Jacques Gauthier

Jacques Armand Gauthier (born June 7, 1948 in New York City) is an American vertebrate paleontologist, comparative morphologist, and systematist, and one of the founders of the use of cladistics in biology.

Life and career

Gauthier is the son of Edward Paul Gauthier and Patricia Marie Grogan. He received a B.S. degree in Zoology at San Diego State University in 1973, a Masters of Biological Science at the same institute in 1980, and a PhD in Paleontology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1984.[1] Currently he is a Professor of Geology and Geophysics and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology and Vertebrate Zoology at Yale University. His master's thesis, the content of which was published in 1982, is a classic work on the paleontology and phylogeny of the lizard clade Anguimorpha that remains a core reference for morphological research on Xenosauridae and Anguidae in particular. His PhD thesis constituted the first major cladistic analysis of Diapsida, as well as arguing for the monophyly of the dinosaurs. He followed this with an important paper on the origin of birds from theropods.[2] This was the first detailed cladistic analysis of the theropod dinosaurs, and initiated a revolution in dinosaur phylogenetics, in which cladistics replaced the Linnaean system in the classification and phylogenetic understanding of the dinosaurs.

Gauthier's corpus contributed the foundational phylogenetic studies of Archosauria and Lepidosauria, two major amniote clades; and he was the primary author of the foundational and still widely cited phylogenetic study of Amniota[3] as a whole. The phylogenetic character sets from his 1984 and 1986 works, the 1988 amniote paper, and the 1988 lepidosaur and squamate papers still form the core of essentially all gross-anatomy-based phylogenetic analyses of these groups, and as such are among the most highly cited papers in amniote morphology and paleobiology. The 1988 amniote paper is also frequently cited to demonstrate the importance of taxon sampling in phylogenetic analysis, in particular the importance of sampling rare or fossil taxa that can break 'long branches' along which convergence can occur.

Gauthier has argued together with Kevin de Queiroz for replacing Linnaean taxonomy with the PhyloCode.[4][5] In addition to his theoretical work on systematics and taxonomy, Gauthier continues to study the anatomy and relationships of diapsids, particularly lepidosaurs. His lizard work currently focuses on Scincomorpha, following on a career-long interest in the unusual clade Xantusiidae. He is a principal investigator on the National Science Foundation-funded effort to reconstruct the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) using gross anatomy and molecular structure, building on his earlier work in collaboration with Richard Estes and Kevin de Queiroz, which established the most widely accepted phylogeny of the group.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Gauthier (1984)
  2. ^ Gauthier (1986)
  3. ^ Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe (1988); Gauthier (1994)
  4. ^ Foer, Joshua. "Pushing Phylocode." Discover 26.4 (2005): 46-51. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Mar. 2013.
  5. ^ Donoghue, Michael J., and Jacques A. Gauthier. "Implementing The Phylocode." Trends In Ecology & Evolution 19.6 (2004): 281-282. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Mar. 2013.

References

  • Estes, R.; de Queiroz, K. & Gauthier, Jacques (1988): Phylogenetic relationships within Squamata. In: Estes, R. & Pregill, G. (eds.): The Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families: 15-98. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto.
  • Gauthier, Jacques A. (1982): Fossil xenosaurid and anguid lizards from the early Eocene of Wyoming, and a revision of the Anguioidea. Contributions to Geology, University of Wyoming 21: 7-54.
  • Gauthier, Jacques A. (1984): A cladistic analysis of the higher systematic categories of the Diapsida. [PhD dissertation]. Available from University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, #85-12825, vii + 564 pp.
  • Gauthier, J. A. (1986), "Saurischian monophyly and the origin of birds", in Padian, K. (ed.), The Origin of Birds and the Evolution of Flight. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 8, California Academy of Sciences, pp. 1–55, ISBN 0-940228-14-9 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Gauthier, Jacques A.; Estes, R. & de Queiroz, Kevin (1988): A phylogenetic analysis of Lepidosauromorpha. In: Estes, R. & Pregill, G. (eds.): The Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families: 15-98. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto.
  • Gauthier, J. A.; Kluge, A. G.; Rowe, T. (June 1988). "Amniote phylogeny and the importance of fossils" (PDF). Cladistics. John Wiley & Sons. 4 (2): 105–209. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1988.tb00514.x.
  • Rowe, T. & Gauthier, Jacques (1990): Ceratosauria. In: Weishample, D.; Dodson, P. & Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria: 151-168. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • de Queiroz, Kevin & Gauthier, Jacques A. (1992): Phylogenetic taxonomy. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23: 449–480.
  • Gauthier, Jacques A. (1994): The diversification of the amniotes. In: Prothero, D. (ed.): Major Features of Vertebrate Evolution: Short Courses in Paleontology: 129-159. Paleontological Society.
  • Donoghue, M. J.; Gauthier, Jacques A. (June 2004). "Implementing the PhyloCode" (PDF). Trends Ecol. Evol. 19 (6): 281–282. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2004.04.004. PMID 16701272. Retrieved 2010-09-26.

