Jaguarundi

The jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) (/ˌʒæɡwəˈrʌndi/ ZHAG-wə-RUN-dee)[3] or eyra is a small wild cat native to southern North America and South America. It has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2002. The megareserves of the Amazon Basin are probably the only conservation units that can sustain long-term viable populations.[2]

In some Spanish-speaking countries, the jaguarundi is also called gato colorado, gato moro, león brenero, tigrillo, and leoncillo.[2] The Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation of its common English and Portuguese name is [ʒɐɡwɐɾũˈdʒi]. It is also called gato-mourisco, eirá, gato-preto, and maracajá-preto in Portuguese. Jaguarundi comes from Old Tupi yawaum'di.[4]

Jaguarundi
Puma yagouaroundi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: Herpailurus
Species:
H. yagouaroundi[1]
Binomial name
Herpailurus yagouaroundi[1]
Jaguarundi area
Jaguarundi range
Synonyms

Characteristics

Jaguarondi 2
Red color morph

The jaguarundi has short legs, an elongated body, and a long tail. The ears are short and rounded. The coat is without spots, uniform in color, with, at most, a few faint markings on the face and underside. The coat can be either blackish to brownish-grey (grey morph) or foxy red to chestnut (red morph); individuals of both morphs can be born in the same litter. It has a length of 53 to 77 centimetres (21 to 30 inches) with a 31-to-60 cm-long tail (12-to-24 in), and weighs 3.5 to 9.1 kilograms (7.7 to 20.1 lb).[5][6][7]

The two color morphs were once thought to represent two distinct species: the grey one was called the jaguarundi and the red one was called the eyra.

Distribution and habitat

The jaguarundi occurs from southern Texas and coastal Mexico in the north, through Central and South America east of the Andes, and as far south as northern Argentina.[2] In 2015, it has also been recorded in Cerro Largo, Uruguay.[8] Its habitat is lowland brush areas close to a source of running water, including dry thorn forest to wet grassland. While commonly inhabiting lowlands, it has been reported at elevations as high as 3,200 m (10,500 ft).[5] Occasionally it also occurs in dense tropical areas.

Jaguarundis have been sighted in Florida since the early 20th century. Here, the species is assumed to have been introduced, but it is not known when the introduction occurred. Their presence in Florida is attributed to a writer from Chiefland who at some point imported the animals from their native habitat and released them near his hometown and in other locations across the state. No live or dead specimens are known, but many sightings considered credible by biologists have been reported. The earliest of these occurred in 1907, and was followed by various additional sightings throughout the Florida Peninsula from the 1930s through the 1950s. The first official report was released in 1942. Significantly fewer reliable sightings were reported after that, and in 1977 W. T. Neill concluded the population had declined. However, sightings have continued. Jaguarundis have also been reported in the coastal area of Alabama since the 1980s, which may be evidence of the Florida population migrating northward.[9]

The jaguarundi has also been sighted around the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana.[10]

Taxonomic history

Prior to 2017, the following subspecies were recognised:

As of 2017, the Cat Classification Taskforce of the Cat Specialist Group considers the jaguarundi as member of the genus Herpailurus and does not recognise any subspecies.[1]

Ecology and behavior

Puma yaguarondi
Grey color morph

Jaguarundis are primarily diurnal, being active during the day rather than evenings or night. They are comfortable in trees, but prefer to hunt on the ground. They will eat almost any small animal they can catch, typically catching a mixture of rodents, small reptiles, and ground-feeding birds. They have also been observed to kill larger prey, such as rabbits, and opossums; relatively unusual prey include fish and even marmosets. Like many other cats, they also include a small amount of vegetation and arthropods in their diets.[5]

Although they seem to be somewhat more gregarious than many other cats, willing to tolerate the close presence of other members of their species, in the wild, they are generally encountered alone, suggesting a solitary lifestyle. Their home range is widely variable, depending on the local environment; individuals have been reported as ranging over territories from 6.8 to 100 km2 (2.6 to 38.6 sq mi). Like other cats, they scent mark their territory by scratching the ground or nearby branches, head-rubbing, urination, and leaving their faeces uncovered.[5] They are shy and reclusive, and evidently very cautious of traps.[9]

Jaguarundis make an unusually wide range of vocalisations, including purrs, whistles, yaps, chattering sounds, and even a bird-like chirp.[5]

Reproduction

The timing of the breeding season among jaguarundis is unclear; they breed all year round. Oestrus lasts three to five days, marked by the female regularly rolling onto her back and spraying urine. After a gestation period of 70 to 75 days, the female gives birth to a litter of one to four kittens in a den constructed in a dense thicket, hollow tree, or similar cover.[5]

