Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Beig Muhammed Khan (Persian: میرزا معزلدین بیگ محمد خان ;9 May 1661 – 12 February 1713), more commonly known as Jahandar Shah (Persian: جهاندار شاه), was a Mughal Emperor who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713. His full title was Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Quran Padshah-i-Jahan (Khuld Aramgah). Sailendra Sen describes him as "a worthless debauch [who] became emperor after liquidating his three brothers".
|Mu'izz-ud-din Beg Muhammad Khan|
|Padishah of the Mughal Empire|
|8th Mughal Emperor|
|Reign||27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713|
|Coronation||29 March 1712 at Lahore|
|Predecessor||Bahadur Shah I|
|Born||9 May 1661|
Deccan, Mughal Empire
|Died||12 February 1713 (aged 51)|
Delhi, Mughal Empire
One another wife
Iffat Ara Begum
|Father||Bahadur Shah I|
Jahandar Shah was appointed as Vizier of Balkh in 1671 by his grandfather, Aurangzeb. When their father died on 27 February 1712, he and his brother, Azim-ush-Shan, both declared themselves emperor and battled for succession. Azim-us-Shan was killed on 17 March 1712, after which Jahandar Shah ruled for an additional eleven months. Before ascending the throne, Jahandar Shah sailed around the Indian Ocean and was a very prosperous trader. He was also appointed Subedar of Sindh. He fathered three sons, including Aziz-ud-Din, who reigned as Mughal emperor between 1754 and 1759.
Jahandar Shah led a frivolous life, and his court was often enlivened by dancing and entertainment. He chose a favourite wife, Lal Kunwar, who was a mere dancing girl before her elevation to the position of Queen Consort. Together they shocked the Mughal Empire and were even opposed by Aurangzeb's surviving daughter, Zinat-un-Nissa.
His authority was rejected by the third Nawab of the Carnatic, Muhammed Saadatullah Khan I, who killed De Singh of Orchha, primarily due to the Nawab's belief that he was the righteous commander of the Gingee Fort. Khan began a smear campaign referring to Jahandar Shah as an usurper to the Mughal throne. To further strengthen his authority, Jahandar Shah sent gifts to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmad III.
Jahandar Shah's first wife was the daughter of Mirza Mukarram Khan Safavi. The marriage took place on 13 October 1676. After her death he married her niece, Sayyid-un-nissa Begum, the daughter of Mirza Rustam. The marriage took place on 30 August 1684. Qazi Abu Sa'id united them in the presence of Emperor Aurangzeb, and Prince Muhammad Muazzam (future Bahadur Shah I). The marriage was consummated on 18 September. Sayyid-un-nissa Begum was presented with jewels worth 67,000 rupees. The celebrations were supervised by Princess Zinat-un-nissa Begum.
His third wife was Anup Bai. She was the mother of Prince Muhammad Aziz-ud-din Mirza, born on 6 June 1699. She died at Delhi on 17 April 1735, nineteen years before her son's accession to the throne as Emperor Alamgir II. His fourth wife was Lal Kunwar, the daughter of Khasusiyat Khan. Jahandar Shah was very fond of her, and after his accession to the throne, he gave her the title Imtiyaz Mahal.
He was defeated in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713 by Farrukhsiyar, his nephew and the second son of Azim-ush-Shan, with the support of the Sayyid Brothers. He fled to Delhi where he was captured and handed over to the new Emperor, who confined him along with Lal Kunwar. He lived in confinement for a month, until 11 February 1713, when professional stranglers were sent to murder him.
Jahandar Shah reintroduced couplets and issued coins in gold, silver, and copper. Two couplets i.e. Abu al-Fateh and Sahab Qiran were used. Copper coins were issued in both weight standard i.e. 20 grams and 14 grams.
Bahadur Shah I
| Mughal Emperor
Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث, Aḥmed-i sālis) (30/31 December 1673 – 1 July 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (r. 1648–87). His mother was Gülnuş Sultan, originally named Evmania Voria, who was an ethnic Greek. He was born at Hacıoğlu Pazarcık, in Dobruja. He succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II (1695–1703). Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha and the Sultan's daughter, Fatma Sultan (wife of the former) directed the government from 1718 to 1730, a period referred to as the Tulip Era.Alamgir II
Aziz-ud-din Alamgir II (Urdu: عالمگير ثانی) (6 June 1699 – 29 November 1759) was the Mughal Emperor of India from 3 June 1754 to 29 November 1759. He was the son of Jahandar Shah.
