Jahannam

Jahannam (Arabic: جهنم‎) in Islam refers to an afterlife place of punishment for evildoers. The punishments are carried in accordance with the degree of evil one has done during his life.[1] In Quran, Jahannam is also referred as an-Nar النار ("The Fire"),[2] Jaheem جحيم ("Blazing Fire"[3]), Hutamah حطمة ("That which Breaks to Pieces" [4]), Haawiyah هاوية ("The Abyss"[5]), Ladthaa لظى, Sa’eer سعير ("The Blaze"[6]), Saqar سقر.[7][8] and also the names of different gates to hell.[9] Just like the Islamic heavens, the common belief holds that, Jahannam coexists with the temporary world.[10]

Suffering in hell is both physical and spiritual,[11][12] and varies according to the sins of the condemned.[13] As described in the Quran, Hell has seven levels (each one more severe than the one above it[11]); seven gates (each for a specific group of sinners[14]); a blazing fire, boiling water, and the Tree of Zaqqum.[15] Not all Muslims and scholars agree whether hell is an eternal destination or whether some or even all of the condemned will eventually be forgiven and allowed to enter paradise.[11][13][16]

Sources

Most of how Muslims picture and think about Jahannam comes from the Qur'an, according to scholar Einar Thomassen, who found nearly 500 references to Jahannam/hell (using a variety of names) in the Qur'an.[17] Jahannam appears in the Qur'an 77 times, Al-Jaheem 23 times.[18]

Quran

The tree 'Zaqqum' and Jahannam
Muhammad visits at the inmates of hell, tormented by Zabaniyya led by the guardians of hell also showing the tree Zaqqum with the heads of Shayateen. Miniature from "The David Collection Copenhagen"

The Qur'an uses a number of different terms and phrases to refer to hell. Al-nar (the fire) is used 125 times, jahannam 77 times, jaheem (blazing flames) 26 times.[19] One collection[20] of Quranic descriptions of hell include "rather specific indications of the tortures of the Fire": flames that crackle and roar;[21] fierce, boiling waters [22] scorching wind, and black smoke,[23] roaring and boiling as if it would burst with rage.[24] Its wretched inhabitants sigh and wail,[25] their scorched skins are constantly exchanged for new ones so that they can taste the torment anew,[26] drink festering water and though death appears on all sides they cannot die.[27] They are linked together in chains of 70 cubits,[28] wearing pitch for clothing and fire on their faces,[29] have boiling water that will be poured over their heads, melting their insides as well as their skins, and hooks of iron to drag them back should they try to escape,[30] their remorseful admissions of wrongdoing and pleading for forgiveness are in vain.[31][32][33]

The description of Jahannam as a place of blazing fire appears in almost every verse in the Qur'an describing hell.[34] Jahannam is described as being located below heaven,[35][36] having seven gates, each for a specific group[9] or at least a different "portion" or "party"[37] of sinners. The Quran also mentions wrongdoers having "degrees (or ranks) according to their deeds"[38] which scholar believe refers to the seven gates.[19] The one mention of levels of hell is that hypocrites will be found in its very bottom.[19][39]

The Quran mentions three different sources of food in hell:

  1. Ḍari‘, a dry desert plant that is full of thorns and fails to relieve hunger or sustain a person (88:6);[40][41][42]
  2. ghislin, which is only mentioned once (in 69:36, which states that it is the only nourishment in hell);[42][43]
  3. zaqqum is mentioned three times.[42]

Hadiths

The Hadiths (the corpus of the reports of the teachings, deeds and sayings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) introduce punishments, reasons and revelations not mentioned in the Quran. In both Quranic verses and hadiths, "the Fire" (Jahannam) is "a gruesome place of punishment that is always contrasted with Jannah, "the Garden" (paradise). Whatever characteristic "the Garden offered, the Fire usually offered the opposite conditions."[44] Several hadith describes a part of hell that is extremely cold rather than hot, known as Zamhareer.[45]

According to Bukhari, lips are cut by scissors. Other traditions added flogging. An Uighur manuscript, also mentions drowning, stoning and falling from heights.[46] Based on hadiths, the sinners are thought to carry signs in accordance with their sins.[47]

