilm.[128] As of 2015, Eon holds the full adaptation rights to all of Fleming's Bond novels.[127][129]

Title Year Actor Director(s)
Casino Royale 1967 David Niven Ken Hughes
John Huston
Joseph McGrath
Robert Parrish
Val Guest
Richard Talmadge
Never Say Never Again 1983 Sean Connery Irvin Kershner

Music

The "James Bond Theme" was written by Monty Norman and was first orchestrated by the John Barry Orchestra for 1962's Dr. No, although the actual authorship of the music has been a matter of controversy for many years.[130] In 2001, Norman won £30,000 in libel damages from The Sunday Times newspaper, which suggested that Barry was entirely responsible for the composition.[131] The theme, as written by Norman and arranged by Barry, was described by another Bond film composer, David Arnold, as "bebop-swing vibe coupled with that vicious, dark, distorted electric guitar, definitely an instrument of rock 'n' roll ... it represented everything about the character you would want: It was cocky, swaggering, confident, dark, dangerous, suggestive, sexy, unstoppable. And he did it in two minutes."[132] Barry composed the scores for eleven Bond films[133] and had an uncredited contribution to Dr. No with his arrangement of the Bond Theme.[132]

A Bond film staple are the theme songs heard during their title sequences sung by well-known popular singers.[134] Several of the songs produced for the films have been nominated for Academy Awards for Original Song, including Paul McCartney's "Live and Let Die",[135] Carly Simon's "Nobody Does It Better",[136] Sheena Easton's "For Your Eyes Only",[137] Adele's "Skyfall",[138] and Sam Smith's "Writing's on the Wall".[139] Adele won the award at the 85th Academy Awards, and Smith won at the 88th Academy Awards.[140] For the non-Eon produced Casino Royale, Burt Bacharach's score included "The Look of Love", which was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Song.[141]

Video games

In 1983 the first Bond video game, developed and published by Parker Brothers, was released for the Atari 2600, the Atari 5200, the Atari 800, the Commodore 64 and the ColecoVision.[142] Since then, there have been numerous video games either based on the films or using original storylines. In 1997 the first-person shooter video game GoldenEye 007 was developed by Rare for the Nintendo 64, based on the 1995 Pierce Brosnan film GoldenEye.[143] The game received very positive reviews,[144] won the BAFTA Interactive Entertainment Award for UK Developer of the Year in 1998[145] and sold over eight million copies worldwide,[146][147] grossing $250 million.[148]

In 1999 Electronic Arts acquired the licence and released Tomorrow Never Dies on 16 December 1999.[149] In October 2000, they released The World Is Not Enough[150] for the Nintendo 64[151] followed by 007 Racing for the PlayStation on 21 November 2000.[152] In 2003, the company released James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing,[153] which included the likenesses and voices of Pierce Brosnan, Willem Dafoe, Heidi Klum, Judi Dench and John Cleese, amongst others.[154] In November 2005, Electronic Arts released a video game adaptation of 007: From Russia with Love,[155] which involved Sean Connery's image and voice-over for Bond.[155] In 2006 Electronic Arts announced a game based on then-upcoming film Casino Royale: the game was cancelled because it would not be ready by the film's release in November of that year. With MGM losing revenue from lost licensing fees, the franchise was removed from EA to Activision.[156] Activision subsequently released the 007: Quantum of Solace game on 31 October 2008, based on the film of the same name.[157]

A new version of GoldenEye 007 featuring Daniel Craig was released for the Wii and a handheld version for the Nintendo DS in November 2010.[158] A year later a new version was released for Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 under the title GoldenEye 007: Reloaded.[159][160] In October 2012 007 Legends was released, which featured one mission from each of the Bond actors of the Eon Productions' series.[161]

Guns, vehicles and gadgets

Guns

For the first five novels, Fleming armed Bond with a Beretta 418[162] until he received a letter from a thirty-one-year-old Bond enthusiast and gun expert, Geoffrey Boothroyd, criticising Fleming's choice of firearm for Bond,[163] calling it "a lady's gun – and not a very nice lady at that!"[164] Boothroyd suggested that Bond should swap his Beretta for a 7.65mm Walther PPK and this exchange of arms made it to Dr. No.[165] Boothroyd also gave Fleming advice on the Berns-Martin triple draw shoulder holster and a number of the weapons used by SMERSH and other villains.[166] In thanks, Fleming gave the MI6 Armourer in his novels the name Major Boothroyd and, in Dr. No, M introduces him to Bond as "the greatest small-arms expert in the world".[165] Bond also used a variety of rifles, including the Savage Model 99 in "For Your Eyes Only" and a Winchester .308 target rifle in "The Living Daylights".[162] Other handguns used by Bond in the Fleming books included the Colt Detective Special and a long-barrelled Colt .45 Army Special.[162]

The first Bond film, Dr. No, saw M ordering Bond to leave his Beretta behind and take up the Walther PPK,[167] which the film Bond used in eighteen films.[168] In Tomorrow Never Dies and the two subsequent films, Bond's main weapon was the Walther P99 semi-automatic pistol.[168]

Vehicles

In the early Bond stories Fleming gave Bond a battleship-grey Bentley ​4 12 Litre with an Amherst Villiers supercharger.[169] After Bond's car was written off by Hugo Drax in Moonraker, Fleming gave Bond a Mark II Continental Bentley, which he used in the remaining books of the series.[170] During Goldfinger, Bond was issued with an Aston Martin DB Mark III with a homing device, which he used to track Goldfinger across France. Bond returned to his Bentley for the subsequent novels.[170]

The Bond of the films has driven a number of cars, including the Aston Martin V8 Vantage,[171] during the 1980s, the V12 Vanquish[171] and DBS[172] during the 2000s, as well as the Lotus Esprit;[173] the BMW Z3,[174] BMW 750iL[174] and the BMW Z8.[174] He has, however, also needed to drive a number of other vehicles, ranging from a Citroën 2CV to a Routemaster Bus, amongst others.[175]

Bond's most famous car is the silver grey Aston Martin DB5, first seen in Goldfinger;[176] it later featured in Thunderball, GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies, Casino Royale, Skyfall and Spectre.[177][178] The films have used a number of different Aston Martins for filming and publicity, one of which was sold in January 2006 at an auction in the US for $2,1 million to an unnamed European collector.[179] In 2010, another DB5 used in Goldfinger was sold at auction for $4.6m million (£2.6 million).[180]

Gadgets

Little Nellie
The Little Nellie autogyro with its creator and pilot, Ken Wallis.