External links

2019 Canadian Junior Curling Championships

The 2019 New Holland Canadian Junior Curling Championships was held from January 19 to 27 at the Art Hauser Centre in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The winners will represent Canada at the 2019 World Junior Curling Championships in Liverpool, Nova Scotia.

Archosauriformes

Archosauriformes (Greek for 'ruling lizards', and Latin for 'form') is a clade of diapsid reptiles that developed from archosauromorph ancestors some time in the Late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago). It was defined by Jacques Gauthier (1994) as the clade stemming from the last common ancestor of Proterosuchidae and Archosauria (the group that contains crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and birds); Phil Senter (2005) defined it as the most exclusive clade containing Proterosuchus and Archosauria. These reptiles, which include members of the family Proterosuchidae and more advanced forms, were originally superficially crocodile-like predatory semi-aquatic animals about 1.5 meters (5 ft) long, with a sprawling elbows-out stance and long snouts. Unlike the bulk of their therapsid contemporaries, the proterosuchids survived the catastrophe at the end of the Permian, perhaps because they were opportunistic scavengers or because they could retreat into water to find respite from an overheated climate. Any such scenarios are hypothetical; what is clearer is that these animals were highly successful in their new environment, and evolved quickly. Within a few million years at the opening of the Triassic, the proterosuchids had given rise to the Erythrosuchidae (the first sauropsids to totally dominate their environment), which in turn were the ancestors of the small agile Euparkeriidae, from which a number of successfully more advanced families – the archosaurs proper – evolved rapidly to fill empty ecological niches in the devastated global system. The Archosauria includes crocodylians, birds, and their extinct relatives. The archosaurs were the only members of the Archosauriformes which survived the late Triassic extinction.Pre-Euparkeria Archosauriformes have previously been included in the suborder Proterosuchia of the order Thecodontia. Under the cladistic methodology, Proterosuchia has been rejected as a paraphyletic assemblage, and the pre-archosaurian taxa are simply considered as basal Archosauriformes.

Archosauromorpha

Archosauromorpha (Greek for "ruling lizard forms") is a clade of diapsid reptiles containing all reptiles more closely related to archosaurs (such as crocodilians and dinosaurs, including birds) rather than lepidosaurs (such as tuataras, lizards, and snakes). Archosauromorphs first appeared during the middle Permian, though they became much more common and diverse during the Triassic period.Although Archosauromorpha was first named in 1946, its membership did not become well-established until the 1980s. Currently Archosauromorpha encompasses four main groups of reptiles: the stocky, herbivorous allokotosaurs and rhynchosaurs, the hugely diverse Archosauriformes, and a polyphyletic grouping of various long-necked reptiles including Protorosaurus, tanystropheids, and Prolacerta. Other groups including pantestudines (turtles and their extinct relatives) and the semiaquatic choristoderes have also been placed in Archosauromorpha by some authors.

Archosauromorpha is one of the most diverse groups of reptiles, but its members can be united by several shared skeletal characteristics. These include laminae on the vertebrae, a posterodorsal process of the premaxilla, a lack of notochordal canals, and the loss of the entepicondylar foramen of the humerus.