Eschatological manuals

In addition to the Quran and hadith are "Eschatological manuals". These were written after the other two sources and developed descriptions of Jahannam "in more deliberate ways".[48] While the Quran and hadith tend to describe punishments that unbelievers are forced to give themselves, the manuals illustrate external and more dramatic punishment, through devils, scorpions, and snakes.[49]

Manuals dedicated solely to the subject of Jahannam include Ibn Abi al-Dunya's Sifat al-nar, and al-Maqdisi's Dhikr al-nar. Other manuals—such as texts by al-Ghazali and the 12th-century scholar Qadi Ayyad -- "dramatise life in the Fire", and present "new punishments, different types of sinners, and the appearance of a multitude of devils," to exhort the faithful to piety.[9] His hell has a structure with a specific place for each type of sinners.[49]

Al Ghazali, in his book The Remembrance of Death and the Afterlife, describes and discusses the "wrongdoer" and graphic, sometimes violent scenes of Jahannam.[50]

According to theologian Al-Ghazali, Afterlife will start with the "Day of the Arising" and a trumpet blast[51] which will wake the dead from their graves. "The Perspiration"[52][53] —when all created beings, including men, angels, jinn, devils and animals gather and sweat unshaded from the sun—will follow.[54] Sinners and unbelievers will suffer and sweat longer on this day, which lasts for "50,000 years". God will judge each soul,[55] accept no excuses, and examine every act and intention—no matter how small.[56] It is believed those whose good deeds outweigh the bad will be assigned to Jannah (heaven), and those whose bad deeds outweigh the good to Jahannam.[57][58] Finally the souls will traverse over hellfire[59] via the bridge of sirat. For sinners, it is believed the bridge will be thinner than hair and sharper than the sharpest sword, impossible to walk on without falling below to arrive at their destination.[60]

According to Leor Halevi, between the moment of death and the time of their burial ceremony, "the spirit of a deceased Muslim takes a quick journey to Heaven and Hell, where it beholds visions of the bliss and torture awaiting humanity at the end of days".[61]

In 'The Soul's Journey After Death, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya, a theologian in the 14th century, writes explicitly of punishments faced by sinners and unbelievers in Jahannam. These are directly related to the wrongdoer's earthly transgressions.[62]

Concepts of Jahannam

Idris the prophet
The Islamic prophet Idris is shown looking at the inmates of hell with an angel. In hell, the inmates are tormented by a Zabaniyya.

Jahanam is depicted as an abyss with scorching winds and the As-Sirat bridge above. Its gates are guardianed by Maalik and his subordinated angels. From the depth of Jahannam grows Zaqqum a tree with fruits looking like the heads of demons. Sinners will be tormented by the Zabaniyya. Quran 4:168 and Quran 37:23 talk of a road that leads to hell.[19][6]

Locating hell

Traditionally, the layers of hell were thought of corresponding with the layers of earth. Scholars thought about different ideas, where the entrance to hell could be located. Some believed the sulphourus well in Hadramawt, allegedly haunted by the souls of the wicked, to be the entrance to the underworld. Others considered the entrance in the valley of Hinnom. In a Persian work, the entry to hell is located in a gorge called Wadi Jahannam in Afghanistan.[47]

Eternal or temporary

The Ulama were not in agreement on whether abodes in hell last forever or not. Several verses in the Quran mention the eternal nature of hell or both heaven and hell. [Note 1] Quran 7:23, the damned will linger in hell for ages.[63] Two verses in the Quran (6:128[64] and 11:107[65]) emphasize that consignment to hell is horrible and eternal — but include the caveat "except as God (or your Lord) wills it". Some scholars considered this an escape from the eternity of hell.[66] Quran (10:107) suggests that Jahannam will be destroyed some day,[67] so that its inhabitants may either be rehabilitated or cease to exist. The concept of hell's annihilation is referred to as fanāʾ al-nār.[10]

The common belief among Muslims is that duration in hell is temporary for Muslims but not for others,[68][69] thus combining the concept of an eternal hell with that of the Christian Catholic concept of purgatory.[70]