Fleming's novels and early screen adaptations presented minimal equipment such as the booby-trapped attaché case in From Russia, with Love, although this situation changed dramatically with the films.[181] However, the effects of the two Eon-produced Bond films Dr. No and From Russia with Love had an effect on the novel The Man with the Golden Gun, through the increased number of devices used in Fleming's final story.[182]

For the film adaptations of Bond, the pre-mission briefing by Q Branch became one of the motifs that ran through the series.[183] Dr. No provided no spy-related gadgets, but a Geiger counter was used; industrial designer Andy Davey observed that the first ever onscreen spy-gadget was the attaché case shown in From Russia with Love, which he described as "a classic 007 product".[184] The gadgets assumed a higher profile in the 1964 film Goldfinger. The film's success encouraged further espionage equipment from Q Branch to be supplied to Bond, although the increased use of technology led to an accusation that Bond was over-reliant on equipment, particularly in the later films.[185]

Davey noted that "Bond's gizmos follow the zeitgeist more closely than any other ... nuance in the films"[184] as they moved from the potential representations of the future in the early films, through to the brand-name obsessions of the later films.[184] It is also noticeable that, although Bond uses a number of pieces of equipment from Q Branch, including the Little Nellie autogyro,[186] a jet pack[187] and the exploding attaché case,[188] the villains are also well-equipped with custom-made devices,[184] including Scaramanga's golden gun,[189] Rosa Klebb's poison-tipped shoes,[190] Oddjob's steel-rimmed bowler hat[191] and Blofeld's communication devices in his agents' vanity case.[184]

Cultural impact

Fleming's paperback Bonds
Fleming's Bond novels
James Bond Island
James Bond Island (Khao Phing Kan, Thailand)

Cinematically, Bond has been a major influence within the spy genre since the release of Dr. No in 1962,[192] with 22 secret agent films released in 1966 alone attempting to capitalise on the Bond franchise's popularity and success.[193] The first parody was the 1964 film Carry On Spying, which shows the villain Dr. Crow being overcome by agents who included James Bind (Charles Hawtry) and Daphne Honeybutt (Barbara Windsor).[194] One of the films that reacted against the portrayal of Bond was the Harry Palmer series, whose first film, The Ipcress File was released in 1965. The eponymous hero of the series was what academic Jeremy Packer called an "anti-Bond",[195] or what Christoph Lindner calls "the thinking man's Bond".[196] The Palmer series were produced by Harry Saltzman, who also used key crew members from the Bond series, including designer Ken Adam, editor Peter R. Hunt and composer John Barry.[197] The four "Matt Helm" films starring Dean Martin (released between 1966 and 1969),[198] the "Flint" series starring James Coburn (comprising two films, one each in 1966 and 1969),[199] while The Man from U.N.C.L.E. also moved onto the cinema screen, with eight films released: all were testaments to Bond's prominence in popular culture.[133] More recently, the Austin Powers series by writer, producer and comedian Mike Myers,[200] and other parodies such as the Johnny English trilogy of films,[201] have also used elements from or parodied the Bond films.

Following the release of the film Dr. No in 1962, the line "Bond ... James Bond", became a catch phrase that entered the lexicon of Western popular culture: writers Cork and Scivally said of the introduction in Dr. No that the "signature introduction would become the most famous and loved film line ever".[202] In 2001, it was voted as the "best-loved one-liner in cinema" by British cinema goers,[203] and in 2005, it was honoured as the 22nd greatest quotation in cinema history by the American Film Institute as part of their 100 Years Series.[204] The 2005 American Film Institute's '100 Years' series recognised the character of James Bond himself as the third greatest film hero.[205] He was also placed at number 11 on a similar list by Empire[206] and as the fifth greatest movie character of all time by Premiere.[207]

The 23 James Bond films produced by Eon Productions, which have grossed $4,910 million in box office returns alone,[208] have made the series one of the highest-grossing ever. It is estimated that since Dr. No, a quarter of the world's population have seen at least one Bond film.[209] The UK Film Distributors' Association have stated that the importance of the Bond series of films to the British film industry cannot be overstated, as they "form the backbone of the industry".[210]

Television also saw the effect of Bond films, with the NBC series The Man from U.N.C.L.E.,[211] which was described as the "first network television imitation" of Bond,[212] largely because Fleming provided advice and ideas on the development of the series, even giving the main character the name Napoleon Solo.[213] Other 1960s television series inspired by Bond include I Spy,[199] and Get Smart.[214]

A British cultural icon, by 2012, James Bond had become such a symbol of the United Kingdom that the character, played by Craig, appeared in the opening ceremony of the 2012 London Olympics as Queen Elizabeth II's escort.[215][216]

Throughout the life of the film series, a number of tie-in products have been released.[217] In 2018 a James Bond museum opened atop of Austrian Alps.[218] The futuristic museum is constructed on the summit of Gaislachkogl Mountain in Sölden at 3,048 m above sea level.[219][220]

Criticisms

The James Bond character and related media have triggered a number of criticisms and reactions across the political spectrum, and are still highly debated in popular culture studies.[221][222] Some observers accuse the Bond novels and films of misogyny and sexism.[223] Geographers have considered the role of exotic locations in the movies in the dynamics of the Cold War, with power struggles among blocs playing out in the peripheral areas.[224] Other critics claim that the Bond films reflect imperial nostalgia.[225][226] American conservative critics, particularly in the 1960s and 1970s, saw Bond as a nihilistic, hedonistic, and amoral character that challenged family values.[227]

