James Baker

James Addison Baker III[note 1] (born April 28, 1930)[1] is an American attorney and political figure. He served as White House Chief of Staff and United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Ronald Reagan, and as U.S. Secretary of State and White House Chief of Staff under President George H. W. Bush.

Born in Houston, Baker attended The Hill School and Princeton University before serving in the United States Marine Corps. After graduating from the University of Texas School of Law, he pursued a legal career. He became a close friend of George H. W. Bush and worked for Bush's unsuccessful 1970 campaign for the United States Senate. After the campaign, he served in various positions for President Richard Nixon. In 1975, he was appointed Undersecretary of Commerce for Gerald Ford. He served until May 1976, ran Ford's 1976 presidential campaign, and unsuccessfully sought election as the Attorney General of Texas.

Baker ran Bush's unsuccessful campaign for the 1980 Republican presidential nomination, but made a favorable impression on the Republican nominee, Ronald Reagan. Reagan appointed Baker as his White House Chief of Staff, and Baker remained in that position until 1985, when he became the Secretary of the Treasury. As Treasury Secretary, he arranged the Plaza Accord and the Baker Plan. He resigned as Treasury Secretary to manage Bush's successful 1988 campaign for president. After the election, Bush appointed Baker to the position of Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, he helped oversee U.S. foreign policy during the end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union, as well as during the Gulf War. After the Gulf War, Baker served another stint as White House Chief of Staff from 1992 to 1993.

Baker remained active in business and public affairs after Bush's defeat in the 1992 presidential election. He served as a United Nations envoy to Western Sahara and as a consultant to Enron. During the Florida recount following the 2000 Presidential election, he managed George W. Bush's legal team in the state. He served as the co-chairman of the Iraq Study Group, which Congress formed to study Iraq and the Iraq War. He serves on the World Justice Project and the Climate Leadership Council. Baker is the namesake of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University.[2]

James Baker
James A. Baker III, U.S. Secretary of State (2380044355)
10th and 16th White House Chief of Staff
In office
August 24, 1992 – January 20, 1993
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush
Preceded bySamuel K. Skinner
Succeeded byMack McLarty
In office
January 20, 1981 – February 3, 1985
PresidentRonald Reagan
Preceded byJack Watson
Succeeded byDonald Regan
61st United States Secretary of State
In office
January 25, 1989 – August 23, 1992
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush
DeputyLawrence Eagleburger
Preceded byGeorge P. Shultz
Succeeded byLawrence Eagleburger
67th United States Secretary of the Treasury
In office
February 4, 1985 – August 17, 1988
PresidentRonald Reagan
DeputyRichard G. Darman
M. Peter McPherson
Preceded byDonald Regan
Succeeded byNicholas F. Brady
United States Under Secretary of Commerce
In office
August 2, 1975 – May 7, 1976
PresidentGerald Ford
Preceded byJohn Tabor
Succeeded byEdward Vetter
Personal details
Born
James Addison Baker III

April 28, 1930 (age 88)
Houston, Texas, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic (before 1970)
Republican (1970–present)
Spouse(s)
Mary Stuart McHenry
(m. 1953; died 1970)

Susan Garrett (m. 1973)
EducationPrinceton University (BA)
University of Texas at Austin (LLB)
Signature
James Baker's signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Marine Corps
Years of service1952–1954 (Active)
1954–1958 (Reserve)
RankUS Marine O3 shoulderboard.svg Captain

Early life and education

James Addison Baker was born in Houston at 1216 Bissonnet,[3] the son of James A. Baker, Jr. (1892–1973) and Ethel Bonner (née Means) Baker (August 6, 1894 – April 26, 1991). His father was a partner of Houston law firm Baker Botts. Baker has a sister, Bonner Baker Moffitt.[4] His grandfather was attorney and banker Captain James A. Baker, and his great-grandfather was jurist and politician Judge James A. Baker.

Baker attended The Hill School, a boarding school in Pottstown, Pennsylvania. He graduated from Princeton University in 1952 with an A.B. in history cum laude. He was a member of Phi Delta Theta. Baker was a member of the United States Marine Corps from 1952 to 1954, attaining the rank of first lieutenant as a naval gunfire officer serving in the Mediterranean Sea aboard the USS Monrovia. He remained in the Marine Corps Reserve until 1958, and rose to the rank of captain. He earned a bachelor of laws (1957) from the University of Texas School of Law and began to practice law in Texas.[5]

From 1957 to 1969, and then from 1973 to 1975, he practiced law at Andrews & Kurth.