Aziz-ud-Din, the second son of Jahandar Shah, was raised to the throne by Imad-ul-Mulk after he deposed Ahmad Shah Bahadur in 1754. On ascending the throne, he took the title of Alamgir and tried to follow the approach of Aurangzeb Alamgir. At the time of his accession to throne he was an old man of 55 years. He had no experience of administration and warfare as he had spent most of his life in jail. He was a weak ruler, with all powers vested in the hand of his vizier, Ghazi-ud-Din Imad-ul-Mulk.
In 1756, Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India once again and captured Delhi and plundered Mathura. Marathas became more powerful because of their collaboration with Imad-ul-Mulk, and dominated the whole of northern India. This was the peak of Maratha expansion, which caused great trouble for the Mughal Empire, already weak with no strong ruler. Relations between Alamgir II and his usurping vizier, Imad-ul-Mulk had now deteriorated. He was murdered by Imad-ul-Mulk. Alamgir II's son Ali Gauhar escaped persecution from Delhi, while Shah Jahan III was placed on the throne.Badakhshan
Badakhshan (Persian: بدخشان/Pashto}, Badaxšân; Tajik: Бадахшон, Badaxşon; Russian: Бадахшан; simplified Chinese: 巴达赫尚; traditional Chinese: 巴達赫尚; pinyin: Bādáhèshàng, Dungan: Бадахәшон, Xiao'erjing: بَا دَا کْ شًا, Ming dynasty era Chinese name- 巴丹沙) is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan, eastern Tajikistan, and the Tashkurgan county in China. The name is retained in Badakhshan Province, which is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan and is located in North-East Afghanistan. Much of historic Badakhshan lies within Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region located in the south-eastern part of the country. The music of Badakhshan is an important part of the region's cultural heritage.Bahadur Shah I
Bahadur Shah (Persian: بہادر شاه اول—Bahādur Shāh Awwal) (14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712), also known as Muhammad Muazzam (Persian: محمد معظم) and Shah Alam (Persian: شاه عالم) was the seventh Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712. In his youth, he conspired to overthrow his father Aurangzeb, the sixth Mughal emperor, and ascend to the throne a number of times. Shah's plans were intercepted by the emperor, who imprisoned him several times. In 1663, he was also imprisoned by Marathas for seven years. From 1696 to 1707, he was governor of Akbarabad (later known as Agra), Kabul and Lahore.
After Aurangzeb's death his eldest son by his chief consort, Muhammad Azam Shah, declared himself successor, but was shortly defeated in the Battle of Jajau and overthrown by Bahadur Shah. During the reign of Bahadur Shah, the Rajput states of Jodhpur and Amber were annexed for a short time. Shah also sparked an Islamic controversy in the khutba by inserting the declaration of Ali as wali. His reign was disturbed by several rebellions, the Sikhs under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur, Rajputs under Durgadas Rathore and fellow Mughal Kam Bakhsh. Bahadur Shah was buried in the Moti Masjid at Mehrauli in Delhi.Farrukhsiyar
Abu'l Muzaffar Muin ud-din Muhammad Shah Farrukh-siyar Alim Akbar Sani Wala Shan Padshah-i-bahr-u-bar (Persian: ابوالمظفر معید الدین محمد شاه فرخسیر علیم اکبر ثانی والا شان پادشاه بحر و بر), also known as Shahid-i-Mazlum (Persian: شهید مظلوم), or Farrukhsiyar (Persian: فرخسیر)
(20 August 1685 – 19 April 1719), was the Mughal emperor from 1713 to 1719 after he murdered Jahandar Shah. Reportedly a handsome man who was easily swayed by his advisers, he lacked the ability, knowledge and character to rule independently. Farrukhsiyar was the son of Azim-ush-Shan (the second son of emperor Bahadur Shah I) and Sahiba Nizwan.