The kittens are born with spots on their undersides, which disappear as they age. The young are capable of taking solid food at around six weeks, although they begin to play with their mother's food as early as three weeks. Jaguarundis become sexually mature at about two years of age, and have lived for up to 10 years in captivity.[5]

Threats

Jaguarundis are not particularly sought after for their fur, but are suffering decline due to loss of habitat. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department has expressed concern that the presence of the jaguarundi in South Texas may be imperiled due to loss of the cat's native habitat.[12]

Conservation

Herpailurus yagouaroundi Jaguarundi ZOO Děčín
Captive jaguarundi

The North and Central American populations of P. jagouaroundi are listed in CITES Appendix I. All the other populations are listed in CITES Appendix II. P. y. cacomitli, P. y. fossata, P. y. panamensis, and P. y. tolteca are listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act.[13]

Evolution

The jaguarundi is closely related to the much larger and heavier cougar, having a similar genetic structure and chromosome count. While both species have been traditionally placed in the genus Puma, the jaguarundi is now sometimes classified under the genus Herpailurus,[1] and until recently both cats were classified under the genus Felis.

According to a 2006 genomic study of Felidae, an ancestor of today's Leopardus, Lynx, Puma, Prionailurus, and Felis lineages migrated across the Bering land bridge into the Americas about 8.0 to 8.5 million years ago. The lineages subsequently diverged in that order.[14]

Studies have indicated the cougar and jaguarundi are next most closely related to the modern cheetah of Africa and western Asia,[14][15] but the relationship is unresolved. Ancestors of the cheetah have been suggested to have diverged from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated back to Asia and Africa,[14][15] while other research suggests the cheetah diverged in the Old World itself.[16] The outline of small feline migration to the Americas is thus unclear (see also American cheetah).

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Kitchener, A. C., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Eizirik, E., Gentry, A., Werdelin, L., Wilting A., Yamaguchi, N., Abramov, A. V., Christiansen, P., Driscoll, C., Duckworth, J. W., Johnson, W., Luo, S.-J., Meijaard, E., O’Donoghue, P., Sanderson, J., Seymour, K., Bruford, M., Groves, C., Hoffmann, M., Nowell, K., Timmons, Z. & Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News. Special Issue 11.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ a b c d Caso, A.; de Oliveira, T.; Carvajal, S.V. (2015). "Herpailurus yagouaroundi". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T9948A50653167. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T9948A50653167.en. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Jaguarundi". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  4. ^ Ferreira, A.B.H. (1986) Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa. Segunda edição. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. P. 980
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 113–119. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7.
  6. ^ a b Brown, D. E.; Gonzalez, C. A. (1999). "Jaguarundi (Felis yagouaroundi tolteca)" (PDF). Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science (32): 155–157.
  7. ^ Boitani, L. (1984). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon & Schuster/Touchstone Books. ISBN 978-0-671-42805-1
  8. ^ Grattarola, F., Hernandez, D., Duarte, A., Gaucher, L., Perazza, G. et. al. (2016). "Primer Registro de Yaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) en Uruguay, con comentarios sobre monitereo participativo". Boletín de la Sociedad Zoológica del Uruguay 25 (1): 85−91.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ a b Simberloff, D.; Schmitz, D. C.; Brown, T. C. (1997). Strangers in Paradise: Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 978-1-55963-430-4. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
  10. ^ Centre Spatial Guyanais - Un florilège de faune sauvage au CSG
  11. ^ "Puma yagouaroundi". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
  12. ^ Endangered Species. Tpwd.state.tx.us (2003-04-15). Retrieved on 2011-09-15.
  13. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 545. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  14. ^ a b c Johnson, W.E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W.J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S.J. (6 January 2006). "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
  15. ^ a b Culver, M.; Johnson, W. E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; O'Brien, S. J. (2000). "Genomic Ancestry of the American Puma" (PDF). Journal of Heredity. 91 (3): 186–97. doi:10.1093/jhered/91.3.186. PMID 10833043. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-16.
  16. ^ Barnett, R.; I. Barnes; M. J. Phillips; L. D. Martin; C. R. Harington; J. A. Leonard; A. Cooper (2005). "Evolution of the extinct Sabretooths and the American cheetah-like cat". Current Biology. 15 (15): R589–R590. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.07.052. PMID 16085477.