Sentience

Some scholars like al-Ghazali and the thirteenth-century Muslim scholar Al-Qurtubi describes hell as a gigantic sentient being, rather than a place. In Paradise and Hell-fire in Imam al Qurtubi, Qurtubi writes, "On the Day of Judgment, hell will be brought with seventy thousand reins. A single rein will be held by seventy thousand angels...".[71] Based on verse 67:7 and verse 50:30 Jahannam inhales and has "breaths". Islamicity notes "the animalistic nature" of "The Fire" in Quranic verse 25:12: "When the Hellfire sees them from a distant place, they will hear its fury and roaring".[18] According to a hadith, God will ask Jahannam, if it is full and Jahannam answers: "Are there any more (to come)?"[72]

Sunni concept of Jahannam

Sunnism traditionally divides Jahannam into seven stages. According to one common tradition the layers of hell are:

  1. A fire for sinners among the Muslims
  2. Inferno interim for the sinner among the Christians
  3. Provisional destination for sinners among the Jewish
  4. The burning fire for renegades
  5. A place for witches and fortunetellers
  6. Furnace for the disbelievers
  7. A bottomless abyss for hypocrites, like the Pharaoh and people who disbelieves after Isa's table or Muslims who are outwardly believers but inwardly infidels.[68]

Another common tradition divides "seven earths" identified with hell, into the following:

  1. A dim (surface), inhabited by mankind and jinn.
  2. Basit (plain), the prison of winds, from where the winds come from.
  3. Thaqil (region of distress), the antechamber of hell, in which dwell men with the mouth of a dog, the ears of a goat and the cloven hoof of an ox.
  4. Batih (place of torrents or swamps), a valley through which flows a stream of boiling sulphur to torment the wicked. The dweller in this valley have no eyes and in place of feet, have wings.
  5. Hayn (region of adversity), in which serpents of enormous size devour the infidels.
  6. Masika/Sijjin (store or dungeon), the office where sins are recorded and where souls are tormented by scorpions of the size of mules.
  7. As-Saqar (place of burning) and Athara (place of damp and great cold) the home of Iblis, who is chained in the midst of the rebel angels, his hand fastened one in front of and the other behind him, except when set free by God to chastise his demons.[73][74]

Mystic concept of Jahannam

Muslim mystics, just like non-mystics, take Jahannam to be a place where sinners in this world will be punished, but they have provided various characterizations of the notion of the Jahannam. Historically speaking, Sufi views develop from the fear of God to the love of God; they emphasize the interior of the sharia as well as its exterior. Sufism was finally developed into the theoretical mysticism which cultivated in the theories of ibn 'Arabi and his followers.

According to ibn 'Arabi, the Hell and the Heaven refer, in fact, to distance from, and proximity to, God, respectively. The Hell which is home to wrong-doers is their conception of their distance from God, and the painful punishment and humility is that of distance. Such a distance is caused by one's indulgence in their natural desires and the illusion of things other than God as existent. But such a distance is only illusory, since everything is a form of the degrees of the Divine Existence, and thus, everything other than God is but illusion. According to ibn 'Arabi, the Hell and the Heaven are psychological states of the soul manifestated after its separation from the body.[75] In later centuries, Sufis did not even find it acceptable for one to ask for the Heaven in the hope of meeting God or to do good in fear of hell.

Ahmadiyya concept of Jahannam

According to Ahmadiyya Islam, afterlife places are images of man's own spiritual life during lifetime, the fire a manifestation of his sins. The main purpose of Jahannam is therefore regarded to purge man from his evil deeds. Punishment therefore exists for perpetual spiritual advancement of human. Muslims and Non-Muslims both may enter or avoid hell depending on their deeds.[76][77]

Hadith

Muhammad and "shameless women" in Hell
Muhammad, Buraq and Gabriel observe "shameless women" being punished in Hell for exposing their hair to the sight of strangers.