Early political career

Baker's first wife, the former Mary Stuart McHenry, was active in the Republican Party, working on the Congressional campaigns of George H. W. Bush. Originally, Baker had been a Democrat but too busy trying to succeed in a competitive law firm to worry about politics, and considered himself apolitical. His wife's influence led Baker to politics and the Republican Party. He was a regular tennis partner of George H. W. Bush at the Houston Country Club in the late 1950s. When Bush Sr. decided to vacate his Congressional seat and run for the U.S. Senate in 1970, he supported Baker's decision to run for the Congressional seat he was vacating. However, Baker changed his mind about running for Congress when his wife was diagnosed with breast cancer; she died in February 1970.

Bush Sr. then encouraged Baker to become active in politics to help deal with the grief of his wife's death, something that Bush Sr. himself had done when his daughter, Pauline Robinson (1949–1953), died of leukemia. Baker became chairman of Bush's Senate campaign in Harris County, Texas. Though Bush lost to Lloyd Bentsen in the election, Baker continued in politics, becoming the Finance Chairman of the Texas Republican Party in 1971. The following year, he was selected as Gulf Coast Regional Chairman for the Richard Nixon presidential campaign. In 1973 and 1974, in the wake of the Nixon Administration's implosion, Baker returned to full-time law practice at Andrews & Kurth.[6][7]

Baker's time away from politics was very brief, however. In August 1975, he was appointed Undersecretary of Commerce by President Gerald Ford, succeeding John K. Tabor.[8] He served until May 1976, and was succeeded by Edward O. Vetter.[9] Baker resigned to serve as campaign manager of Ford's unsuccessful 1976 election campaign. In 1978, with George H. W. Bush as his campaign manager, Baker ran unsuccessfully for Attorney General of Texas, losing to future Texas governor Mark White.

Reagan administration

The Troika 1981
"The Troika" (from left to right) Chief of Staff James Baker, Counselor to the President Ed Meese, Deputy Chief of Staff Michael Deaver at the White House, December 2, 1981

In 1981, Baker was named White House Chief of Staff by President Ronald Reagan, in spite of the fact that Baker managed the presidential campaigns of Gerald Ford in 1976 and of George Bush in 1980 opposing Reagan.[10] He served in that capacity until 1985. Baker is considered to have had a high degree of influence over the first Reagan administration, particularly in domestic policy.

In 1982, conservative activists Howard Phillips, founder of the Conservative Caucus, and Clymer Wright of Houston joined in an unsuccessful effort to convince Reagan to dismiss Baker as Chief of Staff. They claimed that Baker, a former Democrat and a Bush political intimate, was undermining conservative initiatives in the administration. Reagan rejected the Phillips-Wright request, but in 1985, he named Baker as United States Secretary of the Treasury, in a job-swap with then Secretary Donald T. Regan, a former Merrill Lynch officer who became Chief of Staff. Reagan rebuked Phillips and Wright for having waged a "campaign of sabotage" against Baker.[11]

Baker managed Reagan's 1984 re-election campaign in which Reagan polled a record 525 electoral votes total (of a possible 538), and received 58.8% of the popular vote to Walter Mondale's 40.6%.[12]

While serving as Treasury Secretary, Baker organized the Plaza Accord of September 1985 and the Baker Plan to target international debt. He had Richard Darman of Massachusetts as his Deputy Secretary of the Treasury. Darman continued in the next administration as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

In 1985, Baker received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[13]

During the Reagan administration, Baker also served on the Economic Policy Council, where he played an instrumental role in achieving the passage of the administration's tax and budget reform package in 1981. He also played a role in the development of the Silver Eagle and the Gold Eagle, which both were released in 1986.

Baker also served on Reagan's National Security Council, and remained Treasury Secretary until 1988, during which time he also served as campaign chairman for George H. W. Bush's successful presidential bid.

Bush Administration

President George H.W. Bush appointed Baker Secretary of State in 1989. Baker served in this role through 1992.[14] From 1992 to 1993, he served as Bush's White House Chief of Staff, the same position that he had held from 1981 to 1985 during the first Reagan Administration.[15]

On January 9, 1991, during the Geneva Peace Conference with Tariq Aziz in Geneva, Baker declared that "If there is any user of (chemical or biological weapons), our objectives won't just be the liberation of Kuwait, but the elimination of the current Iraqi regime...."[16] Baker later acknowledged that the intent of this statement was to threaten a retaliatory nuclear strike on Iraq,[17] and the Iraqis received his message.[18] Baker helped to construct the 34-nation alliance that fought alongside the United States in the Gulf War.[19]

He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991.