See also

References

  1. ^ Adejobi, Alicia (27 October 2015). "Spectre movie: James Bond brand worth £13bn off the back of monster box office and DVD sales". International Business Times. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Macintyre, Ben (5 April 2008). "Bond – the real Bond". The Times. p. 36.
  3. ^ "Obituary: Colonel Peter Fleming, Author and explorer". The Times. 20 August 1971. p. 14.
  4. ^ Caplen 2010, p. 21.
  5. ^ Hellman, Geoffrey T. (21 April 1962). "Bond's Creator". The New Yorker. p. 32. section "Talk of the Town". Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  6. ^ Chancellor 2005, p. 112.
  7. ^ a b Macintyre 2008, p. 67.
  8. ^ Macintyre 2008, p. 50.
  9. ^ Cook, William (28 June 2004). "Novel man". New Statesman. p. 40.
  10. ^ Macintyre 2008, p. 205.
  11. ^ Chancellor 2005, p. 59.
  12. ^ Pearson 2008, p. 21.
  13. ^ Griswold 2006, p. 27.
  14. ^ Macintyre 2008, p. 208.
  15. ^ Lycett, Andrew (2004). "Fleming, Ian Lancaster (1908–1964) (subscription needed)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33168. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  16. ^ Chancellor 2005, p. 4.
  17. ^ a b Chancellor 2005, p. 5.
  18. ^ Bennett & Woollacott 2003, p. 1, ch 1.
  19. ^ Black 2005, p. 75.
  20. ^ "Casino Royale". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  21. ^ "Live and Let Die". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  22. ^ "Moonraker". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  23. ^ "Diamonds are Forever". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  24. ^ "From Russia, with Love". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  25. ^ "Dr. No". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  26. ^ "Goldfinger". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  27. ^ "For Your Eyes Only". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  28. ^ "Thunderball". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  29. ^ "The Spy Who Loved Me". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  30. ^ "On Her Majesty's Secret Service". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  31. ^ "You Only Live Twice". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  32. ^ "The Man with the Golden Gun". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  33. ^ "Octopussy and The Living Daylights". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  34. ^ "Colonel Sun". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  35. ^ Benson 1988, p. 32.
  36. ^ a b c d e f "Film Novelizations". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 18 September 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  37. ^ Simpson 2002, p. 58.
  38. ^ Benson 1988, p. 149.
  39. ^ Ripley, Mike (2 November 2007). "Obituary: John Gardner: Prolific thriller writer behind the revival of James Bond and Professor Moriarty". The Guardian. p. 41. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  40. ^ "Licence Renewed". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  41. ^ "For Special Services". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  42. ^ "Ice Breaker". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  43. ^ "Role Of Honour". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  44. ^ "Nobody Lives Forever". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  45. ^ "No Deals Mr Bond". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  46. ^ "Scorpius". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  47. ^ "Win, Lose Or Die". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  48. ^ "Brokenclaw". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  49. ^ "The Man From Barbarossa". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  50. ^ "Death is Forever". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  51. ^ "Never Send Flowers". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  52. ^ "Seafire". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  53. ^ "Cold". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  54. ^ Raymond Benson. "Books--At a Glance". RaymondBenson.com. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  55. ^ "Raymond Benson". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  56. ^ Simpson 2002, p. 62.
  57. ^ "Zero Minus Ten". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  58. ^ "The Facts Of Death". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  59. ^ Simpson 2002, p. 63.
  60. ^ Simpson 2002, p. 64.
  61. ^ "High Time To Kill". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  62. ^ "Doubleshot". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  63. ^ "Never Dream Of Dying". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  64. ^ "The Man With The Red Tattoo". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  65. ^ "Faulks pens new James Bond novel". BBC News. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  66. ^ "Sebastian Faulks". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  67. ^ "James Bond book called Carte Blanche". BBC News. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  68. ^ "Jeffery Deaver". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  69. ^ "Solo Published Today". Ian Fleming Publications. 26 September 2013. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  70. ^ Singh, Anita (2 October 2014). "James Bond's secret mission: to save Stirling Moss". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  71. ^ "James Bond: Pussy Galore returns in new novel". BBC News. BBC. 28 May 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  72. ^ Flood, Alison (28 May 2015). "New James Bond novel Trigger Mortis resurrects Pussy Galore". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  73. ^ Furness, Hannah (28 May 2015). "Pussy Galore returns for new James Bond novel Trigger Mortis". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  74. ^ Smith, Neil (3 March 2005). "The name's Bond – Junior Bond". BBC News. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  75. ^ "Charlie Higson". Puffin Books – Authors. Penguin Books. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  76. ^ "SilverFin: The Graphic Novel". Puffin Books. Penguin Books. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  77. ^ "New Young Bond Series in 2014". Ian Fleming Publications. 9 October 2013. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  78. ^ "Young Bond: SilverFin". Puffin Books: Charlie Higson. Penguin Books. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  79. ^ "Young Bond: Blood Fever". Puffin Books: Charlie Higson. Penguin Books. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  80. ^ "Young Bond: Double or Die". Puffin Books: Charlie Higson. Penguin Books. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  81. ^ "Young Bond: Hurricane Gold". Puffin Books: Charlie Higson. Penguin Books. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  82. ^ "Young Bond: By Royal Command". Puffin Books: Charlie Higson. Penguin Books. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  83. ^ "SilverFin: The (Graphic Novel)". Puffin Books: Charlie Higson. Penguin Books. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  84. ^ "Danger Society: The Young Bond Dossier". Puffin Books: Charlie Higson. Penguin Books. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  85. ^ "Miss Moneypenny". Evening Standard. 14 October 2005. p. 10.
  86. ^ O'Connell, John (12 October 2005). "Books – Review – The Moneypenny Diaries – Kate Westbrook (ed) – John Murray GBP 12.99". Time Out. p. 47.
  87. ^ Weinberg, Samantha (11 November 2006). "Licensed to thrill". The Times. p. 29.
  88. ^ Saunders, Kate (10 May 2008). "The Moneypenny Diaries: Final Fling". The Times. p. 13.
  89. ^ "Guardian Angel". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  90. ^ "Secret Servant". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  91. ^ "Final Fling". The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  92. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  93. ^ Black 2005, p. 14.
  94. ^ Benson 1988, p. 11.
  95. ^ Black 2005, p. 101.
  96. ^ "Radio Times". 6–12 October 1973: 74–79.
  97. ^ Svetkey, Benjamin (29 May 1992). "Sweet Baby James". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  98. ^ "Bob Holness on Game Shows". Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  99. ^ Roberts, Andrew (8 November 2006). "The Bond bunch". The Independent. p. 14.
  100. ^ "James Bond — You Only Live Twice". BBC Radio 4 Extra. BBC. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  101. ^ "007 villain to play Bond on radio". BBC. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  102. ^ Hemley, Matthew (13 October 2009). "James Bond to return to radio as Goldfinger is adapted for BBC". The Stage Online. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  103. ^ "Goldfinger". Saturday Play. BBC. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  104. ^ "Saturday Drama: From Russia With Love". BBC Radio 4. BBC. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  105. ^ "Saturday Drama: On Her Majesty's Secret Service". BBC. BBC. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  106. ^ Jütting 2007, p. 6.
  107. ^ Lycett 1996, p. 316.
  108. ^ a b Simpson 2002, p. 21.
  109. ^ a b Fleming, Gammidge & McLusky 1988, p. 6.
  110. ^ Jütting 2007, p. 7.
  111. ^ a b c d Conroy 2004, p. 293.
  112. ^ Evanier, Mark (3 December 2006). "Secrets Behind the Comics". NewsFromme.com. Archived from the original on 21 October 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  113. ^ Pfeiffer & Worrall 1998, p. 131.
  114. ^ a b Thompson, Frankenhoff & Bickford 2010, p. 368.
  115. ^ "Bond Violence Gets Artistic 'Licence'". The Palm Beach Post. 28 July 1989.
  116. ^ Sutton, Mike. "Dr. No (1962)". Screenonline. British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 25 May 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  117. ^ "You Only Live Twice". TCM Film Article. Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  118. ^ "On Her Majesty's Secret Service (1969)". Screenonline. British Film Institute. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  119. ^ Feeney Callan 2002, p. 217.
  120. ^ Simpson 2002, p. 81.
  121. ^ Robey, Tim (12 January 2011). "Sam Mendes may have problems directing new James Bond movie". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  122. ^ Pallotta, Frank. "Daniel Craig confirms return as James Bond". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  123. ^ "Movie Franchises". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  124. ^ "Pottering on, and on". The Economist. London. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
  125. ^ "James Bond: Cary Joji Fukunaga to direct next Bond film". BBC News. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  126. ^ Macintyre 2008, p. 202.
  127. ^ a b c Poliakoff, Keith (2000). "License to Copyright – The Ongoing Dispute Over the Ownership of James Bond" (PDF). Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal. Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law. 18: 387–436. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