Hadith literature give expanded details and descriptions of Jahannam. For example, it is perceived to be so deep that if a stone were thrown into it, it would fall for 70 years before reaching the bottom.[78] The breadth of each of Hell's walls is equivalent to a distance covered by a walking journey of 40 years.[78] Malik in Hadith quotes Mohammed as saying that the fire of Jahannam was seventy times greater than fire on earth.[79] He also described that fire as "blacker than tar".[80]

In book 87 Hadith 155, "Interpretation of Dreams" of Sahih al-Bukhari, Muhammad talked of angels each with "a mace of iron" who guarded hell, and then expanded on the Qur'an's discourse describing Jahannam by recounting it as a place that

"was built inside like a well and it had side posts like those of a well, and beside each post there was an angel carrying an iron mace. I saw therein many people hanging upside down with iron chains, and I recognized therein some men from the Quraish".[81]

Some prominent people in, or destined to arrive in, hell mentioned in the Hadith and Quran are: Fir'awn (viz., the pharaoh of The Exodus, mentioned in Surah Yunus (specifically Q10:90-92), the wives of Nuh and Lut (mentioned in Surah At-Tahrim, specifically Q:66-10), and Abu Lahab and his wife (who were contemporaries and enemies of Muhammad and mentioned in Surah Al-Masadd, specifically Q:111).

According to Muhammad, the majority of the inhabitants of hell will be women, due to an inclination for gossip, conjecture, and idle chatter.,[82][83] though other hadith also mention that the majority of people in paradise will be women [84]

Other people mentioned in Hadith include, but are not limited to, the mighty, the proud and the haughty.[85]

According to one hadith, out of every one thousand people entering into the afterlife, nine hundred and ninety-nine of them will end up in the fire.[86][87][88]

Sahih Muslim quotes Muhammad as saying that suicides would reside in Jahannam forever.[89] According to Hadith collector Muwatta Imam Malik (Imam Malik), Muhammad said: "Truly a man utters words to which he attaches no importance, and by them he falls into the fire of Jahannam."[90]

Al-Bukhari in book 72:834 added to the list of dwellers in Jahannam: "The people who will receive the severest punishment from Allah will be the picture makers".[91][92] Use of utensils made of precious metals could also land its users in Jahannam: "A person who drinks from a silver vessel brings the fire of Jahannam into his belly".[93] As could starving a cat to death: "A woman was tortured and was put in Hell because of a cat which she had kept locked till it died of hunger."[94][95]

At least one hadith indicates the importance of faith in avoiding hell, stating: "... no one will enter Hell in whose heart is an atom's weight of faith.”[Note 2]

Religious comparison

Christianity

Bible

Some of the Quranic parables describing the sufferings in hell resemble those of the Christian New testament.[97]

The Bible states:
"And he gave a cry and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me and send Lazarus, so that he may put the end of his finger in water and put it on my tongue, for I am cruelly burning in this flame."Luke 16:24
"And in addition, there is a deep division fixed between us and you, so that those who might go from here to you are not able to do so, and no one may come from you to us."Luke 16:26
"Unhappy are you who are full of food now: for you will be in need. Unhappy are you who are laughing now: for you will be crying in sorrow."Luke 6:25
Resemble the Quran stating:
"And the companions of the Fire will call to the companions of Paradise, "Pour upon us some water or from whatever Allah has provided you." They will say, "Indeed, Allah has forbidden them both to the disbelievers."17:50
"And between them will be a partition, and on [its] elevations are men who recognize all by their mark. And they call out to the companions of Paradise, "Peace be upon you." They have not [yet] entered it, but they long intensely."7:46
"So let them laugh a little and [then] weep much as recompense for what they used to earn."9:82

The Book of Revelation describes a "lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death",[98] which most Christians believe to be a description of Hell, comparable to Jahannam as "the fire". While the Quran describes Jahannam as having seven levels, each for different sins, the Bible (as regards the issue of levels), speaks of the "lowest Hell (Sheol)".[99][100] It also refers to a "bottomless pit",[101] comparable to the lowest layer of Jahannam in most Sunni traditions.

Christian tradition

DVinfernoLuciferKingOfHell m
Satan is trapped in the frozen central zone in the Ninth Circle of Hell, Inferno, Canto 34.