His reign saw the primacy of the Sayyid brothers, who became the effective power behind the facade of Mughal rule. Farrukhsiyar's frequent plotting led the brothers to depose him.Gujarat under Farrukhsiyar
The Mughal Empire's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Jahandar Shah who had came to power in 1712 was defeated by his nephew Farrukhsiyar in put to death in 1713. As he was helped by noble Sayad brothers, he was under their influence. He concluded treaty with Ajitsingh of Jodhpur. Daud Khan Panni, the powerful general, was appointed as the viceroy but there were riots in Ahmedabad in 1714. Ajitsingh was appointed as the next viceroy who had disputes with other noble Haidar Kúli Khán. After some reluctance, Ajitsingh let Khán Daurán Nasrat Jang Bahádur to be appointed as the next viceroy. In 1719, the emperor Farrukhsiyar was deposed by influential Sayad brothers in 1719. He was succeeded by short reigns of Rafi ud-Darajat and Shah Jahan II. Finally Muhammad Shah was raised to the throne by them.Gujarat under Mughal Empire
In 1573, Akbar (1573–1605), the emperor of the Mughal Empire captured Gujarat (now a state in western India) by defeating Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah III. Muzaffar tried to regain the Sultanate in 1584 but failed. Gujarat remained the Mughal province (subah) governed by the viceroys and officers appointed by the Mughal emperors from Delhi. Akbar's foster brother Mirza Aziz Kokaltash was appointed as the viceroy who strengthened Mughal hold over the region. The nobles of former Sultanate continued to resist and rebel during the reign of the next emperor Jehangir (1605–1627) but Kokaltash and his successor viceroys subdued them. Jehangir also permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. The next emperor Shah Jahan (1627–1658) expanded his territories in south and his viceroys made hold over Kathiawar peninsula including Nawanagar. Shah Jahan had also appointed his prince Aurangzeb, who was involved in religious disputes, prince Dara Shikoh and later prince Murad Bakhsh as viceroys. Following battle of succession, Aurangzeb (1658–1707) came to the Mughal throne and his policies resulted in revolts and discontent. During his reign, the Marathas under Shivaji raided Surat (1666) and their incursions in Gujarat started. Till then Gujarat prospered due to political stability, peace and growing international trade.During the next three emperors (1707–1719) who had brief reigns, the nobles became more and more powerful due to instability in the Delhi. The royals of Marwar were appointed viceroys frequently. During the reign of the emperor Muhammad Shah (1719–1748), the struggle between the Mughal and Maratha nobles were heightened with frequent battles and incursions. The south Gujarat was lost to the Marathas and the towns in north and central Gujarat was attacked on several occasions with frequent demand of tributes. The Marathas continued to grow their hold and the frequent change of viceroys did not reverse the trend. The competing houses of Marathas, Gaikwars and Peshwas engaged between themselves which slow down their progress for a while. They later made peace between themselves. During the reign of the next emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748–1754), there was nominal control over the nobles who acted on their own. There were frequent fights between themselves and with Marathas. Ahmedabad, the capital of province, finally fell to the Marathas in 1752. It was regained by noble Momin Khan for a short time but again lost to the Marathas in 1756 after a long siege. Finding opportunity, the British captured Surat in 1759. After a setback at Panipat in 1761, the Marathas strengthened their hold on Gujarat. During this fifty years, the power struggle between the Mughal nobles and Marathas caused disorder and the decline in prosperity.Ibrahim Khan II
Ibrahim Khan (reigned: 1689-1697) (Died-1701)was the last Subahdar of Bengal during the reign of emperor Aurangzeb.
His only child a son Named Wazir Ibrahim khan(1654-1713) was diwan of
Emperor Jahandar Shah. He was killed at the orders of Farrukhsiyar.Islam Khan V
Islam Khan V (died 21 Safar 1147 AH/1734 AD) was one of the prominent Emir and nobleman during the Mughal empire. He was titled "Islam Khan" and "Barkhurdar Khan" by Emperor Bahadur Shah I and held many important posts during the successive rules of Bahadur Shah I, Jahandar Shah, Farrukhsiyar, Rafi ud Darajat, Shah Jahan II and Muhammad Shah.Khan Zaman Khan Ali Asghar
Ali Asghar (died ca 1155 AH/1743 AD) was one of the prominent Emir and nobleman during the Mughal empire. He was entitled 'Khan Zaman Khan Bahadur' by Emperor Farrukhsiyar. He remained in many important posts during the successive rules of Bahadur Shah I, Jahandar Shah, Farrukhsiyar, Rafi ud Darajat, Shah Jahan II and Muhammad Shah.