  128. ^ "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. announces acquisition of Never Say Never Again James Bond assets" (Press release). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 4 December 1997. Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  129. ^ Shprintz, Janet (29 March 1999). "Big Bond-holder". Variety. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Judge Rafeedie ... found that McClory's rights in the "Thunderball" material had reverted to the estate of Fleming
  130. ^ Lindner 2009, p. 122.
  131. ^ "Monty Norman sues for libel". Bond theme writer wins damages. BBC News. 19 March 2001. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  132. ^ a b Burlingame, Jon (3 November 2008). "Bond scores establish superspy template". Daily Variety. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  133. ^ a b Chapman 2009, p. 97-98.
  134. ^ Simpson 2002, p. 224.
  135. ^ "The 46th Academy Awards (1974) Nominees and Winners". Oscar Legacy. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  136. ^ "The 50th Academy Awards (1978) Nominees and Winners". Oscar Legacy. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  137. ^ "The 54th Academy Awards (1982)". Oscar Legacy. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  138. ^ "2013 Oscars Nominees". oscars. January 2013. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  139. ^ Ford, Rebecca (14 January 2016). "Oscar Nominations: The Complete List". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  140. ^ Copsey, Rob (29 February 2016). "Sam Smith wins Oscar for his James Bond Spectre theme song". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  141. ^ "The 40th Academy Awards (1968)". Oscar Legacy. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  142. ^ Backe, Hans-Joachim. "Narrative Feedback: Computer games, comics, and the James Bond Franchise" (PDF). Ruhr University Bochum. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  143. ^ Greg Sewart. "GoldenEye 007 review". Gaming Age Online. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  144. ^ "GoldenEye 007 Reviews". gamerankings.com. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  145. ^ "Rare: Company". Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on 16 December 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  146. ^ Martin Hollis (2 September 2004). "The Making of GoldenEye 007". Zoonami. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  147. ^ "Microsoft Acquires Video Game Powerhouse Rare Ltd". Microsoft News Center. 24 September 2002. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  148. ^ Crandall, Robert W.; Sidak, J. Gregory. "Video Games: Serious Business for America's Economy" (PDF). Entertainment Software Association. pp. 39–40. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  149. ^ "007: Tomorrow Never Dies". IGN. Archived from the original on 1 July 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  150. ^ King & Krzywinska 2002, p. 183.
  151. ^ "The World Is Not Enough". Video Games. Eurocom Developments. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  152. ^ "007 Racing Review". IGN. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  153. ^ "James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing". IGN. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  154. ^ "James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing Review". IGN. 18 February 2004. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  155. ^ a b "From Russia With Love Review". IGN. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  156. ^ Fritz, Ben (3 May 2006). "Bond, Superman games on the move". Variety. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  157. ^ "James Bond: Quantum of Solace Reviews". CBS Interactive. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  158. ^ Harris, Craig. "GoldenEye Reimagined for Wii". IGN. Archived from the original on 18 June 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  159. ^ Walton, Mark (20 July 2011). "GoldenEye 007: Reloaded First Impressions". GameSpot. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  160. ^ Robinson, Andy (20 July 2011). "News: GoldenEye HD is official: Move, Online Confirmed – Trailer". ComputerAndVideoGames.com. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  161. ^ Johnson, Leif (24 October 2012). "007 Legends Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  162. ^ a b c Benson 1988, p. 265.
  163. ^ Chancellor 2005, p. 160.
  164. ^ "Bond's unsung heroes: Geoffrey Boothroyd, the real Q". The Daily Telegraph. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  165. ^ a b Macintyre 2008, p. 132.
  166. ^ Benson 1988, p. 15.
  167. ^ Black 2005, p. 94.
  168. ^ a b Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 265.
  169. ^ Benson 1988, p. 62-63.
  170. ^ a b Benson 1988, p. 63.
  171. ^ a b Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 183.
  172. ^ Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 182.
  173. ^ Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 202.
  174. ^ a b c Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 186.
  175. ^ Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 175.
  176. ^ Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 180.
  177. ^ Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 180-181.
  178. ^ French, Philip (28 October 2012). "Skyfall – review". The Observer. London. p. 32.
  179. ^ "James Bond car sold for over £1m". BBC News. 21 January 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  180. ^ Andrew English (28 October 2010). "James Bond Aston Martin DB5 sells for 拢2.6m". Telegraph.co.uk.
  181. ^ Jenkins, Tricia (September 2005). "James Bond's "Pussy" and Anglo-American Cold War Sexuality". The Journal of American Culture. 28 (3). doi:10.1111/j.1542-734X.2005.00215.x.
  182. ^ Chancellor 2005, p. 234.
  183. ^ Lindner 2009, p. 112.
  184. ^ a b c d e Davey, Andy (3 October 2002). "Left to his own devices" (abridged from print copy). Design Week. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  185. ^ Lindner 2009, p. 169.
  186. ^ Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 200-201.
  187. ^ Jütting 2007, p. 128.
  188. ^ Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 221.
  189. ^ Jütting 2007, p. 77.
  190. ^ Griswold 2006, p. 41.
  191. ^ Black 2005, p. 117.
  192. ^ Smith & Lavington 2002, p. 21.
  193. ^ Moniot, Drew (Summer 1976). "James Bond and America in the Sixties: An Investigation of the Formula Film in Popular Culture". Journal of the University Film Association. University of Illinois Press. 28 (3): 25–33. JSTOR 20687331.
  194. ^ Angelini, Sergio. "Carry On Spying (1964)". BFI Screenonline. British Film Institute. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  195. ^ Packer 2009, p. 26.
  196. ^ Lindner 2009, p. 128.
  197. ^ "Ipcress File, The (1965)". Screenonline. British Film Institute. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  198. ^ Allegretti, Joseph. "James Bond and Matt Helm: The Moral Universe of Literature's Most Famous Spy and His Chief American Rival" (PDF). The Mid-Atlantic Almanack. Mid-Atlantic Popular/American Culture Association. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  199. ^ a b Pfeiffer & Worrall 1998, p. 210.
  200. ^ Lindner 2009, p. 76.
  201. ^ Howell, Peter (21 October 2011). "Thunderbollocks". Toronto Star. p. E2.
  202. ^ Cork & Scivally 2002, p. 6.
  203. ^ "James Bond tops motto poll". BBC News. 11 June 2001. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  204. ^ "100 Years Series: "Movie Quotes"" (PDF). AFI 100 Years Series. American Film Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  205. ^ "100 years series: 100 heroes and villains" (PDF). AFI 100 Years Series. American Film Industry. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  206. ^ "The 100 Greatest Movie Characters: 11. James Bond". Empire. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  207. ^ "100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time". Premiere. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  208. ^ "Box Office History for James Bond Movies". Nash Information Services, LLC. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  209. ^ Dodds, Klaus (2005). "Screening Geopolitics: James Bond and the Early Cold War films (1962–1967)". Geopolitics. 10 (2): 266–289. doi:10.1080/14650040590946584.
  210. ^ "British film classics: Dr No". BBC News. 21 February 2003. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  211. ^ Grigg, Richard (November 2007). "Vanquishing Evil without the Help of God: The Man from U.N.C.L.E. and a World Come of Age". Journal of Communication & Religion. 30 (2): 308–339.
  212. ^ Worland, Rick (Winter 1994). "The Man From U.N.C.L.E. and TV espionage in the 1960s". Journal of Popular Film & Television. 21 (4): 150–162. doi:10.1080/01956051.1994.9943983.
  213. ^ Pfeiffer & Worrall 1998, p. 209.
  214. ^ Pfeiffer & Worrall 1998, p. 211.
  215. ^ Brown, Nic (27 July 2012). "How James Bond whisked the Queen to the Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  216. ^ "Action & Mystery exhibition inspired by GREAT British icons". Gov.uk. 1 November 2016.
  217. ^ Simpson 2002, p. 273.
  218. ^ "James Bond museum opens atop the Austrian Alps". TODAY.com. Retrieved 2018-07-18.
  219. ^ TravelTriangle (2018-06-15). "'Die Another Day', As This New James Bond Museum On The Austrian Alps Is Too Good To Be Missed". Retrieved 2018-07-18.
  220. ^ "James Bond museum opens atop the Austrian Alps". NBC News. Retrieved 2018-07-18.
  221. ^ Lindner, Christoph (1 January 2003). The James Bond Phenomenon: A Critical Reader. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719065415.
  222. ^ Comentale, Edward P.; Watt, Stephen; Willman, Skip (1 January 2005). Ian Fleming & James Bond: The Cultural Politics of 007. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253345233.
  223. ^ Dodds, Klaus (3 July 2014). "Shaking and Stirring James Bond: Age, Gender, and Resilience in Skyfall (2012)". Journal of Popular Film and Television. 42 (3): 116–130. doi:10.1080/01956051.2013.858026. ISSN 0195-6051.
  224. ^ Dodds, Klaus (1 July 2005). "Screening Geopolitics: James Bond and the Early Cold War films (1962–1967)". Geopolitics. 10 (2): 266–289. doi:10.1080/14650040590946584. ISSN 1465-0045.
  225. ^ Müller, Timo (2015). "The Bonds of Empire: (Post-)Imperial Negotiations in the 007 Film Series". In Buchenau, Barbara; Richter, Virginia. Post-Empire Imaginaries? Anglophone Literature, History, and the Demise of Empires. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 305–326. doi:10.1163/9789004302280_014. ISBN 9789004302280.
  226. ^ Jr, Marouf Hasian (20 October 2014). "Skyfall, James Bond's Resurrection, and 21st-Century Anglo-American Imperial Nostalgia". Communication Quarterly. 62 (5): 569–588. doi:10.1080/01463373.2014.949389. ISSN 0146-3373.
  227. ^ Costello, Jef (2012-11-08). "The Importance of James Bond". Counter-Currents Publishing. Retrieved 22 November 2015.