The Hell often depicted in Christian culture[Note 3] is the seat of the devil. Sources differ as to whether Jahannam is also. Yahiya Emerick describes it as "not the headquarters of Shaytan (Satan) and his devils as is the popular idea in Western culture", but simply a place created by God to punish sinners.[13] On the other hand, in the Al-sīra of Ibn Ishaq, the Devil may at least be thought as governing hell until the Day of Judgment.[103] According to Al-Tha'alibis (961–1038) Qisas Al-Anbiya, Iblis is fastened at the bottom of hell and commands his demons from there.[104] In late Ottoman poetry by Ğabdulla Tuqay, Iblis current abode in hell is compared to working in factories during Industrial Revolution. When Iblis gets weary about hell, he remembers his time in heaven.[105] One should note, even if Iblis is assumed as the temporarily ruler of Jahannam, his reign depends on the power of God and hell is still a place of punishment even for the devil.[106]

Like the Islamic concept of hell, non-Biblical Christian-based writings, such as Dante's Inferno, speak of hell divided into multiple "circles". According to the Divine Comdey, each layer corresponding to another sin with Satan inside a frozen area at the very bottom.[107]

Christian Liberalism

In modern times some Christians and Christian denominations (such as Universalism) have rejected the concept of hell as a place of suffering and torment for sinners on the grounds that it is incompatible with a loving god.[Note 4] There are also symbolic and more merciful interpretations of hell among Muslims.[109] Muslims Mouhanad Khorchide and Faheem Younus write that since the Quran states that God has "prescribed to himself mercy",[109] and "... for him whose scales (of good deeds) are light. Hell will be his mother,"[110][111] suffering in jahannam is not a product of vengeance and punishment, but a temporary phenomenon as the sinner is "transformed" in the process of confronting the truth about themselves.[112][111] However, this has not been the common view of Muslims; Christian evangelist Phil Parshall, who spent several decades observing and writing about Muslims in Asia, writes that he "never met a Muslim who has attempted to undercut the bluntness and severity of their doctrine of hell."[113]

Judeo-Islamic sources

Arabic texts written by Jews in Judeo-Arabic script (particularly those which are identified with the Isra'iliyyat genre in the study of hadith) also feature descriptions of Jahannam (or Jahannahum). These seem to have been strongly influenced by the Islamic environment in which they were composed, and may be considered as holding many of the same concepts as those today identified with Islamic eschatology. A Judeo-Arabic version of a popular narrative known as The Story of the Skull (whose earliest version is attributed to Ka'ab al-Ahbar) offers a detailed picture of the concept of Jahannam.[114] Here, Malak al-Mawt (the Angel of Death) and a number of sixty angels seize the soul of the dead and begin torturing him with fire and iron hooks. Two black angels named Nākir and Nakīr (identified with Munkar and Nakir in Islamic eschatology) strike the dead with a whip of fire and take him to the lowest level of Jahannam. Then, they order the Earth to swallow and crush the dead inside its womb, saying: "Seize him and take revenge, because he has stolen Allāh's wealth and worshipped others than Him".[114] Following this, the dead is brought before the dais of God where a herald calls for throwing the dead into Jahannam. There he is put in shackles sixty cubits long and into a leather sackcloth full of snakes and scorpions.

The Judeo-Arabic legend in question explains that the dead is set free from the painful perogatory after twenty-four years. In a final quote alluding to Isaiah 58.8, the narrative states that "nothing will help Man on the last day except good and loving actions, deeds of giving charity to widows, orphans, the poor and the unfortunate."[114]

Some Jewish sources such as Jerahmeel provide descriptive detail of hell-like places, divided into multiple levels; usually Sheol, which is translated as a grave or pit, is the place where humans descend upon death.

Zoroastrianism

Like Zoroastrianism, Islam holds that on Judgement Day all souls will pass over a bridge over hell (As-Sirāt in Islam, Chinvat Bridge in Zorastrianism) which those destined for hell will find too narrow and fall below into their new abode.[115]

Hinduism

In case of a finite hell, as a circulation of beginning and reset, the cosmology resembles to a hinduistic notion of an eternal cosmic process of generation, decay and destruction.[116]