External links

Acinonychini

The feline tribe Acinonychini contains three genera, each with one extant species: the cougar in Puma, the jaguarundi in Herpailurus, and the cheetah in Acinonyx.In addition, a handful of extinct fossil species have been found in Eurasia and the Americas. The evolutionary relationships of these cats still needs to be worked out, with the main focus being the placement of the extinct species in relation to the extant species, and where cheetahs evolved. While cheetahs and cougars are sometimes considered big cats, as felines, they are more closely related to domestic cats than they are to pantherines such as lions and leopards.

Arenillas Ecological Reserve

Arenillas Ecological Reserve (Spanish: Reserva Ecológica Arenillas) is a 17,083-hectare (42,210-acre) protected area in Ecuador situated in the El Oro Province, in the Arenillas Canton and in the Huaquillas Canton.

Known mammals in the reserve, according to a 1993 study include the Sechuran fox (Lycalopex sechurae), the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), Robinson's mouse opossum (Marmosa robinsoni), the Pacific spiny-rat (Proechimys decumamus), the jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi), the tayra (Eira barbara), the greater bulldog bat, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) and the Guayaquil squirrel (Sciurus stramineus). There are also 153 species of birds of which 35% are endemic. The reserve is a BirdLife International IBA with the following endangered birds: grey-cheeked parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera), slaty becard (Pachyramphus spodiurus), and blackish-headed spinetail (Synallaxis tithys).The region is managed by the ministry of defense and visitors must get permission from them to visit the area.

Blue Creek Rainforest Preserve

Blue Creek Rainforest Preserve is a small rainforest nature preserve in southern Belize, near the Guatemalan border. It is home to iguana, termite, Bothrops asper, and other snake species, Bufo marinus, lizards, tarantula, leafcutter ants, several species of bats, Morelet's crocodile, jaguarundi, jaguar, tapir, and others. Its habitat consist of lush rainforest, waterfalls, lakes, ponds, lagoons, rivers, and streams. It is named after the Blue Creek Village, which is located in the area. It also has many biodiversities. It is very difficult to explore Blue Creek. From below the canopy looks like a maze of tangled vines. Blue Creek is very cool. If you want to learn more about it read the book "The most Beautiful Roof in the World"

Carl B. Koford

Carl Buckingham Koford (September 3, 1915 in Oakland, California – December 3, 1979 in Berkeley, California) was an American biologist who is known for his research work on the behavior of the California condor. He attended the Piedmont High School and studied at the University of Washington. Koford began his field work on the California condor in March 1939, spending more than 400 days collecting data. During World War II he interrupted his studies to serve in the U.S. Navy. In 1946 his observations on the condors continued. In 1953 he published the report "The California Condor" where he gave a first estimation of the world population of about 60 individuals. In the 1950s and again in the 1970s he went to South America where he made studies on species like the Vicuña, the Jaguar, the Ocelot or the Jaguarundi. After rumours about the survival of some individuals of Mexican grizzly bear, a species thought to be extinct, Koford went to Mexico in 1969 but failed to rediscover this bear.

After Koford's death in 1979 the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at Berkeley established the Carl B. Koford Memorial Fund in 1980 to support field research on vertebrates.

Central Volcanic Conservation Area

Central Volcanic Conservation Area is an administrative area which is managed by SINAC for the purposes of conservation in the central part of Costa Rica, notably the volcanic areas of the Cordillera Central. It contains four National Parks, and a number Wildlife refuges and other types of nature reserve.

Felid hybrid

A felid hybrid is any of a number of hybrid between various species of the cat family, Felidae. This article deals with hybrids between the species of the subfamily Felinae (feline hybrids). For hybrids between two species of the genus Panthera (lions, tigers, jaguars, and leopards), see Panthera hybrid. There are no known hybrids between Neofelis (the clouded leopard) and other genera. By contrast, many genera of Felinae are interfertile with each other, though few hybridize under natural conditions, and not all combinations are likely to be viable (e.g. between the tiny rusty-spotted cat and the leopard-sized cougar).

Felidae

Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats. A member of this family is also called a felid. The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to the domestic cat (Felis catus).Reginald Innes Pocock divided the extant Felidae into three subfamilies: the Pantherinae, the Felinae and the Acinonychinae, differing from each other by the ossification of the hyoid apparatus and by the cutaneous sheaths which protect their claws.

