Jack snipe

The jack snipe/jacksnipe (Lymnocryptes minimus) is a small stocky wader. It is the smallest snipe, and the only member of the genus Lymnocryptes. Features such as its sternum make it quite distinct from other snipes or woodcocks.[2][3]

Jack snipe
Lymnocryptes minimus (Marek Szczepanek)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Scolopacidae
Genus: Lymnocryptes
F. Boie, 1826
Species:
L. minimus
Binomial name
Lymnocryptes minimus
(Brunnich, 1764)
Synonyms
  • Scolopax minima Brünnich, 1764

Etymology

The common name has been said to come from the Welsh word for a snipe, giach (pronounced with a hard g),[4] but modern dictionaries say it comes from the masculine name Jack.[5][6] Alfred Newton hypothesized that, "It may be, as in Jackass, an indication of sex, for it is a popular belief that the Jack-Snipe is the male of the common species; or, again, it may refer to the comparatively small size of the bird, as the 'jack' in the game of bowls is the smallest of the balls used, and as fishermen call the smaller Pikes Jacks."[2]

The genus name Lymnocryptes is from Ancient Greek limne, "marsh" and kruptos, "hidden". The species name minimus is from Latin and means "smallest".[7]

Description

Adults are smaller than common snipe and have relatively shorter bill. Length is 18–25 cm (7.1–9.8 in), wingspan is 30–41 cm (12–16 in) and weight is 33–73 g (1.2–2.6 oz).[8] The body is mottled brown on top and pale underneath. They have a dark stripe through the eye. The wings are pointed and narrow, and yellow back stripes are visible in flight. When seen, the distinctive bobbing movement, as if the bird is on springs, has an almost hypnotic quality.

The head pattern of jack snipe differs from common snipe and other species in the genus Gallinago, in that there is no central crown-stripe; instead, there are two pale lateral crown-stripes, which are separated from the supercilium by an area of dark plumage.

Distribution and habitat

Jack snipes are migratory, spending the non-breeding period in Great Britain, Atlantic and Mediterranean coastal Europe, Africa, and India. The jack snipe is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. Their breeding habitat is marshes, bogs, tundra and wet meadows with short vegetation in northern Europe and northern Russia.

Behaviour

Lymnocryptes minimus MHNT
Jack snipe egg

Jack snipe can be secretive in their non-breeding areas and are difficult to observe, being well camouflaged in their habitat. Consequently, birdwatchers have developed a specialised technique for finding them. This involves walking through its marshy habitat until a bird is disturbed and flies up. Jack snipe will squat down and not flush from cover until an intruder is quite close.[2] They then quietly fly a short distance before dropping back into vegetation.[2]

Feeding

They forage in soft mud, probing or picking up food by sight. They mainly eat insects and earthworms, also plant material.

Breeding

The male performs an aerial display during courtship, during which it makes a distinctive sound like a galloping horse. It is silent in winter. They nest in a well-hidden location on the ground, laying 3–4 eggs.

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Lymnocryptes minimus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Newton, Alfred (1911). "Snipe" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ Thomas, Gavin H.; Wills, Matthew A.; Székely, Tamás (2004). "A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny" (PDF). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 4 (28). doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-28. PMC 515296. PMID 15329156.
  4. ^ The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia. volume IV. p. 3211.
  5. ^ "Jack Snipe". Dictionary.com Unabridged. (based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary)
  6. ^ New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. p. 1434.
  7. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 233, 256. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  8. ^ Dunning, John B. Jr., ed. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.

External links

Berrow, Somerset

Berrow is a small residential coastal village and holiday area, a civil parish in the Sedgemoor district of Somerset, England, situated in between Burnham-on-Sea and Brean.

According to the 2011 census it had a population of 1,534.

Carbrain

Carbrain /kar

'bren/ is a neighborhood in Cumbernauld, North Lanarkshire in Scotland. It gets a brief mention on William Roy's eighteenth century map of the Scottish Lowlands. In the nineteenth century it was no more than a farm steading. An early map shows just a few buildings existed in 1864. By the start of the First World War it had not grown significantly, although there was a school near the railway station. It was sometimes spelled Carbrane. Even in 1956 Carbrain was mostly farmland with a small burn flowing through it. The map seems to show this flowing possibly down the Gully and eventually feeding the Red Burn in the Vault Glen. This burn isn't named so can't be identified with the Horseward Burn from historic maps.Derek Lyddon and James Latimer designed much of the housing in the 1960s. Construction of Cumbernauld began in 1963, and most areas of Carbrain were inhabited by the early 1970s. For the first several years, Carbrain was considered to be highly desirable as an escape from poor housing in the Glasgow area. As newer developments have been constructed in the Cumbernauld area, Carbrain has fallen into disrepair despite periods of renovation. For example over £70 million was spend building new houses around Beechwood Court watched over by Andy Scott's artwork Vitruvian Girl. Most recently there have been proposals to renovate Millcroft Road.Carbrain contains ten residential areas (Carbrain 1, 2, 3 & 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14), four churches (Carbrain Baptist Church, Cumbernauld Free Church, Cumbernauld United Reformed Church and St. Margaret of Scotland Primary), two pubs (The Twa Corbies and The Jack Snipe), several local shops located throughout the site, along with a number of community buildings like the Red Cross Centre. Carbrain is supposed to have the Town Centre as its focus, so there was thought to be no need for serious scale entertainment or grocery shops.