Buddhism

Some descriptions of Jahannam resemble Buddhist descriptions of Naraka from Mahayana sutras in regard of destroying inhabitants of hell physically, while their consciousness still remains and after once the body is destroyed, it will regenerate again, thus the punishment will repeat.[117] However, according to Buddhism belief, the inhabitants are able to gain good Karma and in certain circumstances leave hell again.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^
    • "Never shall they issue from the Fire." S. 2:167 Arberry
    • Their wish will be to get out of the Fire, but never will they get out therefrom: their penalty will be one that endures. S. 5:36-37
    • taste ye the Penalty of Eternity for your (evil) deeds!" S. 32:14
    • the Fire: therein will be for them the Eternal Home: a (fit) requital, for that they were wont to reject Our Signs. S. 41:28
  2. ^ hadith At-Tirmidhi (1999), Abu Dawood (4091) and Ibn Maajah (59) narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ood that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “No one will enter Paradise in whose heart is an atom's weight of arrogance and no one will enter Hell in whose heart is an atom's weight of faith.”[96]
  3. ^ The Christian Bible itself makes no mention of hell being the home of the devil.[102]
  4. ^ At least in one Christian majority country -- the US. "Over the last 20 years, the number of Americans who believe in the fiery down under has dropped from 71 percent to 58 percent. ... Underlying these statistics is a conundrum that continues to tug at the conscience of some Christians, who find it difficult to reconcile the existence of a just, loving God with a doctrine that dooms billions of people to eternal punishment."[108]

Citations

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  4. ^ Quran 104:4
  5. ^ Quran 101:9
  6. ^ a b Quran 67:5
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  28. ^ Quran 69:30-32
  29. ^ Quran 14:50
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Books and journal articles

A Party in Hell

A Party in Hell (Persian: Shab-neshini dar Jahannam‎) is a 1956 Iranian film directed by Samuel Khachikian and Mushegh Sarvarian. It was entered into the 8th Berlin International Film Festival.

Akhirah

ʾĀkhirah (Arabic: الآخرة‎) is an Islamic term referring to the afterlife. It is repeatedly referenced in chapters of the Quran concerning the Last Judgment, an important part of Islamic eschatology. Traditionally, it is considered to be one of the six main beliefs of Muslims, the others including: Tawhid (unitarianism), belief in the angels, belief in the Revealed Books (Scrolls of Abraham, Tawrat, Zabur, Injil and Quran), belief in the prophets and messengers, and belief in predestination.

According to the Islamic beliefs, God will play the role of the qadi, weighing the deeds of each individual. He will decide whether that person's ʾākhirah lies in Jahannam (Hell) or Jannah (Heaven) on the basis of the weight of either good or bad deeds in comparison with one another. The judgment doesn't depend upon the amount of deeds as much as it does on the will behind the deed, deeds are judged on the basis of the will behind it.

Jannah and Jahannam both have various levels. The placement of a person may depend upon the extent of his or her good deeds. It is also said that God may forgive a sin against Himself but not against another human. No religion except Islam shall be accepted. The Bible, Gospels, Psalms and some other previous religious texts are said to be from God in Islam, but they are believed to have been edited to a great extent over time by people according to their own will. God has promised to keep the Quran safe from any such changes.According to Islam, death is not the end of the life, but it is a transferral from this world to everlasting world. With the withdrawal of the spirit from the body, the soul's life in the Barzakh begins until the Day of Resurrection. According to the deeds of the believer and disbeliever, their Barzakh differs.

Bigg Boss (Hindi season 7)

Bigg Boss 7 (tagline: Jannat Ka Wow Aur Jahannam Ka Aaw Dekhege Saath Saath) is the seventh season of the Indian reality TV series Bigg Boss which aired on TV channel Colors TV from 15 September 2013, with Salman Khan returning as the host for the fourth time and this season is longer than its predecessor, Bigg Boss 6 and lasted for 15 weeks (104 days) concluding on Saturday, 28 December 2013. The seventh season was launched with the tagline- 'Jannat Ka Wow Aur Jahannam Ka Aaw Dekhege Saath Saath'. The show started airing on 15 September.The series was won by Indian model and actress Gauhar Khan on 28 December 2013. While Tanisha Mukerji was runner-up, Ajaz Khan remained 3rd and Sangram Singh remained 4th.Finalist, Ajaz Khan returned as a guest in the eighth edition of the show to later compete in Bigg Boss Halla Bol. He was ejected from the house on Day 2.

Dušan Čater

Dušan Čater (born 1968) is a Slovene writer, editor and translator. He has published six novels, two of which have also been translated and published in Croatian.Čater was born in Celje in 1968. He studied journalism and sociology at the University of Ljubljana and works as a freelance writer and translator. He has also written a number of books for children based on traditional stories and legends about figures like Kralj Matjaž, Peter Klepec and Veronika of Desenice.