Avemetatarsalia

Avemetatarsalia (meaning "bird metatarsals") is a clade name established by British palaeontologist Michael Benton in 1999 for all crown group archosaurs that are closer to birds than to crocodilians. An alternate name is Pan-Aves, or "all birds", in reference to its definition containing all animals, living or extinct, which are more closely related to birds than to crocodilians. Almost all avemetatarsalians are members of a similarly defined subgroup, Ornithodira. Ornithodira is defined as the last common ancestor of dinosaurs and pterosaurs, and all of its descendants.Members of this group include the Dinosauromorpha, Pterosauromorpha, the genus Scleromochlus, and Aphanosauria. Dinosauromorpha contains more basal forms, including Lagerpeton and Marasuchus, as well as more derived forms, including dinosaurs. Birds belong to the dinosaurs as members of the theropods. Pterosauromorpha contains Pterosauria, which were the first vertebrates capable of true flight. Aphanosauria is a Triassic group of gracile carnivorous quadrupeds which was recognized in 2017.

Avialae

Avialae ("bird wings") is a clade of flying dinosaurs containing the only living dinosaurs, the birds. It is usually defined as all theropod dinosaurs more closely related to modern birds (Aves) than to deinonychosaurs, though alternative definitions are occasionally used (see below).

Archaeopteryx lithographica, from the late Jurassic Period Solnhofen Formation of Germany, is the earliest known avialan which may have had the capability of powered flight. However, several older avialans are known from the late Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation of China, dated to about 160 million years ago.

Claudine (book series)

The Claudine series consists of four early novels by the French author Colette, published 1900–1904. Written in diary form, they describe the growth to maturity of a young girl, Claudine. Aged fifteen at the beginning of the first book, Claudine à l'école, the series describes her education and experiences as she grows up. All the books are written in first-person with the first three having Claudine herself as the narrator. The last in the series, Claudine s'en va, introduces a new narrator, Annie.The novels were written in the late 19th century in collaboration with Colette's first husband, the writer Henry Gauthier-Villars, better known by his nom-de-plume "Willy". There has been much speculation over the degree of involvement of both Colette and Willy in the writing of the Claudine novels, particularly as Willy was known for often using ghostwriters. Consequently, although the novels were originally attributed to Willy only and published under his name alone, they were later published under both names. After the death of Willy, Colette went to court to challenge her former husband's involvement in any of the writing, and subsequently had his name removed from the books. This decision however was overturned after her death, as Willy's son from a prior relationship, Jacques Gauthier-Villars, successfully sued to have his father's name restored.The Claudine novels are thought to be roughly autobiographical. Whilst the stories were shocking in their time, this affectionate portrayal of a forthright and self-assured French girl who blossoms into a charismatic adult is nowadays more likely to be regarded as chastely sensual.

Claudine à l'école (1900) – Claudine at School

Claudine à Paris (1901) – Claudine in Paris

Claudine en ménage (1902) – Claudine Married

Claudine s'en va (1903) – Claudine and Annie

Incisivosaurus

Incisivosaurus ("incisor lizard") is a genus of small, probably herbivorous theropod dinosaur from the early Cretaceous Period of what is now the People's Republic of China. The first specimen to be described (by Xu et al. in 2002), IVPP V13326, is a skull that was collected from the lowermost levels (the fluvial Lujiatun beds) of the Yixian Formation (dating to the Barremian stage about 126 million years ago in the Sihetun area, near Beipiao City, in western Liaoning Province. The most significant, and highly unusual, characteristic of this dinosaur is its apparent adaptation to an herbivorous or omnivorous lifestyle. It was named for its prominent, rodent-like front teeth, which show wear patterns commonly found in plant-eating dinosaurs. The specific name gauthieri honors Dr. Jacques Gauthier, a pioneer of the phylogenetic method of classification.

Jean Del Val

Jean Del Val (17 November 1891 – 13 March 1975), born Jean Jacques Gauthier, was a French-born actor, also credited as Jean Gauthier and Jean Gautier.