Bibliography

External links

Bond girl

A Bond girl is a character (or the actress portraying a character) who is an attractive love interest or female sidekick of James Bond in a novel, film, or video game. Bond girls occasionally have names that are double entendres or puns, such as Pussy Galore, Plenty O'Toole, Xenia Onatopp, or Holly Goodhead.

There is no set rule on what kind of person a Bond girl will be or what role she will play. She may be an ally or an enemy of Bond, pivotal to the mission or simply eye candy. There are female characters such as Judi Dench's M, and Camille Montes, a Bolivian intelligence agent who teams up with Bond in Quantum of Solace, who are not romantic interests of Bond, and hence not strictly Bond girls. However, it has been argued that M's pivotal role in the plot of Skyfall qualifies her as a Bond girl or Bond woman.

Casino Royale (1967 film)

Casino Royale is a 1967 spy comedy film originally produced by Columbia Pictures featuring an ensemble cast. It is loosely based on Ian Fleming's first James Bond novel. The film stars David Niven as the "original" Bond, Sir James Bond 007. Forced out of retirement to investigate the deaths and disappearances of international spies, he soon battles the mysterious Dr. Noah and SMERSH. The film's tagline: "Casino Royale is too much... for one James Bond!" refers to Bond's ruse to mislead SMERSH in which six other agents are pretending to be "James Bond", namely, baccarat master Evelyn Tremble (Peter Sellers); millionaire spy Vesper Lynd (Ursula Andress); Bond's secretary Miss Moneypenny (Barbara Bouchet); Mata Bond (Joanna Pettet), Bond's daughter by Mata Hari; and British agents "Coop" (Terence Cooper) and "The Detainer" (Daliah Lavi).

Charles K. Feldman, the producer, had acquired the film rights in 1960 and had attempted to get Casino Royale made as an Eon Productions Bond film; however, Feldman and the producers of the Eon series, Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman, failed to come to terms. Believing that he could not compete with the Eon series, Feldman resolved to produce the film as a satire. The budget escalated as various directors and writers got involved in the production, and actors expressed dissatisfaction with the project.

Casino Royale was released on 13 April 1967, two months prior to Eon's fifth Bond movie, You Only Live Twice. The film was a financial success, grossing over $41.7 million worldwide, and Burt Bacharach's musical score was praised, earning him an Academy Award nomination for the song "The Look of Love". Critical reception to Casino Royale, however, was generally negative; some critics regarded it as a baffling, disorganised affair. Since 1999, the film's rights have been held by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, distributors of the official Bond movies by Eon Productions.

Casino Royale (2006 film)

Casino Royale is a 2006 spy film, the twenty-first in the Eon Productions James Bond film series, and the third screen adaptation of Ian Fleming's 1953 novel of the same name. Directed by Martin Campbell and written by Neal Purvis & Robert Wade and Paul Haggis, it is the first film to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond, and was produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, making it the first Eon-produced Bond film to be co-produced by the latter studio. Following Die Another Day, Eon Productions decided to reboot the series, allowing them to show a less experienced and more vulnerable Bond.Casino Royale takes place at the beginning of Bond's career as Agent 007, as he is earning his licence to kill. The plot sees Bond on an assignment to bankrupt terrorist financier Le Chiffre in a high-stakes poker game; Bond falls in love with Vesper Lynd, a treasury employee assigned to provide the money he needs for the game. The film begins a story arc that continues in the 2008 film, Quantum of Solace.

Casting involved a widespread search for a new actor to succeed Pierce Brosnan as James Bond; the choice of Craig, announced in October 2005, drew controversy. Location filming took place in the Czech Republic, The Bahamas, Italy and the United Kingdom with interior sets built at Barrandov Studios and Pinewood Studios.

Casino Royale premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square on 14 November 2006. It received an overwhelmingly positive critical response, with reviewers highlighting Craig's reinvention of the character and the film's departure from the tropes of previous Bond films. It earned almost $600 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing James Bond film until the release of Skyfall in 2012.

Daniel Craig

Daniel Wroughton Craig (born 2 March 1968) is an English actor. He trained at the National Youth Theatre and graduated from the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in 1991, before beginning his career on stage. His film debut was in the drama The Power of One (1992). Other early appearances were in the historical television war drama Sharpe's Eagle (1993), Disney family film A Kid in King Arthur's Court (1995), the drama serial Our Friends in the North (1996) and the biographical film Elizabeth (1998).

Craig's appearances in the British television film Love Is the Devil: Study for a Portrait of Francis Bacon (1998), the indie war film The Trench (1999), and the drama Some Voices (2000) attracted the film industry's attention. This led to roles in bigger productions such as the action film Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001), the crime thriller Road to Perdition (2002), the crime thriller Layer Cake (2004), and the Steven Spielberg historical drama Munich (2005).