Čater won the 2012 Fabula Award for Džehenem (Jahannam).

Falak (Arabian legend)

Falak (Arabic: فلك‎) in the legend of Bahamut is the powerful serpent that lives under the Realm of Fire. It is said to be so great that only its fear of the greater power of God prevents it from swallowing all creation. It is mentioned in the One Thousand and One Nights.

Gehenna

Gehenna is a small valley in Jerusalem. In the Hebrew Bible, Gehenna was initially where some of the kings of Judah sacrificed their children by fire. Thereafter, it was deemed to be cursed (Jer. 7:31, 19:2-6).In rabbinic literature Gehenna is a destination of the wicked. This is different from the more neutral Sheol/Hades, the abode of the dead, although the King James Version of the Bible usually translates both with the Anglo-Saxon word Hell.

In the King James Version of the Bible, the term appears 13 times in 11 different verses as Valley of Hinnom, Valley of the son of Hinnom or Valley of the children of Hinnom.

The Valley of Hinnom is the modern name for the valley surrounding Jerusalem's Old City, including Mount Zion, from the west and south. It meets and merges with the Kidron Valley, the other principal valley around the Old City, near the southeastern corner of the city.

Hell (disambiguation)

Hell, in many religions, is a place of suffering during the afterlife, where wicked or unrighteous souls are punished.

Improvised artillery in the Syrian Civil War

Improvised artillery in the Syrian Civil War are improvised firearms created and used by factions of the Syrian Civil War, most notably Syrian opposition forces. The weapons include the Hell Cannon and its variants, the Thunder Cannon and the Mortar Cannon. The weapons have been criticized for being inaccurate.

Jannah

In Islam, Jannah (Arabic: جنّة‎ Jannah; plural: Jannat), lit. "garden", is the final abode of the righteous and the Islamic believers, but also the Garden of Eden, where Adam and Hawwa dwelt. Firdaws (Arabic: فردوس) is the literal term meaning paradise, but the Quran generally uses the term Jannah symbolically referring to paradise. However "Firdaus" also designates the highest layer of heaven.In contrast to Jannah, the words Jahannam and Nār are used to refer to the concept of hell. There are many words in the Arabic language for both Heaven and Hell and those words also appear in the Quran and hadith. Most of them have become part of the Islamic traditions.Jannah is often compared to Christian concepts of Heaven.

Jobaria Defense Systems Multiple Cradle Launcher

The Jobaria Defense Systems Multiple Cradle Launcher, also called Jahannam Launcher (Arabic: الراجمة جهنم‎), is an Emirati made multiple rocket launcher unique to the United Arab Emirates Army. It has 240 tubes making it the world's largest rocket artillery by tube count. It is thought to function as a combined form of BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launcher. It is developed by a joint venture between Al Jaber Land System and Roketsan.

Kiraman Katibin

In Islamic tradition the two kiraman katibin (Arabic: كراماً كاتبين‎ "honourable scribes"), are two angels called Raqib and Atid, believed by Muslims to record a person's actions. Whether a person is sent to Jannah (paradise) or Jahannam (hell/purgatory) is not, however, dependent on whether good deeds outweigh bad deeds; but is ultimately up to God's mercy upon a believer. The Quran refers to them in two places, in 50:16-18 and by name as 'Noble Recorders' in 82:10-12.The work of the kiraman katibin is to write down and record every action of a person each day. One angel figuratively sits on the right shoulder and records all good deeds, while the other sits on the left shoulder and records all bad deeds.

The book in which the angels are writing is the cumulative record of a given person's deeds. After that person's death, it is said that on the Day of Judgement each person will be confronted with this record, and the two angels will be present to tell God of what the person did.

Maalik

In Islamic belief, Maalik (Arabic: مالك‎ / mālik) denotes an angel in Hell/Purgatory (Arabic: جهنم‎ / jahannam) who administrates the Hellfire, assisted by 19 mysterious guards known as Zabaniyya (az-zabānīya; Arabic: الزبانية‎). In the Qur'an, Maalik is mentioned in Sura 43:77 as the chief of angels of hell. However the Qur'an itself does neither explain nor specifically describe the origin, purpose or character of Maalik, but Islamic traditions expands the depictions with extra-quranic narratives. Actually the earliest codices offer various alternative spellings of this word including malak meaning "angel", instead of a proper name.