The fort at Ferozepur Jhirka was built by him. He died in Shahjahanbad (Delhi) on 4 Dhu al-Hijjah 1155 AH/30 January 1743 at the age of 70 years.Lal Kunwar
Imtiaz Mahal Persian: امتیاز محل; meaning "distinguished one of the palace") better known by her birth name Lal Kunwar (Hindi: लाल कुंवर) was the Empress of the Mughal Empire as the wife of Mughal Emperor Jahandar Shah. She was a former dancing girl who exercised supreme influence over the Emperor, encouraged frivolity and pleasure which eventually led to his ignominious downfall.
She was the favorite concubine of Jahandar Shah and is more often referred to in histories by her given name Lal Kunwar.List of Mughal empresses
"Queen consort of Samarkand", "Queen consort of Kabul" and "Queen consort of Ferghana Valley" redirect here for only wives of BaburThis is a list of Mughal empresses. Most of these empresses were either from branches of the Timurid dynasty or from the royal houses of the Rajputs. Alongside Mughal emperors, these empresses played a role in the building up and rule of the Mughal Empire in South Asia, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century. The Mughal Empire mainly corresponds in the present day to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and major regions in Afghanistan,List of mirs of Badakhshan
The Mir of Badakhshan was the ruler of Badakhshan, a region that occasionally was politically independent and at other times was subservient to Afghanistan. The position of mir was often held by an ethnic Uzbek and was hereditary, though it often changed hands due to war or internal political dissension.
From 1657 until the 1880s the rulers of Badakhshan were Uzbeks of the Yarid dynasty. These rulers carried the titles of Shah, Mir, and Amir. In 1873 the last Mir of Badakhshan became a pensioner of Kabul and all power shifted to the Hakim, or governor, of BadakhshanBelow is a list of the mirs of Badakhshan along with their dates of reign and brief biographical descriptions.
Mir Yar Beg Sahibzada (16??-1699), was appointed Mir of Badakhshan by Sabhan Kuli Khan of Kunduz. Previously in 1651, Sahibzada, who was originally from Samarkand, was invited by the local tribes of Yaftal to become the local mir. When Sahibzada failed to pay the required tribute to Sabhan Kuli Khan, Khan sent Mahmud Bi Atalik, chief of Balkh and Bokhara, against Mir Beg. Mir Beg, buckling under pressure, agreed to pay tribute for two years. The Mir had ten sons when he died in 1699. He divided the province of Badakhshan amongst his nine sons because his eldest son Arab was settled in Chitral.
Mir Yar Beg (18??), was the Mir of Badakhshan in the early 19th century until he was defeated by the khan of Kunduz, Mir Muhammad Murad Beg.
Mir Shah(1844-1864).(میر شاه) His brother was Mir Yusuf 'Ali, the Mir of Rustaq.
Mir Jahandar Shah (1864-1869). (میرجهاندار شاه) Jahandar Shah came to power through his close relations with Muhammad Afzal Khan, who was Governor of Afghan Turkestan from 1852-1864. At one point Jahandar Shah raised forced in Badakhshan and briefly took control of Kunduz in 1866-67. He was ousted from power in 1869 by Sardar Faiz Muhammad Khan, an ally of Sher Ali Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan. Faiz Muhammad Khan appointed Jahandar Shah's nephew, Mizrab Shah, in power.
Mir Mizrab Shah (1869). He was installed in power by Faiz Muhammad Khan, but his reign lasted less than a year. He was the nephew of Jahandar Shah.
Mir Mahmud Shah (1869-1873). Mahamad Shah was a paternal cousin of Mizrab Shah. He established his authority in Badakhshan with the aid of Amir Sher Ali Khan. He was the last mir to ruler over Badakhshan. In 1873 Mahmud Shah was ousted from power by the governor of Afghan Turkestan, Naib Muhammad Alam Khan. Alam Khan appointed Hafizullah Khan as governor of Badakhshan.Mughal-Mongol genealogy
The rulers of the Mughal Empire shared certain genealogical relations with the Mongol royals. As they emerged in a time when this distinction had become less common, the Mughals identification as such has stuck and they have become known as one of the last Mongol successor states. As descendants of Timur, they are also members of the Timurid Dynasty, and therefore were connected to other royal families in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Far East.