Craig achieved international fame when chosen as the sixth actor to play the role of Ian Fleming's British secret agent character James Bond in the film series, taking over from Pierce Brosnan in 2005. His debut film as Bond, Casino Royale, was released internationally in November 2006 and was highly acclaimed, earning him a BAFTA award nomination. Casino Royale became the highest-grossing in the series at the time. Quantum of Solace followed two years later. Craig's third Bond film, Skyfall, premiered in 2012 and is currently the highest-grossing film in the series and the 20th-highest-grossing film of all time; it was also the highest-grossing film in the United Kingdom until 2015. Craig's fourth Bond film, Spectre, premiered in 2015. He also made a guest appearance as Bond in the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games, alongside Queen Elizabeth II. His fifth Bond film, currently entitled Bond 25 is scheduled for release on St. Valentines Day, 14 February 2020.Since taking the role of Bond, Craig has continued to star in other films, including the fantasy film The Golden Compass (2007), World War II film Defiance (2008), science fiction western Cowboys & Aliens (2011), the English-language adaptation of Stieg Larsson's mystery thriller The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011), and the heist film Logan Lucky (2017).

Die Another Day

Die Another Day is a 2002 British spy film, the twentieth film in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, as well as the fourth and final film to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film follows Bond as he leads a mission to North Korea, during which he is betrayed and, after seemingly killing a rogue North Korean colonel, is captured and imprisoned. Fourteen months later, Bond is released as part of a prisoner exchange. Surmising that the mole is within the British government, he attempts to earn redemption by tracking down his betrayer and all those involved.

The film, produced by Michael G. Wilson and Barbara Broccoli, and directed by Lee Tamahori, marked the James Bond franchise's 40th anniversary. The series began in 1962 with Sean Connery starring as Bond in Dr. No. Die Another Day includes references to each of the preceding films.The film received mixed reviews. Some critics praised the work of Tamahori, while others criticised the film's heavy use of computer-generated imagery, which they found unconvincing and a distraction from the film's plot. Nevertheless, Die Another Day was the highest-grossing James Bond film up to that time if inflation is not taken into account.

Dr. No (film)

Dr. No is a 1962 British spy film, starring Sean Connery, with Ursula Andress, Joseph Wiseman and Jack Lord, which was filmed in Jamaica and England. It is the first James Bond film. Based on the 1958 novel of the same name by Ian Fleming, it was adapted by Richard Maibaum, Johanna Harwood, and Berkely Mather and was directed by Terence Young. The film was produced by Harry Saltzman and Albert R. Broccoli, a partnership that continued until 1975.

In the film, James Bond is sent to Jamaica to investigate the disappearance of a fellow British agent. The trail leads him to the underground base of Dr. No, who is plotting to disrupt an early American space launch with a radio beam weapon. Although the first of the Bond books to be made into a film, Dr. No was not the first of Fleming's novels, Casino Royale being the debut for the character; the film makes a few references to threads from earlier books. This film also introduced the criminal organisation SPECTRE, which also appeared in six subsequent films.

Dr. No was produced on a low budget, and was a financial success. While the film received a mixed critical reaction upon release, over time it has gained a reputation as one of the series' best instalments. The film was the first of a successful series of 24 Bond films. Dr. No also launched a genre of "secret agent" films that flourished in the 1960s. The film also spawned a comic book adaptation and soundtrack album as part of its promotion and marketing.

Many of the iconic aspects of a typical James Bond film were established in Dr. No: the film begins with an introduction to the character through the view of a gun barrel and a highly stylised main title sequence, both of which were created by Maurice Binder. It also established the iconic "James Bond" theme music. Production designer Ken Adam established an elaborate visual style that is one of the hallmarks of the film series.

GoldenEye

GoldenEye is a 1995 British spy film, the seventeenth in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, and the first to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 officer James Bond. It was directed by Martin Campbell and is the first in the series not to utilise any story elements from the works of novelist Ian Fleming. The story was conceived and written by Michael France, with later collaboration by other writers. In the film, Bond fights to prevent an ex-MI6 agent, gone rogue, from using a satellite against London to cause a global financial meltdown.

The film was released after a six-year hiatus in the series caused by legal disputes, during which Timothy Dalton resigned from the role of James Bond and was replaced by Pierce Brosnan. M was also recast, with actress Judi Dench becoming the first woman to portray the character, replacing Robert Brown. The role of Miss Moneypenny was also recast, with Caroline Bliss being replaced by Samantha Bond; Desmond Llewelyn was the only actor to reprise his role, as Q. It was the first Bond film made after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, which provided a background for the plot.

The film accumulated a worldwide gross of US$350.7 million, considerably better than Dalton's films, without taking inflation into account. It received positive reviews, with critics viewing Brosnan as a definite improvement over his predecessor. It also received award nominations for "Best Achievement in Special Effects" and "Best Sound" from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.The name "GoldenEye" pays homage to James Bond's creator, Ian Fleming. While working for British Naval Intelligence as a lieutenant commander, Fleming liaised with the Naval Intelligence Division to monitor developments in Spain after the Spanish Civil War in an operation codenamed Operation Goldeneye. Fleming used the name of this operation for his estate in Oracabessa, Jamaica.

James Bond (literary character)

Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR, is a fictional character created by the British journalist and novelist Ian Fleming in 1953. He is the protagonist of the James Bond series of novels, films, comics and video games. Fleming wrote twelve Bond novels and two short story collections. His final two books—The Man with the Golden Gun (1965) and Octopussy and The Living Daylights (1966)—were published posthumously.

The Bond character is a Secret Service agent, code number 007, residing in London but active internationally. Bond was a composite character who was based on a number of commandos whom Fleming knew during his service in the Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War, to whom Fleming added his own style and a number of his own tastes; Bond's name was appropriated from the American ornithologist of the same name. Bond has a number of character traits which run throughout the books, including an enjoyment of cars, a love of food and drink, and an average intake of sixty custom-made cigarettes a day.

Since Fleming's death in 1964, there have been other authorised writers of Bond material, including John Gardner, who wrote fourteen novels and two novelizations; and Raymond Benson, who wrote six novels, three novelizations and three short stories. There have also been other authors who wrote one book each, Kingsley Amis (writing as Robert Markham), Sebastian Faulks, Jeffery Deaver, William Boyd, and Anthony Horowitz. Additionally, a series of novels based on Bond's youth – Young Bond – was written by Charlie Higson.

As spin-offs from the literary works, there was a television adaptation of the first novel, Casino Royale, in which Bond was played as an American agent. A comic strip series also ran in the Daily Express newspaper. There have been 26 Bond films; seven actors have played Bond in these films.

James Bond filmography

Commander James Bond RN—code number 007—is a fictional character created by the British journalist and novelist Ian Fleming in 1952. The character appeared in a series of twelve novels and two short story collections written by Fleming and a number of continuation novels and spin-off works after Fleming's death in 1964. There have been twenty-six films in total, produced between 1962 and 2015.

Fleming portrayed Bond as a tall, athletic, handsome secret agent in his thirties or forties; he has several vices including drinking, smoking, gambling, automobiles and womanising. He is an exceptional marksman, and skilled in unarmed combat, skiing, swimming and golf. While Bond kills without hesitation or regret, he usually kills only when carrying out orders, while acting in self-defence and occasionally as revenge.