Policies on Palestine

James Baker 1991 DA-ST-92-09582
Baker arriving in Kuwait, 1991

Before the 1988 election, he and a team of some Middle Eastern policies experts created a report detailing the Palestine-Israel interactions. His team included Dennis Ross and many others who were soon appointed to the new Bush Administration.

Baker blocked the recognition of Palestine by threatening to cut funding to agencies in the United Nations.[20] As far back as 1988, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) issued a "declaration of statehood" and changed the name of its observer delegation to the United Nations from the PLO to Palestine.

Baker warned publicly, "I will recommend to the President that the United States make no further contributions, voluntary or assessed, to any international organization which makes any changes in the PLO's status as an observer organization."

In May 1989, he gave a speech at the annual conference of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. He called for Israel to "lay aside once and for all, the unrealistic vision of a greater Israel", cease the construction of Israeli settlements in West Bank and Gaza, forswear annexation of more territory, and to treat Palestinians "as neighbors who deserve political rights". Israeli officials and public were very offended due to the tone of his speech, though his speech called for little more than his predecessors.[21]

He soon decided that Aaron David Miller and Daniel Kurtzer would be his principal aids in Middle Eastern policies. All three have been reported as leaning toward the policies of the Israeli Labor Party.[21]

Baker was notable for making little and slow efforts towards improving the state of Israeli-Palestinian relations. When Bush was elected, he only received 29% of Jewish voters support, and his reelection was thought to be imminent, so there was little pressure on the administration to make bold moves in diplomatic relations with Israel. During his first eight months under the Bush administration, there were five meetings with the PLO, which is far less than his predecessors. All serious issues that Palestine sought to discuss, such as elections and representation in the Israeli government, were delegated to Egypt for decisions to be made.[21]

More tensions rose in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict with a massive influx of Jewish people from the Soviet Union moved to Israel. The Israeli government decided to expand the population further into Palestinian territories. Amidst the growing support of Saddam Hussein in Palestine, due to his opposing of Israel, and his invasion of Kuwait, and the beginning of the Gulf War, Baker decided that he would make some moves towards developing communications between Israel and Palestine.[21]

Baker became the first American statesman to negotiate directly and officially with Palestinians in the Madrid Conference of 1991, which was the first comprehensive peace conference that involved every party involved in the Arab-Israeli conflict and the conference was designed to address all outstanding issues.[21]

After this landmark event, he did not work to further improve Arab-Israeli relations. The administration forced Israel to halt the development of the 6,000 planned housing units, but the 11,000 housing units already under construction were permitted to be completed and inhabited with no penalty.[21]

Baker has been criticized for spending much of his tenure in a state of inaction regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which arguably led to further infringements on Palestinian rights and the growing radicalism of Arabs and Israelis.[21]

Post-Cabinet career

1993–2000

External video
Booknotes interview with Baker on The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War and Peace, 1989-1992, December 3, 1995, C-SPAN

In 1993 Baker became the honorary chair of the James A. Baker III Institute of Public Policy at Rice University in Houston, Texas.

Also in 1993, the Enron Corporation hired Baker as a consultant within a month of his departure from the White House, and Enron said that Baker would have an opportunity to invest in any projects he developed.[22]

In 1995, Baker published his memoirs of service as Secretary of State in a book entitled The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War and Peace, 1989–1992 (ISBN 0-399-14087-5).

In March 1997, Baker became the Personal Envoy of the UN Secretary-General for Western Sahara.[23] In June 2004, he resigned from this position, frustrated over the lack of progress in reaching a complete settlement acceptable to both the government of Morocco and the pro-independence Polisario Front.[24] He left behind the Baker II plan, accepted as a suitable basis of negotiations by the Polisario and unanimously endorsed by the Security Council, but rejected by Morocco.[25]

In addition to the numerous recognitions received by Baker, he was presented with the prestigious Woodrow Wilson Award for public service on September 13, 2000 in Washington, D.C..

2000 presidential election and recount

In 2000, Baker served as chief legal adviser for George W. Bush during the 2000 presidential election campaign and oversaw the Florida recount. The 2008 film Recount covers the days following the controversial election. During the making of the film Baker was interviewed. Baker was portrayed in the film by British actor Tom Wilkinson.