Babur was also directly descended from Genghis Khan through his son Chagatai Khan.Naubat Khana (Red Fort)
The Naubat Khana, or Naqqar Khana, is the drum house that stands at the entrance between the outer and inner court at the Red Fort in Delhi.
The vaulted arcade of the Chhatta Chowk measures 540 x 360 feet, and ends in the centre of the outer court. The side arcades and central tank were destroyed following the 1857 rebellion.
In the east wall of the court lies the Naubat Khana, which was connected to the side arcades. Musicians from the Naubat Khana would announce the arrival of the emperor and other dignitaries at the court of public audience (Diwan-i-Am). Music was also played five times a day at chosen hours. Many Indian royal palaces have a drum house at the entrance.Some historians believe that the later Mughal emperors Jahandar Shah (1712–13) and Farrukhsiyar (1713–19) were assassinated here.The popular name of the gate, Hathiyan pol or "elephant gate," derives from the tradition that everyone except princes of the royal blood had to dismount from their elephants at this point, before entering further into the inner fort complex.The ground plan is a rectangular structure consisting of three large stories. The band gallery is 100 x 80 feet. The construction material is red sandstone, the surface covered in white chunam plaster. The richly carved floral designs on its red sandstone walls appear to have been originally painted with gold. The interior was colourfully painted. Several layers of these paintings can be found at the entrance chamber.The British initially installed the museum of the fort in this gate. It was later moved to the Mumtaz Mahal. The Indian War Memorial Museum is currently located in the first and second stories.Nawab Feroz Khan
Khanzada Nawab Feroz Khan was the first Nawab of Shahabad, Alwar and a Commander in Mughal Army. He was a close confidant and trusted aide of Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah I. He belonged to Khanzada Muslim Rajput sect of Jadaun clan. He was a descendant of Raja Nahar Khan (through his son Malik Alaudin Khan), who was a Rajput ruler of Mewat State in 14th century. Due to his loyal service in Mughal Army, he was granted the Jagir of Simbli (later Shahbad) by Emperor Bahadur Shah I in 1710.
He was killed in the battle fought in 1712 between Mughal princes Jahandar Shah and Azim-ush-Shan.Nizam Bai
Nizam Bai (c.1643 – 1692) was a wife of the seventh Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah I. Though she never reigned as empress, having died several years before her husband ascended the throne, her son eventually succeeded as the Emperor Jahandar Shah.Sayyid brothers
The term Sayyid brothers refers to Syed Hussain Khan and Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha, who were powerful in the Mughal Empire during the early 18th century.
They claimed to belong to the family of Sayyids or the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and son-in-law and cousin Ali who belonged to the Banu Hashim Clan of the Quraish Tribe.
The Sayyid Brothers became highly influential in the Mughal Court after Aurangzeb's death and became king makers during the anarchy following the death of emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. They created and dethroned Mughal Emperors at their will during the 1710s. Aurangzeb's son Bahadur Shah I defeated his brothers to capture the throne with the help of Sayyid Brothers and Chin Quilich Khan (Nizam-ul-Mulk), another influential administrator in the Mughal court. Bahadur Shah I died in 1712, and his successor Jahandar Shah was assassinated on the orders of the Sayyid Brothers.
In 1713, Jahandar's nephew Farrukhsiyar (r. 1713–1719) became the emperor with the brothers' help. His reign marked the ascendancy of the brothers, who monopolised state power and reduced the Emperor to a figurehead. The brothers conspired to send Nizam-ul-Mulk to Deccan, away from the Mughal Court, to reduce his influence. In 1719, the Brothers blinded, deposed and murdered Farrukhsiyar. They then arranged for his first cousin, Rafi ud-Darajat, to be the next ruler in February 1719. When Rafi ud-Darajat died of lung disease in June, they made his elder brother, Rafi ud-Daulah (Shah Jahan II), ruler. After Rafi ud-Daulah also died of lung disease in September 1719, Muhammad Shah (r. 1719–1748) ascended the throne at the age of seventeen with the Sayyid Brothers as his regents until 1720.
Muhammad Shah, to take back control of his rule, arranged for the brothers to be killed with the help of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah. Syed Hussain Ali Khan was murdered at Fatehpur Sikri in 1720, and Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha was fatally poisoned in 1722.