American actor Barry Nelson was the first to portray Bond on screen, in a 1954 television adaptation, "Casino Royale". In 1961 Eon Productions began work on Dr. No, an adaptation of the novel of the same name. The result was a film that spawned a series of twenty-four films produced by Eon Productions and two independent films. After considering the likes of "refined" English actors such as Cary Grant and David Niven, the producers cast Sean Connery as Bond in the film. Fleming was appalled at the selection of the uncouth, 31-year-old Scottish actor, considering him to be the antithesis of his character. However, Connery's physical prowess and sexual magnetism in the role came to be closely identified with the character, with Fleming ultimately changing his view on Connery and incorporating aspects of his portrayal into the books.

Seven actors in total have portrayed Bond on film. Following Connery's portrayal, David Niven, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan and Daniel Craig have assumed the role. These screen versions have retained many traits from Fleming's depiction, although some of Bond's less fashionable attitudes have been dropped, such as racism, homophobia, retaining the services of a maid, and in the more recent films, smoking. Despite playing the same character, there have been notable differences among the portrayals. Daniel Craig is the incumbent Bond in the long-running Eon series, and played the part for a fourth time in the latest film, Spectre, released in October 2015.

James Bond in film

The James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of MI6 agent James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Fleming. It is one of the longest continually-running film series in history, having been in on-going production from 1962 to the present (with a six-year hiatus between 1989 and 1995). In that time Eon Productions has produced 24 films, most of them at Pinewood Studios. With a combined gross of over $7 billion to date, the films produced by Eon constitute the fourth-highest-grossing film series. Six actors have portrayed 007 in the Eon series, the latest being Daniel Craig.

Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman co-produced most of the Eon films until 1975, when Broccoli became the sole producer. The single exception during this period was Thunderball, on which Broccoli and Saltzman became executive producers while Kevin McClory produced. From 1984 Broccoli was joined by his stepson Michael G. Wilson as producer and in 1995 Broccoli stepped aside from Eon and was replaced by his daughter Barbara, who has co-produced with Wilson since. Broccoli's (and until 1975, Saltzman's) family company, Danjaq, has held ownership of the series through Eon, and maintained co-ownership with United Artists since the mid-1970s. The Eon series has seen continuity both in the main actors and in the production crews, with directors, writers, composers, production designers, and others employed through a number of films.

From the release of Dr. No (1962) to For Your Eyes Only (1981), the films were distributed solely by United Artists. When Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer absorbed United Artists in 1981, MGM/UA Entertainment Co. was formed and distributed the films until 1995. MGM solely distributed three films from 1997 to 2002 after United Artists was retired as a mainstream studio. From 2006 to 2015, MGM and Columbia Pictures co-distributed the film series, following the 2004 acquisition of MGM by a consortium led by Columbia's parent company, Sony Pictures. In November 2010, MGM filed for bankruptcy. Following its emergence from insolvency, Columbia became co-production partner of the series with Eon. Sony's distribution rights to the franchise expired in late 2015 with the release of Spectre. In 2017, MGM and Eon offered a one-film contract to co-finance and distribute the upcoming 25th film worldwide, which was reported on 25 May 2018 to have been won by Universal Pictures.Independently of the Eon series, there have been three additional productions with the character of James Bond: an American television adaptation, Casino Royale (1954), produced by CBS; a spoof, Casino Royale (1967), produced by Charles K. Feldman; and a remake of Thunderball entitled Never Say Never Again (1983), produced by Jack Schwartzman, who had obtained the rights to the film from McClory.

List of James Bond allies

Following is a list of recurring and notable allies of James Bond who appear throughout the film series and novels.

List of James Bond films

James Bond is a fictional character created by novelist Ian Fleming in 1953. Bond is a British secret agent working for MI6 who also answers to his codename, 007. He has been portrayed on film by actors Sean Connery, David Niven, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan and Daniel Craig, in twenty-six productions. All the films but two were made by Eon Productions. Eon now holds the full adaptation rights to all of Fleming's Bond novels.In 1961 producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman joined forces to purchase the filming rights to Fleming's novels. They founded the production company Eon Productions and, with financial backing by United Artists, began working on Dr. No, which was directed by Terence Young and featured Connery as Bond. Following Dr. No's release in 1962, Broccoli and Saltzman created the holding company Danjaq to ensure future productions in the James Bond film series. The series currently encompasses twenty-four films, with the most recent, Spectre, released in October 2015. With a combined gross of nearly $7 billion to date, the films produced by Eon constitute the fourth-highest-grossing film series, behind the Marvel Cinematic Universe, Star Wars, and Wizarding World films. Accounting for the effects of inflation the Bond films have amassed over $14 billion at current prices. The films have won five Academy Awards: for Sound Effects (now Sound Editing) in Goldfinger (at the 37th Awards), to John Stears for Visual Effects in Thunderball (at the 38th Awards), to Per Hallberg and Karen Baker Landers for Sound Editing, and to Adele and Paul Epworth for Original Song in Skyfall (at the 85th Awards), and to Sam Smith and Jimmy Napes for Original Song in Spectre (at the 88th Awards). Additionally, several of the songs produced for the films have been nominated for Academy Awards for Original Song, including Paul McCartney's "Live and Let Die", Carly Simon's "Nobody Does It Better" and Sheena Easton's "For Your Eyes Only". In 1982, Albert R. Broccoli received the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award.When Broccoli and Saltzman bought the rights to existing and future Fleming titles, it did not include Casino Royale, which had already been sold to producer Gregory Ratoff, with the story having been adapted for television in 1954. After Ratoff's death, the rights were passed on to Charles K. Feldman, who subsequently produced the satirical Bond spoof Casino Royale in 1967. A legal case ensured that the film rights to the novel Thunderball were held by Kevin McClory as he, Fleming and scriptwriter Jack Whittingham had written a film script upon which the novel was based. Although Eon Productions and McClory joined forces to produce Thunderball, McClory still retained the rights to the story and adapted Thunderball into 1983's Never Say Never Again. The current distribution rights to both of those films are held by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the studio which distributes Eon's regular series.

List of James Bond villains

The following is a list of primary antagonists in the James Bond novels and film series.

List of henchmen of James Bond villains

The James Bond novels and films are notable for their memorable villains and henchmen. There is typically one particularly privileged henchman who poses a formidable physical threat to Bond and must be defeated in order to reach the employer. These range from simply adept and tough fighters, such as Donald 'Red' Grant, to henchmen whose physical characteristics are seemingly superhuman, such as Oddjob.

Octopussy

Octopussy is a 1983 British spy film, the thirteenth in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, and the sixth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.

The film's title is taken from a short story in Ian Fleming's 1966 short story collection Octopussy and The Living Daylights, although the film's plot is original. It does, however, include a scene inspired by the Fleming short story "The Property of a Lady" (included in 1967 and later editions of Octopussy and The Living Daylights), while the events of the short story "Octopussy" form a part of the title character's background and are recounted by her.

Bond is assigned the task of following a general who is stealing jewels and relics from the Soviet government. This leads him to a wealthy Afghan prince, Kamal Khan, and his associate, Octopussy, and the discovery of a plot to force disarmament in Western Europe with the use of a nuclear weapon.