Roles during the Bush administration and Iraq War

On September 11, 2001, Baker watched television coverage of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon from the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Washington DC, where Baker and representatives of Osama bin Laden's family were among those attending the annual conference for the Carlyle Group. Baker is Senior Counselor for the Carlyle Group, and the bin Ladens are among its major investors.[26]

State of Denial, a book by investigative reporter Bob Woodward, says that White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card urged President Bush to replace Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld with Baker following the 2004 election. However, another G. H. W. Bush Administration veteran, Robert Gates, was appointed instead, and only after the 2006 elections. Baker was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2008.[27]

In December 2003, President George W. Bush appointed Baker as his special envoy to ask various foreign creditor nations to forgive or restructure $100 billion in international debts owed by the Iraq government which had been incurred during the tenure of Saddam Hussein.[28] On March 15, 2006, Congress announced the formation of the Iraq Study Group, a high-level panel of prominent former officials charged by members of Congress with taking a fresh look at America's policy on Iraq. Baker was the Republican Co-Chairman along with Democratic Congressman Lee H. Hamilton, to advise Congress on Iraq.[29] Baker also advised George W. Bush on Iraq.[30]

The Iraq Study Group examined a number of ideas, including one that would create a new power-sharing arrangement in Iraq that would give more autonomy to regional factions.[31] On October 9, 2006, the Washington Post quoted co-chairman Baker as saying "our commission believes that there are alternatives between the stated alternatives, the ones that are out there in the political debate, of 'stay the course' and 'cut and run'".

Other advisory positions

Representative Engel, Former Secretaries Baker, Rice, Former NSC Adviser Scowcroft Disembark From U.S. Air Force Jet Upon Arrival in Riyadh
Baker arriving in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2015

Baker serves on the Honorary Council of Advisers for the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce.[32][33]

James Baker serves as an Honorary Co-Chair for the World Justice Project. The World Justice Project works to lead a global, multidisciplinary effort to strengthen the Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity.

Baker is a leader of the Climate Leadership Council, along with Henry Paulson and George P. Shultz.[34] In 2017, this group of "Republican elder statesmen" proposed that conservatives embrace a fee and dividend form of carbon tax (in which all revenue generated by the tax is rebated to the populace in the form of lump-sum dividends), as a policy to deal with anthropogenic climate change. The group also included Martin S. Feldstein and N. Gregory Mankiw.[35]

Baker began service on the Rice University Board of Trustees in 1993.[36]

Personal life

Baker met his first wife, the former Mary Stuart McHenry, of Dayton, Ohio while on spring break in Bermuda with the Princeton University rugby team. They married in 1953. Together they had four sons. Mary Stuart Baker (Mary Stuart was her full first name) died of breast cancer in February 1970.

In 1973, Baker and Susan Garrett Winston, a divorcee and a close friend of Mary Stuart, were married.[7] Winston had two sons and a daughter with her late husband. She and Baker welcomed their daughter Mary Bonner Baker born in 1977.

On June 15, 2002, Virginia Graeme Baker, the seven-year-old granddaughter of Baker, daughter of Nancy and James Baker IV, was the victim of lethal suction-pump entrapment in an in-ground spa.[37] To promote greater safety in pools and spas, Nancy Baker gave testimony to the Consumer Product Safety Commission,[38] and James Baker helped form an advocacy group,[39] which led to the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool And Spa Safety Act (15 USC 8001).[40]

Honors

ribbon bar

Notes

  1. ^ He is actually the fourth-generation successive James Addison Baker in his family, despite using the "III" generational suffix. See Judge James A. Baker, Captain James A. Baker and James A. Baker Jr.