He played roles during the Hollywood silent era, beginning with The Fortunes of Fifi in 1917. During the early days of talkies he served as a translator and vocal coach for French language versions of American-made films.

The classic 1942 film Casablanca featured Jean in the limited role as an announcer for a French radio station. In 1966 he played a non-speaking role as the comatose scientist in the science fiction film Fantastic Voyage.

He also appeared on 5 episodes of the television series Combat!, first, uncredited in "A Day in June" followed by "No Trumpets, No Drums " as Marceau, then as a French Farmer in "Birthday Cake" and later on as Father Bomar in the episode "The Steeple". Lastly he played Brother Edmundo in the episode "The Mockingbird".

Del Val died at age 83 from a heart attack in Pacific Palisades, California. He is interred in the Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City.

Julie-Marie Parmentier

Julie-Marie Parmentier (born 13 June 1981) is a French actress. She garnered critical acclaim for her roles in films such as Les Blessures Assassines (2000), Charly (2007) and No et moi (2010). She has been nominated for the César Award for Most Promising Actress for her role in Les Blessures Assassines and for which she won a Best Actress Award at the Mar del Plata Film Festival.

She has also appeared in such films as Sheitan (2005), 36 vues du pic Saint-Loup (2009) and Les Adieux à la reine (2012).

She won the Jean-Jacques Gauthier prize for Best Drama Actress for her monologue La séparation des songes by Jean Delabroy directed by Michel Didym.

Nordenosaurus

Nordenosaurus is an extinct genus of crocodilian. When first named in 1973 the genus was thought to be a squamate and was assigned to the family Xenosauridae. A single frontal bone was found from the Norden Bridge locality of the lower Valentine Formation in Brown County, Nebraska, thought to date back to the late Miocene. The size of the bone was initially taken as evidence that it was a giant xenosaurid. The specific name of the type species, N. magnus, alludes to its extremely large size in comparison to other xenosaurids known at the time. In 1982, paleontologist Jacques Gauthier reinterpreted Nordenosaurus as a small crocodilian rather than a giant xenosaurid. The frontal bone is hour-glass shaped and covered in deep pits, unlike those of any lizard but similar to the frontals of most crocodilians.Nordenosaurus was thought to have had an arboreal lifestyle before its reclassification.

Ornithurae

Ornithurae (meaning "bird tails" in Greek) is a natural group which includes the common ancestor of Ichthyornis, Hesperornis, and all modern birds as well as all other descendants of that common ancestor.

Peabody Museum of Natural History

The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University is among the oldest, largest, and most prolific university natural history museums in the world. It was founded by the philanthropist George Peabody in 1866 at the behest of his nephew Othniel Charles Marsh, the early paleontologist. Most known to the public for its Great Hall of Dinosaurs, which includes a mounted juvenile Brontosaurus and the 110-foot (34 m) long mural The Age of Reptiles, it also has permanent exhibits dedicated to human and mammal evolution; wildlife dioramas; Egyptian artifacts; and the birds, minerals and Native Americans of Connecticut.

The Peabody Museum is located at 170 Whitney Avenue in New Haven, Connecticut, United States, and is run by almost one hundred staff members. While the original building was demolished in 1917, it moved to its current location in 1925, and has since expanded to occupy the Peabody Museum, the attached Kline Geology Laboratory and the Class of 1954 Environmental Sciences Center, parts of three additional buildings, and a field station at the Long Island Sound. The museum also owns Horse Island in the Thimble Islands, which is not opened to the public, but used for experiments. The Class of 1954 Environmental Science Center, completed in 2001 and connected to the museum and the adjacent Kline Geology Laboratory, hosts approximately one-half of the museum's 13 million specimens.