Octopussy was produced by Albert R. Broccoli and Michael G. Wilson, and was released in the same year as the non-Eon Bond film Never Say Never Again. The film was written by George MacDonald Fraser, Richard Maibaum, and Michael G. Wilson, and was directed by John Glen. The film earned $187.5 million against its $27.5 million budget and received mixed reviews, with praise being directed towards the action sequences and locations, and the plot and humour being targeted for criticism; Maud Adams' portrayal of the title character also drew polarised responses.

Outline of James Bond

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to James Bond:

James Bond—fictional character created in 1953 by journalist and writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short story collections. The character has also been used in the long-running and fourth most financially successful English language film series to date (after Harry Potter, Star Wars, and the Marvel Cinematic Universe). The series started in 1962 with Dr. No—with Sean Connery as Bond—and has continued most recently with Spectre (2015), starring Daniel Craig as Bond.

Quantum of Solace

Quantum of Solace is a 2008 spy film, the twenty-second in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, directed by Marc Forster and written by Paul Haggis, Neal Purvis and Robert Wade. It is the second film to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film also stars Olga Kurylenko, Mathieu Amalric, Gemma Arterton, Jeffrey Wright, and Judi Dench. In the film, Bond seeks revenge for the death of his lover, Vesper Lynd, and is assisted by Camille Montes, who is plotting revenge for the murder of her own family. The trail eventually leads them to wealthy businessman Dominic Greene, a member of the Quantum organisation, who intends to stage a coup d'état in Bolivia to seize control of their water supply.

Producer Michael G. Wilson developed the film's plot while the previous film in the series, Casino Royale, was being shot. Purvis, Wade, and Haggis contributed to the script. Craig and Forster had to write some sections themselves due to the Writers' Strike, though they were not given the screenwriter credit in the final cut. The title was chosen from a 1959 short story in Ian Fleming's For Your Eyes Only, though the film does not contain any elements of that story. Location filming took place in Mexico, Panama, Chile, Italy, Austria and Wales, while interior sets were built and filmed at Pinewood Studios. Forster aimed to make a modern film that also featured classic cinema motifs: a vintage Douglas DC-3 was used for a flight sequence, and Dennis Gassner's set designs are reminiscent of Ken Adam's work on several early Bond films. Taking a course away from the usual Bond villains, Forster rejected any grotesque appearance for the character Dominic Greene to emphasise the hidden and secret nature of the film's contemporary villains.

The film was also marked by its frequent depictions of violence, with a 2012 study by the University of Otago in New Zealand finding it to be the most violent film in the franchise. Whereas Dr. No featured 109 "trivial or severely violent" acts, Quantum of Solace had a count of 250—the most depictions of violence in any Bond film—even more prominent since it was also the shortest film in the franchise. Quantum of Solace premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square on 29 October 2008, gathering mixed reviews, which mainly praised Craig's gritty performance and the film's action sequences, but felt that the film was less impressive than its predecessor Casino Royale. As of September 2016, it is the fourth-highest-grossing James Bond film, without adjusting for inflation, earning $586 million worldwide, and becoming the seventh highest-grossing film of 2008.

Skyfall

Skyfall is a 2012 spy film, the twenty-third in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions. The film is the third to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond and features Javier Bardem as Raoul Silva, the villain. It was directed by Sam Mendes and written by Neal Purvis, Robert Wade, and John Logan, and features the theme song "Skyfall", written and performed by Adele. It was distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) and Columbia Pictures.The story centres on Bond investigating an attack on MI6; the attack is part of a plot by former agent Raoul Silva to discredit and kill M as revenge for having betrayed him. The film sees the return of two recurring characters after an absence of two films: Q, played by Ben Whishaw, and Moneypenny, played by Naomie Harris.

Mendes was approached to direct after the release of Quantum of Solace in 2008. Development was suspended when MGM ran into financial trouble, and did not resume until December 2010. The original screenwriter, Peter Morgan, left the project during the suspension. When production resumed, Logan, Purvis, and Wade continued writing what became the final version. Filming began in November 2011, primarily in the United Kingdom, with smaller portions shot in China and Turkey.

Skyfall premiered in London at the Royal Albert Hall on 23 October 2012 and was then released in the United Kingdom on 26 October and the United States on 9 November. It was the first James Bond film to be screened in IMAX venues, although it was not filmed with IMAX cameras. The release coincided with the 50th anniversary of the series, which began with Dr. No in 1962. Skyfall was very well-received by critics, who praised its screenplay, acting (particularly by Craig, Bardem, and Dench), Mendes' direction, cinematography, musical score, and action sequences. It was the 14th film to gross over $1 billion worldwide, and the first James Bond film to do so. It became the seventh-highest-grossing film at the time, the highest-grossing film in the UK, the highest-grossing film in the series, the highest-grossing film worldwide for both Sony Pictures and MGM, and the second highest-grossing film of 2012. The film won several accolades, including two Academy Awards, two BAFTA Awards and two Grammy Awards.

Spectre (2015 film)

Spectre is a 2015 spy film, the twenty-fourth in the James Bond film series produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures. It is the fourth film to feature Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond, and the second film in the series directed by Sam Mendes following Skyfall. It was written by John Logan, Neal Purvis, Robert Wade and Jez Butterworth. It is the final James Bond film to be internationally distributed by Columbia Pictures, as Universal Pictures will become the international distributor of its future films.

The story sees Bond pitted against the global criminal organisation Spectre and their leader Ernst Stavro Blofeld (Christoph Waltz). Bond attempts to thwart Blofeld's plan to launch a global surveillance network, and discovers Spectre and Blofeld were behind the events of the previous three films. The film marks Spectre and Blofeld's first appearance in an Eon Productions film since 1971's Diamonds Are Forever; a character resembling Blofeld had previously appeared in the 1981 film, For Your Eyes Only, but, because of the Thunderball controversy, he is not named, nor is his face shown. Several James Bond characters, including M, Q and Eve Moneypenny return, with new additions Léa Seydoux as Dr. Madeleine Swann, Dave Bautista as Mr. Hinx, Andrew Scott as Max Denbigh and Monica Bellucci as Lucia Sciarra.

Spectre was filmed from December 2014 to July 2015 in Austria, the United Kingdom, Italy, Morocco and Mexico. The action scenes prioritised practical effects and stunts, while employing computer-generated imagery made by five different companies. Spectre was estimated to have cost around $245 million—with some sources listing it as high as $300 million—making it the most expensive Bond film and one of the most expensive films ever made.

Spectre was released on 26 October 2015 in the United Kingdom—fifty years after the release of Thunderball, thirty after A View to a Kill, and twenty after GoldenEye—on the night of the world premiere at the London Royal Albert Hall. It was followed by a worldwide release, including IMAX screenings. It was released in the United States on 6 November. Spectre received mixed reviews from critics who praised the film's action sequences, cinematography, performances, and score but criticized its runtime, script, pacing, and villain. The theme song "Writing's on the Wall", performed and co-written by Sam Smith, won an Academy Award and Golden Globe for Best Original Song. Spectre grossed over $880 million worldwide, making it the sixth-highest-grossing film of 2015, the second-largest unadjusted total for the series after Skyfall.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.