References

  1. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: James Addison Baker III". U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
  2. ^ "About the Baker Institute". James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
  3. ^ City of Houston: Procedures for Historic District Designation Archived June 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. City of Houston. (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). Retrieved: July 11, 2008
  4. ^ "Mother of Secretary of State Baker dies here at 96". Houston Chronicle. April 26, 1991. Retrieved: July 11, 2008
  5. ^ The Alcalde: UT Austin Alumni Magazine (September – October 1991)
  6. ^ Newhouse, John. "Profiles: The Tactician". The New Yorker. May 7, 1990. pp.50–82. Retrieved July 11, 2008
  7. ^ a b Public Policy Papers, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library. "Collection Creator Biography". James A. Baker III Papers; 1957-2011. Retrieved May 11, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ "Pittsburgh Businessman Ford Treasury Nominee". The Leader-Times. Kittanning, PA. United Press International. July 23, 1975. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  9. ^ "President Ford Wednesday Nominated Edward O. Vetter of Dallas, Tex., to be undersecretary of commerce". Santa Ana Register. Santa Ana, CA. June 24, 1976. p. 4 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  10. ^ James A. Baker III, Work Hard, Study... and Keep Out of Politics! (New York, 2006), 122.
  11. ^ "Phil Gailey and Warren Weaver, Jr., "Briefing"". The New York Times, June 5, 1982. June 5, 1982. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  12. ^ 1984 National Results U.S. Election Atlas
  13. ^ "National Winners | public service awards | Jefferson Awards.org". jeffersonawards.org. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  14. ^ NNDB profile.
  15. ^ NNDB, "White House Chief of Staff" list.
  16. ^ Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh, The Gulf conflict: diplomacy and war in the new world order (New Jersey, 1993), 257.
  17. ^ Plague war: Interviews: James Baker. Frontline. PBS. 1995
  18. ^ 2000. "Sadam's Toxic Arsenal". Planning the Unthinkable. ISBN 0801437768
  19. ^ James Baker: The Man Who Made Washington Work. PBS. 2015
  20. ^ Bolton, John (June 3, 2011). "How to Block the Palestine Statehood Ploy". The Wall Street Journal. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Christison, Kathleen (Autumn 1994). "Splitting the Difference: The Palestinian-Israeli Policy of James Baker". Journal of Palestine Studies. 24 (1): 39–50. doi:10.2307/2537981. JSTOR 2537981.
  22. ^ "Baker and Mosbacher Are Hired by Enron". NYTimes.com. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  23. ^ "U.N. ENVOY: Asking Baker to resolve dispute is good choice". Houston Chronicle. March 20, 1997
  24. ^ United States Institute of Peace 1. Juli 2006: The United Nations and Western Sahara: A Never-ending Affair
  25. ^ "Baker resigns as UN mediator after seven years". IRIN. Dakar. June 14, 2004. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  26. ^ "James Baker". nndb.com. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  27. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  28. ^ King, John. “Bush appoints Baker envoy on Iraqi debt”, "CNN.com", December 3, 2003, retrieved August 11, 2009.
  29. ^ Paley, Amit R. "U.S. and Iraqi Forces Clash With Sadr Militia in South". Washington Post. October 9, 2006
  30. ^ "Baker surfaces as key adviser to Bush on Iraq". Insight Magazine. September 12, 2006
  31. ^ Sanger, David E. "G.O.P.'s Baker Hints Iraq Plan Needs Change". New York Times. October 9, 2006
  32. ^ Honorary Council of Advisers Archived December 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ U.S. Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce
  34. ^ John Schwartz (February 7, 2017). "'A Conservative Climate Solution': Republican Group Calls for Carbon Tax". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2017. The group, led by former Secretary of State James A. Baker III, with former Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Henry M. Paulson Jr., a former secretary of the Treasury, says that taxing carbon pollution produced by burning fossil fuels is "a conservative climate solution" based on free-market principles.
  35. ^ https://www.clcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/TheConservativeCaseforCarbonDividends.pdf
  36. ^ "Guide to the Baker Family papers, 1853-1971 MS 040". Texas Archival Resources Online. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  37. ^ Dumas, Bob. "Troubled Waters" Pool & Spa News. October 2003
  38. ^ Chow, Shern-Min. "Former Secretary of state pushes for hot tub safety standards". Vac-Alert. June 29, 2007
  39. ^ Press Releases: "Former Secretary of State James Baker speaks in support of legislation intended to prevent accidental drowning". Safe Kids Worldwide. May 2, 2006
  40. ^ "Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act" Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Consumer Product Safety Commission. at Vac-Alert Archived September 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)

Further reading

Works by

  • 1995: The Politics of Diplomacy. with Thomas M. DeFrank. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 9780399140877.
  • 2006: "Work Hard, Study... And Keep Out of Politics!": Adventures and Lessons from an Unexpected Public Life. with Steve Fiffer. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 9780399153778.