On August 28, 2018, Yale University announced a contribution of $160 million by Edward P. Bass '67 toward the renovation of the Museum. The landmark commitment ranks among the most generous gifts to Yale and is the largest known gift ever made to a natural history museum in the United States. Bass's contribution will help to fund the renewal and expansion of the acclaimed museum. The full scope and timeline for the renovation are still under development, but the galleries are expected to close temporarily on June 30, 2020. Fundraising for the project is ongoing.The Peabody has several world-important collections. Perhaps the most notable are the vertebrate paleontology collections, among the largest, most extensive, and most historically important fossil collections in the United States (see Othniel Charles Marsh, R.S. Lull, George Gaylord Simpson, John Ostrom, Elisabeth Vrba, and Jacques Gauthier), and the Hiram Bingham Collection of Incan artifacts from Machu Picchu, named for the famous Yale archaeologist who rediscovered this Peruvian ruin. Also notable are the extensive ornithology collection, one of the largest and most taxonomically inclusive in the world, and the associated William Robertson Coe Ornithology Library, one of the best in the United States. The collection of marine invertebrates is additionally extensive, having benefitted from the work of such prolific invertebrate zoologists as Addison Emery Verrill. Faculty curators for the collections are drawn from Yale's departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Geology and Geophysics, and Anthropology. Because these departments maintain a strong tradition of hiring faculty who will perform collections-based research, especially after the renewed support for organismal biology at Yale under President Richard Charles Levin and in particular former provost Alison Richard, nearly all of the collections are under active internal use and enjoy continuous and considerable growth.

Pennaraptora

Pennaraptora (Latin penna "bird feather" + raptor "thief", from rapere "snatch"; a feathered bird-like predator) is a clade defined as the most recent common ancestor of Oviraptor philoceratops, Deinonychus antirrhopus, and Passer domesticus (the house sparrow), and all descendants thereof, by Foth et al., 2014. The earliest known definitive member of this clade is Anchiornis, from the late Jurassic period of China, about 160 million years ago.

The clade "Aviremigia" was conditionally proposed along with several other apomorphy-based clades relating to birds by Jacques Gauthier and Kevin de Queiroz in a 2001 paper. Their proposed definition for the group was "the clade stemming from the first panavian with ... remiges and rectrices, that is, enlarged, stiff-shafted, closed-vaned (= barbules bearing hooked distal pennulae), pennaceous feathers arising from the distal forelimbs and tail".

Portrait of an Assassin

Portrait of an Assassin is a 1949 French film starring Maria Montez.

Pygostylia

Pygostylia is a group of avialans which includes the Confuciusornithidae and all of the more advanced species, the Ornithothoraces.

Sauriurae

Sauriurae (meaning "lizard tails" in Greek) is a now-deprecated subclass of birds created by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. It was intended to include Archaeopteryx and distinguish it from all other birds then known, which he grouped in the sister-group Ornithurae ("bird tails"). The distinction Haeckel referred to in this name is that Archaeopteryx possesses a long, reptile-like tail, while all other birds known to him had short tails with few vertebrae, fused at the end into a pygostyle. The unit was not much referred to, and when Hans Friedrich Gadow in 1893 erected Archaeornithes for basically the same fossils, this became the common name for the early reptile-like grade of birds.

Ji Qiang and Larry Martin have continued to refer to the Sauriurae as a valid natural group. However, researchers like Jacques Gauthier (2001) and Julia Clarke (2002) have found that fossils found after Haeckel's time have bridged the gap between long and short-tailed Avialae. In their view, any grouping of avialans with long tails must exclude some of their descendants—making Sauriurae a paraphyletic and, thus, an invalid group under current systems of phylogenetic nomenclature.