This concept has been revised following developments in molecular biology and techniques for analysis of morphological data. Today, the living Felidae are divided in two subfamilies, with the Pantherinae including seven Panthera and two Neofelis species. The Felinae include all the non-pantherine cats with 10 genera and 34 species.The first cats emerged during the Oligocene, about 25 million years ago, with the appearance of Proailurus and Pseudaelurus. The latter species complex was ancestral to two main lines of felids: the cats in the extant subfamilies and a third major group of extinct cats of the subfamily Machairodontinae. The machairodonts included the saber-toothed cats such as the Smilodon. The "false sabre toothed cats", the Barbourofelidae and Nimravidae, are not true cats, but are closely related and together with Felidae and other cat-like carnivores (hyaenas, viverrids and mongooses) make up the feliform carnivores.The characteristic features of cats have evolved to support a carnivorous lifestyle, with adaptations for ambush or stalking and short pursuit hunting. They have slender muscular bodies, strong flexible forelimbs and retractable claws for holding prey, dental and cranial adaptations for a strong bite, and often have characteristic striped or spotted coat patterns for camouflage.

Felinae

The Felinae is a subfamily of the family Felidae that comprises the small cats that have a bony hyoid, because of which they are able to purr but not roar.Other authors proposed an alternative definition for this subfamily: as comprising only the living conical-toothed cat genera with two tribes, the Felini and Pantherini; thus excluding all fossil cat species.

Guanacaste National Park (Belize)

Guanacaste National Park is a 50-acre (20 ha) park in central Belize. It is named after a huge Guanacaste tree that escaped being logged because its trunk divided into three bases, reducing its value as timber.Guanacaste National Park is located on the north side of the Western Highway just to the east of the Roaring Creek bridge - about 50 miles (80 km) west of Belize City, in the Cayo District of Belize. In 1973, it was established as a Crown Reserve but finally gained status as a national park in 1990. The park was later put under the responsibility of the Belize Audubon Society. The Guanacaste National Park is the most accessible park of the Belize Audubon Society-managed protected areas. Its proximity to Belize's major cities make it a popular family spot. Public transportation from any nearby city is available to the national park.

The park is open to the public only during the day. The Guanacaste National Park is open from 8 am until 4:30 pm. The admission fee is about $1 BZD (Belize Dollar) for citizens and $5 BZD for tourists. There is an educational center, a gift shop, and over two miles (3 km) of maintained trails. The park's workers recommend that visitors wear long-sleeved shirts, sturdy shoes and pants to avoid contact with poisonous plants.

Besides the famous guanacaste tree, this national park is also home to other tree species such as the rain tree, mamey sapote, Brazilian firetree, and Honduras mahogany, Belize's national tree. Belize's reputation for an extensive biodiversity is also evident in the park's wide range of animals that tourists are able to observe. These include the white-tailed deer, jaguarundi, kinkajou, nine-banded armadillo, among countless others. This park is also a favorite for birdwatching. There have been recorded over one hundred different bird species, including the Lesson's motmot and black-faced antthrush. Other birds seen at Guanacaste Park include the smoky-brown woodpecker, black-headed trogon, red-lored amazon, the magnolia warbler, belted kingfisher, and the bright-rumped attila.

Gulf Coast jaguarundi

The Gulf Coast jaguarundi is a population of the jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi). Two of these populations—the Gulf Coast jaguarundi and the Sinaloan jaguarundi—are considered endangered and were put on the endangered list on June 14, 1976. These cats are placed under the family Felidae and the subfamily Felinae because of their small size. As of 2017, the Cat Classification Taskforce of the Cat Specialist Group does not recognise any subspecies of jaguarundi.

Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge

Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge is the largest protected area of natural habitat left in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. The 98,000-acre (400 km2) refuge is located almost entirely in Cameron County, Texas (near Harlingen), although a very small part of its northernmost point extends into southern Willacy County. The Peregrine Fund began reintroducing captive-bred northern aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) to the refuge in 1985, which had been nearly extirpated from the Southwestern United States; today, it is home to 40 pairs. Nine other endangered or threatened species inhabit the refuge, such as the Texas ocelot (Leopardus pardalis albescens) and Gulf Coast jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi cacomitli), rare wild cats. Programs at the refuge include vegetation and wetland restoration.

List of mammals of Alabama

The U.S. state of Alabama is home to these known indigenous mammal species. Historically, the state's indigenous species included one armadillo species, sixteen bat species, thirteen carnivore species, six insectivore species, one opossum species, four rabbit species, twenty-two rodent species, and three ungulate species. Four of these native species have become extirpated within the state, including the American bison, cougar, elk, and the red wolf.There are six known introduced mammal species in the state. These include the black rat, brown rat, fallow deer, feral swine, house mouse, and nutria. Several other mammal species have had verifiable sightings within the state, but are believed by biologists to be without established breeding populations. These include the California sea lion (in Mobile Bay), ring-tailed cat, and jaguarundi.Human predation and habitat destruction has placed several mammal species at risk of extirpation or extinction. The Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources lists the conservation status of each species within the state with a rank of lowest, low, moderate, high, and highest concern.