Works about

  • Bryce, Robert, (2004). Cronies: Oil, the Bushes, and the Rise of Texas, America's Superstate. New York: Perseus Books Group. ISBN 9781586481889.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Jack Watson
White House Chief of Staff
1981–1985
Succeeded by
Don Regan
Preceded by
Don Regan
United States Secretary of the Treasury
1985–1988
Succeeded by
Nicholas Brady
Preceded by
George Shultz
United States Secretary of State
1989–1992
Succeeded by
Lawrence Eagleburger
Preceded by
Samuel Skinner
White House Chief of Staff
1992–1993
Succeeded by
Mack McLarty
2012 Wilmington mayoral election

The 2012 Wilmington mayoral election was held on Tuesday, November 6, 2012, to elect the mayor of Wilmington, Delaware. Incumbent mayor James Baker was ineligible to run again because of term limits.

Democratic Party primaries were held on September 11, 2012 and won by Dennis P. Williams. Williams faced a write-in campaign from Kevin Melloy in the general election. Williams won the general election.

Avenged Sevenfold

Avenged Sevenfold (sometimes abbreviated as A7X) is an American heavy metal band from Huntington Beach, California, formed in 1999. The band's current lineup consists of lead vocalist M. Shadows, rhythm guitarist and backing vocalist Zacky Vengeance, lead guitarist and backing vocalist Synyster Gates, bassist and backing vocalist Johnny Christ, and drummer Brooks Wackerman.

Avenged Sevenfold is known for its diverse rock sound and dramatic imagery in album covers and merchandise. Avenged Sevenfold emerged with a metalcore sound on the band's debut Sounding the Seventh Trumpet and continued this sound through their second album Waking the Fallen. However, Avenged Sevenfold's style had evolved by the band's third album and first major label release, City of Evil, into a heavy metal and hard rock style. The band continued to explore new sounds with its self-titled release and enjoyed continued mainstream success before their drummer, James "The Rev" Sullivan, died in 2009. Despite his death, Avenged Sevenfold continued on with the help of drummer Mike Portnoy (Dream Theater), and released and toured in support of its fifth album Nightmare in 2010, which debuted on the top spot of the Billboard 200, Avenged Sevenfold's first number one debut. In 2011 drummer Arin Ilejay joined the band on tours and recording. Avenged Sevenfold's sixth studio album Hail to the King, which was released in 2013, marked the only Avenged Sevenfold album featuring Arin Ilejay. Hail to the King charted as number 1 on the Billboard 200, the UK Albums chart, as well as the Finnish, Brazilian, Canadian, and Irish charts. In late 2014, Ilejay left the band, and was replaced by former Bad Religion drummer Brooks Wackerman, but the lineup change wasn't announced to the public until 2015. The band then surprise-released their seventh studio album titled The Stage on October 28, 2016, which debuted as number 4 on the Billboard 200 chart in the US. The Stage is their first conceptual album and it marked another stylistic change for the band, moving towards the progressive metal sound.

To date, Avenged Sevenfold has released seven studio albums, one live album/DVD, two compilation albums and eighteen singles and have sold over 8 million albums worldwide. Avenged Sevenfold was ranked No. 47 on Loudwire's list of Top 50 Metal Bands of All Time. Avenged Sevenfold have released an original song for each game in the Call of Duty: Black Ops series.

Baker rules

The Baker rules refer to a set of negotiation process principles identifying who the parties to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict are. The Republic of Armenia and Republic of Azerbaijan are identified as the principal parties and Armenian community and Azerbaijani community of Karabakh are identified as interested parties.The Baker rules were named after the 61st US Secretary of State James Baker III, who was appointed US top negotiator within CSCE mediation efforts to end Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The rules on how the parties to the conflict were going to be represented during CSCE sponsored negotiations were agreed by foreign ministers of Azerbaijan and Armenia. Since the inception, Baker rules has been the core basis within the negotiation process mediated by OSCE Minsk Group.

Bittersweet (Hoodoo Gurus song)

"Bittersweet" was a single by Australian rock group Hoodoo Gurus which reached #10 on the Melbourne Record Charts. It was released on Big Time Records in June, 1985; and was written by Dave Faulkner."Mars Needs Guitars" (B side), was written by all five Gurus (James Baker, Clyde Bramley, Faulkner, Mark Kingsmill and Brad Shepherd) and lead vocals were by Brad Shepherd.

It was also released in 1985 in the United States by Elektra with "Bring the Hoodoo Down" as the B-side, and in the United Kingdom as a 12" single by Chrysalis Records with two B-sides, "Bring the Hoodoo Down" & "Turkey Dinner".

"... I vowed to myself that I would write less comic narratives and try to express my sentiments in a more forthright way. I feel I succeeded with "Bittersweet" though at the time I didn't think that a) the band would want to play it and b) our audience would want to hear it. I was happily wrong on both counts." - Dave Faulkner.