Ramadan (calendar month)

Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month is spent by Muslims fasting during the daylight hours from dawn to sunset. According to Islam, the Quran was sent down to the lowest heaven during this month, thus being prepared for gradual revelation by Jibreel (Gabriel) to Muhammad. Therefore, Muhammad told his followers that the gates of Heaven would be open for the entire month and the gates of Hell (Jahannam) would be closed. The first day of the next month, Shawwal, is spent in celebration and is observed as the "Festival of Breaking Fast" or Eid al-Fitr.

Samuel Khachikian

Samuel Khachikian (Armenian: Սամուէլ Խաչիկեան Armenian pronunciation: [sɑm'vɛl χɑtʃʰik'jɑn]; Persian: ساموئل خاچیکیان‎; October 21, 1923, Tabriz Iran, – 22 October 2001, Tehran) was an Iranian film director, screenwriter, author, and film editor of Armenian descent. He was one of the most influential figures of Iranian cinema and was nicknamed "Iran's Hitchcock".

Samūm

Samūm (Arabic: سموم‎ also spelled Simoom or Semum; from the root س م م s-m-m, سم "to poison") is a type of fire in the Quran in reference to infernal heat and in Extra-Quranic accounts, also to a kind of demon created from this fire . In Quran 56:42 the tormenting fires of Jahannam are called samūm and it is also mentioned in Quran 15:26 as the origin of Jann. In non-Arabic Qur'anic translations, the term is often translated with "scorching fire" or "scorching winds", because apart from its Islamic usage, samūm also refers to a hot, dusty desert wind.

Both terms may be linguistically related to Samael, an Archangel in Talmudic and post-Talmudic literature, who envied humanity and in charge of destructive demons, similar to the Islamic legends about demons created from samūm envying Adam.

Sijjin

Sijjin (Arabic: سِجِّين‎) is in Islamic belief, either a place located in the bottom of Jahannam (hell) or a book, that lists the names of the damned. The word's origin is unknown. It appears in the Quran in Surah 83:7-9. A similar word (sijill) is used in 21:104 often translated as scroll.

According to some exegetes, such as Razi, Sijjin is a prison for the damned in hell.According to some Shia traditions, the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt are created from the earth of Sijjin.The Antithesis of Sijjin is Illiyin.

Underworld

The underworld is the world of the dead in various religious traditions, located below the world of the living. Chthonic is the technical adjective for things of the underworld.

The concept of an underworld is found in almost every civilization, and "may be as old as humanity itself". Common features of underworld myths are accounts of living people making journeys to the underworld, often for some heroic purpose. Other myths reinforce traditions that entrance of souls to the underworld requires a proper observation of ceremony, such as the ancient Greek story of the recently dead Patroclus haunting Achilles until his body could be properly buried for this purpose. Persons having social status were dressed and equipped in order to better navigate the underworld.A number of mythologies incorporate the concept of the soul of the deceased making its own journey to the underworld, with the dead needing to be taken across a defining obstacle such as a lake or a river to reach this destination. Imagery of such journeys can be found in both ancient and modern art. The descent to the underworld has been described as "the single most important myth for Modernist authors".

Zabaniyya

In Islam the Zabaniyah (Arabic: الزبانية‎) (also spelled Zebani in Turkish language) are the forces of hell, who torment the sinners, also called the Angels of punishment or Guardians of Hell. They are often identified with the Nineteen Angels of Hell mentioned in Quran 66:6 and 74:30 or as their subordinates. Namely they appear in Surah 96:18. Traditionally they are contrasted with the angels of mercy by their creation from fire instead of light. Some scholars regard them, nevertheless, as created from light, along with other angels.

Zaqqum

According to the Quran, Zaqqoum or Zaqqum (Arabic: زقوم‎) is a tree that "springs out of the bottom of Jahannam".

It is mentioned in verses 17:60 (as the "cursed tree"), 37:62-68, 44:43, and 56:52, of the Quran.

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