Melanism

The term melanism refers to black pigment and is derived from the Greek: μελανός. Melanism is a development of the dark-colored pigment melanin in the skin or its appendages.

Pseudo-melanism, also called abundism, is another variant of pigmentation, characterized by dark spots or enlarged stripes, which cover a large part of the body of the animal, making it appear melanistic.

A deficiency in or total absence of melanin pigments is called amelanism.

The morbid deposition of black matter, often of a malignant character causing pigmented tumors, is called melanosis. For a description of melanin-related disorders, see melanin and ocular melanosis.

Mitla (cryptid)

The Bolivian Mitla, also known as Fawcett's Cat-Dog is a medium-sized carnivoran and described as a cat-like dog or canid-looking felid from the rainforest in Bolivia. The report comes from Lieutenant Colonel Percy Fawcett who spent time in Bolivia between 1906-1914. Jeremy Mallinson, the director of Jersey Zoo (now Durrell Wildlife Park) searched for the Mitla in 1960.

The Mitla may be a canid, or a genus of cat similar to the jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi). Some authors suspect that it is feline, but more likely it is a dog, and a relative of the short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis). Dr. Karl Shuker described it as a mysterious dog with feline behavior (T. Pietrzak, unpublished.).

The place where Lieutenant Colonel Fawcett saw the mitla may be situated in forests eastern of Cuzco region near to Madidi jungle (established in 1995 to range Bolivian National Park). This is also where Atelocynus microtis lives, which some writers say is the mitla, although the mitla is almost twice as big, and darker in colour.

Onza

The Onza is claimed to be a feline species similar to a cougar. It is a cryptid—a creature whose existence has been alleged but not proven.

Puma pumoides

Puma pumoides is an extinct prehistoric cat that was described in 1956 by Alfredo Castellanos using the scientific name Felis pumoides. Castellanos excavated its fossil remains in the Reartes Valley located in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, in a stratum called 'Brocherense bed', which probably dates to the Pliocene.

Fossil remains comprised a maxilla, the orbital section of the frontal bone, a part of a mandible, a petrosal, a femur, a lumbar vertebrae, and a few parts of each a humerus, tibia, ulna, and radius. Because of the similarity of these holotype parts with jaguarundi, it was preliminarily subordinated to the genus Puma.

Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge is a 2,088-acre (8.45 km2) National Wildlife Refuge situated along the banks of the Rio Grande, south of Alamo in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in Hidalgo County, South Texas.

The wildlife refuge was established for the protection of migratory birds in 1943. Its unique location is at the meeting of different climates and habitats: subtropical wetlands, Chihuahuan Desert, Gulf Coast, and Great Plains. Its riparian location has developed a reputation for diverse birding.

Tapantí National Park

Tapantí National Park, sometimes called Orosí National Park, is a National Park in the Pacific La Amistad Conservation Area of Costa Rica located on the edge of the Talamanca Range, near Cartago. It protects forests to the north of Chirripó National Park, and also contains part of the Orosí River. The area known as Macizo de la Muerte was added to the park on January 14, 2000.The park covers 12,500 acres (5,058 ha) and two life zones—lower montane rainforest and pre-montane rainforest. These forests provide habitat for some 45 mammal species, including the Baird's tapir, kinkajou, white-faced capuchin monkey, paca, agouti, ocelet, and jaguarundi. The park's 400 bird species include sparrow hawks, resplendent quetzals, emerald toucanets, and violaceous trogons. There are 28 species of reptiles and amphibians, and a large insect population that includes the thysania agrippina, the largest moth on the American continent.Three new species of Lepanthes orchids were discovered in the park in 2009 and is so far their only known habitat. All three species, L. graciosa, L. machogaffensis, and L. pelvis, are miniature orchids and neither is longer than 5 mm. They were discovered by a team from the Lankester Botanical Garden and the University of Costa Rica.

Wampus cat

The Wampus cat is a creature in American folklore. It is used as a mascot for numerous educational institutions. A folkloric creature with supposed shape-shifting powers can trace its roots to Native American folklore of the South Eastern United States. Cherokee legend has it that during a secret meeting of tribal elders, a young woman from the tribe secretly witnessed the ceremony. She was then cursed by the elders. During the 1920–30s newspapers report of a "Wampus" cat killing livestock in North Carolina to Georgia. Possibly it was early intrusions of coyotes or the Jaguarundi; the livestock deaths were attributed to the legendary Wampus of lore.

Extant Carnivora species

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