Brighton Half Marathon

The Brighton Half Marathon is an annual half marathon road running race. The race is run primarily along Brighton seafront and passes through famous landmarks such as the Royal Pavilion, Brighton Pier, West Pier and Brighton Marina.

In 2014 the Brighton Half Marathon was named as one the eight events in the Vitality Run Series alongside the Liverpool Half Marathon, Reading Half Marathon, Oxford Half Marathon, Bath Half Marathon, North London Half Marathon, Hackney Half Marathon and British 10k London Run.

On 31 March 2017 it was announced that the course used for the 2015–2017 races was 146 metres (0.09 mi) short of the full distance and that the times of the runners in the three races are likely to be expunged from official records. This came after the organisers had previously apologised for the course being 0.32 miles too long in 2012.

Catholic sexual abuse scandal in Victoria

The Catholic sexual abuse scandal in Victoria is part of the Catholic clerical sexual abuse in Australia and the much wider Catholic sexual abuse scandal in general, which involves charges, convictions, trials and ongoing investigations into allegations of sex crimes committed by Catholic priests and members of religious orders. The Catholic Church in Victoria has been implicated in a reported 40 suicides among about 620 sexual abuse victims acknowledged to the public after internal investigations by the Catholic Church in Victoria.

Following a preliminary 2012 police investigation, on 17 April 2012, the Government established the Inquiry into the Handling of Child Abuse by Religious and other Non-Government Organisations "to inquire into, consider and report to the Parliament on the processes by which religious and other non-government organisations respond to the criminal abuse of children by personnel within their organisations." The Inquiry tabled its report to Parliament on 13 November 2013 and the Government tabled its response to the Inquiry's recommendations on 8 May 2014.

Donald Regan

Donald Thomas "Don" Regan (December 21, 1918 – June 10, 2003) was the 66th United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1981 to 1985 and the White House Chief of Staff from 1985 to 1987 under Ronald Reagan. In the Reagan administration, he advocated "Reaganomics" and tax cuts as a means to create jobs and to stimulate production.

Earlier in his life, he had studied at Harvard University before he served in the United States Marine Corps, achieving the rank of lieutenant colonel. He then started to work for Merrill Lynch in 1946, serving as its chairman and CEO from 1971 to 1980.

Houston Club

The Houston Club is a private social club located in Houston, Texas. As of January 2013 the club is housed on 910 Louisiana Street in the Shell building in Downtown Houston. The club members are a part of Houston's business, civic, cultural, and financial communities. Members include business leaders, cultural leaders, consuls general, doctors, entrepreneurs, governors, mayors, and presidents. Notable members include former President of the United States George H. W. Bush and James Baker. Maggie Galehouse of the Houston Chronicle said, "In its heyday - the mid-1950s to the mid-1980s - the Houston Club was the power broker club in the city."

James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy

The James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, also known as the Baker Institute, is an American think tank on the campus of Rice University in Houston, Texas. Founded in 1993, it functions as a nonpartisan center for public policy research and formerly awarded the Enron Prize for Distinguished Public Service, made possible by an endowment gift from that company. It is named for James A. Baker, III, former United States Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, and White House Chief of Staff.

The institute employs scholars and researchers from a variety of backgrounds. Its current research includes centers for different areas: The Center for the Middle East, The McNair Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation, The Mexico Center, and The Center for Energy Studies. Other programs include China Studies, Drug Policy, Health Policy Forum, International Economics, Latin America Initiative, Politics and Elections, Religion and Public Policy, Space Policy, Science and Technology, and Tax and Expenditure Policy. The institute is a sponsoring organization for the Iraq Study Group. It is supported mainly by donor contributions.

James Baker (musician)

James Lawrence Baker (born 7 March 1954) is a rock musician from Perth, Western Australia. He has drummed with several bands including the Scientists (1978–81, 1995), Le Hoodoo Gurus (1981–84), Beasts of Bourbon (1983–85, 1988–90), and the Dubrovniks (1986–94). In 2006 Baker was inducted into the West Australian Music Industry Hall of Fame. Hoodoo Gurus were inducted into the 2007 ARIA Hall of Fame.

James Baker Pyne

James Baker Pyne (5 December 1800 – 29 July 1870) was an English landscape painter who became a successful follower of Turner, after having been in his earlier years a member of the Bristol School of artists and a follower of Francis Danby.