Tetanurae

Tetanurae (/ˌtɛtəˈnjuːriː/ or "stiff tails") is a clade that includes most theropod dinosaurs, including megalosauroids, allosauroids, tyrannosauroids, ornithomimosaurs, maniraptorans, and birds. Tetanurans are defined as all theropods more closely related to modern birds than to Ceratosaurus and contain the majority of predatory dinosaur diversity. Tetanurae likely diverged from its sister group, Ceratosauria, during the late Triassic. Tetanurae first appeared in the fossil record by the Early Jurassic about 190 mya and by the Middle Jurassic had become globally distributed.The group was named by Jacques Gauthier in 1986 and originally had two main subgroups: Carnosauria and Coelurosauria, the clade containing birds and related dinosaurs such as compsognathids, tyrannosaurids, ornithomimosaurs, and maniraptorans. The original Carnosauria was a polyphyletic group including any large carnivorous theropod. Many of Gauthier's carnosaurs, such as tyrannosaurids, have since been re-classified as coelurosaurs or primitive tetanurans. Carnosauria has been reclassified as a group containing allosaurids that split from the Coelurosauria at the Neotetanurae/Avetheropoda node. Members of Spinosauroidea are believed to represent basal tetanurans.Tetanuran evolution was characterized by parallel diversification of multiple lineages, repeatedly attaining large body size and similar locomotor morphology. Cryolophosaurus has been claimed as the first true member of the group, but subsequent studies have disagreed on whether it is a dilophosaurid or tetanuran. Arcucci and Coria (2003) classified Zupaysaurus as an early tetanuran, but it was later placed as a sister taxon to the clade containing dilophosaurids, ceratosaurs, and tetanurans.Shared tetanuran features include a ribcage indicating a sophisticated air-sac-ventilated lung system similar to that in modern birds. This character would have been accompanied by an advanced circulatory system. Other tetanuran characterizing features include the absence of the fourth digit of the hand, placement of the maxillary teeth anterior to the orbit, a strap-like scapula, maxillary fenestrae, and stiffened tails. During the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, large spinosaurids and allosaurs flourished but possibly died out in the northern hemisphere before the end of the Cretaceous, and were replaced as apex predators by tyrannosauroid coelurosaurs. At least in South America, carcharodontosaurid allosaurs persisted until the end of the Mesozoic Era, and died out at the same time the non-avian coelurosaurs.

The Light Across the Street

The Light Across the Street (French: La Lumière d'en face) is a 1956 French drama film starring Brigitte Bardot directed by Georges Lacombe. It was also distributed in the U.S. under the title Female and the Flesh.

Timeline of ceratosaur research

This timeline of ceratosaur research is a chronological listing of events in the history of paleontology focused on the ceratosaurs, a group of relatively primitive, often horned, predatory theropod dinosaurs that became the apex predators of the southern hemisphere during the Late Cretaceous. The nature and taxonomic composition of the Ceratosauria has been controversial since the group was first distinguished in the late 19th century. In 1884 Othniel Charles Marsh described the new genus and species Ceratosaurus nasicornis from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of the western United States. He felt that it belonged in a new family that he called the Ceratosauridae. He created the new taxon Ceratosauria to include both the Ceratosauridae and the ostrich-like ornithomimids. The idea of the Ceratosauria was soon contested, however. Later that same decade both Lydekker and Marsh's hated rival Edward Drinker Cope argued that the taxon was invalid.The idea of the Ceratosauria would regain some support more than thirty years later when Gilmore argued in its favor in 1920. Nevertheless, the validity of Ceratosauria was disputed throughout much of the 20th century by researchers like Romer, Lapparent, Lavocat, Colbert, and Charig. However, in 1986, more than a century after Marsh first coined the name, Jacques Gauthier revived the idea. Three years later, Rowe published a new definition of Ceratosauria, all taxa more closely related to Ceratosaurus than to birds, based on Gauthier's use of the term. This modern use of the term was thought to include the many theropods discovered since the 1880s known as coelophysoids. Ceratosaurus itself had loose joints between bones in the skull whose interpretation has been controversial. Paleontologist Robert T. Bakker has interpreted this condition as an adaptation to swallow prey larger than it would otherwise be able to fit through its jaws.Since the 1980s, major developments in ceratosaur taxonomy have centered on the discovery of the Abelisauridae, a new family of large ceratosaurs that were among the dominant predators of the southern hemisphere during the Cretaceous. One of the most notable of these was Carnotaurus, an unusual horned theropod with a short face. More recent noteworthy non-abelisaur ceratosaur discoveries include the protruding-toothed noasaurid Masiakasaurus knopfleri, named after the lead guitarist from Dire Straits.

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