James Dewar (baker)

James Alexander Dewar (February 5, 1897 – June 30, 1985) was the Canadian inventor of the Twinkie.

Leilani (song)

"Leilani" was the first single by iconic Australian rock group Hoodoo Gurus when they were called Le Hoodoo Gurus and was released on Phantom Records in October 1982. It had been written by all four Gurus: James Baker, Dave Faulkner, Roddy Radalj and Kimble Rendall. Rendall left shortly before its release and, not long after, the band dropped the 'Le' to become Hoodoo Gurus. Le Hoodoo Gurus were noted for having three guitars and no bass player, creating a distinctive, layered sound. This was captured on "Leilani", which told the story of a maiden sacrificed to the gods and an erupting volcano while her true love looked on helplessly. The song was later released on Hoodoo Gurus' first album Stoneage Romeos (1984).

"Astute listeners will note the absence of bass guitar in the band... "Leilani" was based on an old 50s movie, Bird of Paradise starring Jeff Chandler..." - Dave Faulkner.

Bird of Paradise (1951) is described at Internet Movie Database.

Backing vocals are ascribed to Orphan Rock and to The Three Sisters. Both The Three Sisters and Orphan Rock are geological features of The Blue Mountains near Katoomba, New South Wales.

The single was re-released by Big Time Records in 1985, as part of a limited edition collection of the band's first six singles, together with "Tojo", "My Girl", "I Want You Back, "Bittersweet", and "Like Wow - Wipeout"

"Leilani" was performed by The Living End on the 2005 tribute album Stoneage Cameos (see Stoneage Romeos); while "Leilani Part 2" was performed by The Sailors.

New Birth (band)

New Birth (also known as The New Birth) is an American funk and R&B group. It was originally conceived in Detroit, Michigan by former Motown songwriter/producer, Vernon Bullock and co-founded in Louisville, Kentucky by him with former singer and Motown songwriter/producer Harvey Fuqua and musicians, Tony Churchill, James Baker, Robin Russell, Austin Lander, Robert "Lurch" Jackson, Leroy Taylor, Charlie Hearndon, Bruce Marshall and Nathaniel "Nebs" Neblett.

Politics of Western Sahara

The politics of Western Sahara take place in a framework of an area claimed by both the partially recognized Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and the Kingdom of Morocco.

Occupied by Spain from 1884 to 1975, as Spanish Sahara, the territory has been listed with the United Nations as a case of incomplete decolonization since the 1960s, making it the last major territory to effectively remain a colony, according to the UN. The conflict is largely between the Kingdom of Morocco and the national liberation movement known as Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), now basically administered by a government in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.

Following to the Madrid Accords, the territory was partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in November 1975, with Morocco acquiring the northern two-thirds. Mauritania, under pressure from the POLISARIO guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979, with Morocco moving to annex that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control over the majority of the territory. A portion is administered by the SADR. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was seated as a member of the Organisation of African Unity in 1984, and was a founding member of the African Union. Guerrilla activities continued until a United Nations-monitored cease-fire was implemented September 6, 1991 via the mission MINURSO. The mission patrols the separation line between the two territories.In 2003, the UN's envoy to the territory, James Baker, presented the Baker Plan, known as Baker II which would have given Western Sahara immediate autonomy as the Western Sahara Authority during a five-year transition period to prepare for a referendum, offering the inhabitants of the territory a choice between independence, autonomy within the Kingdom of Morocco, or complete integration with Morocco. POLISARIO has accepted the plan, but Morocco has rejected it. Previously in 2001, Baker had presented his framework plan, called Baker I, where the dispute would be finally solved through an autonomy within Moroccan sovereignty, but Algeria and the Polisario Front refused it. Algeria had proposed the partition of the territory instead.

Richard Baker (broadcaster)

Richard Douglas James Baker OBE RD (15 June 1925 – 17 November 2018) was an English broadcaster, best known as a newsreader for BBC News from 1954 to 1982, and as a radio presenter of classical music. He was a contemporary of Kenneth Kendall and Robert Dougall and was the first reader of the BBC Television News (in voiceover) in 1954.

Rorschach Test (band)

Rorschach Test is an American industrial band from Denver, Colorado, formed by James Baker.

Stargirl (TV series)

Stargirl is an upcoming American drama web television series, based on the DC Comics superhero Stargirl created by Geoff Johns and Lee Moder, that is set to premiere in early 2020 on DC Universe.

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1781–89
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1789–present
Cabinet of President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989)

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