Carbrain was split into two sections: North and South. North Carbrain, which was built first, included Glenhove Road, Torbrex Road, Stonylee Road, Craigyburn Road, Beechwood Road and Glenacre Road. North Carbrain is within five minutes walking distance from the Town Centre, health centre and sports centre. South Carbrain includes Millcroft Road, Greenrigg Road, Kilbowie Road, Broomlands Road, and Sandyknowes, some of which are a five-minute walk from the train station. The town centre is approximately a ten-minute walk from South Carbrain.

Carbrain was designed around pedestrians and, as such, has paths intertwining among its many streets. It is possible to get from one part of Carbrain to another using only footpaths. It was also designed so that pedestrians never had to walk alongside or cross a road.

Hillcrest was never part of Carbrain although Carbrain Temporary School became, the now demolished, Hillcrest Primary in 1971. For that reason there is a community council for "Carbrain and Hillcrest" rather than just Carbrain.There were three primary schools within this area. Most children who lived in these areas would have attended Langlands Primary, St Joseph's Primary or Carbrain Primary (which celebrated its 50th birthday in 2016). These primaries were feeder schools for Cumbernauld High School, Greenfaulds High School or Our Lady's High School. St Margaret of Scotland Primary replaced St Joseph's Primary during a period of reorganisation.

Carbrain Boys Club is a voluntary football club who are organising a festival in June 2017.

Challenge Stakes (Great Britain)

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Decoy Pit, Pools and Woods is a 20.27 hectares (50.1 acres) Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) between Little Heath and Aldermaston Soke in the civil parish of Aldermaston in the English county of Berkshire, notified in 1993.

Located at grid reference SU612632, the site comprises several habitats including woodland, heathland, grassland and small waterbodies, and includes alder woodland types which are becomong a declining habitat in England. The site also supports the greatest known number of breeding dragonfly and damselfly species in Berkshire, whilst the presence of many other common, and some rare, insect and bird species also adds to the diversity and value of the site.In the southern part of the site the land slopes gently eastwards within a draining gully system; the head of the stream West End Brook flows through here. On the northern part of the site a former gravel pit, now partially infilled after it was abandoned in the early 1980s, has developed into a mosaic of shallow pools, also supporting a large pond, some heathland and scrub. The area supports many wetland plants including bulrush Typha latifolia, common spike-rush Eleocharis palustris, as well as a locally scarce species marsh speedwell Veronica scutellata. The heathland and scrub areas are predominantly populated by heather Calluna vulgaris and are slowly being colonised by birch. Surrounding land comprises typically of secondary birch woodland with some heathland. There is also a small valley bog where purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea is particularly abundant.Ancient semi-natural woodland occurs in the areas known locally as Brick kiln Gully, Roundwood Gully and Roundwood Copse. The low-lying gullies here are permanently waterlogged and support alder woodland. The ground flora is diverse and includes greater tussock-sedge Carex paniculata and opposite-leaved goldensaxifrage Chrysosplenium oppositifolium.

Other more commonly occurring woodland types are represented within the SSSI, associated with the middle and upper slopes of the gullies. These areas contain species typical for semi-natural ancient woodland including hard shield-fern (Polystichum aculeatum) and Solomon's-seal (Polygonatum multiflorum). A well vegetated pond is located on the north side of Best Gully.Twenty-three species of dragonfly and damselfly breed within the site. The ponds, streams and shallow pools are used for breeding whilst valuable feeding habitat is provided in the adjacent woodland. Three nationally scarce species are present; the scarce blue-tailed damselfly (Ischnura pumilio), a species known to prefer shallow, newly created pools; the downy emerald (Cordulia aenea) and the brilliant emerald (Somatochlora metallica).The site is associated with a range of rare fauna, including woodlark and the silverstudded blue butterfly (Plebejus argus), both of which breed in the heathland area. The site is also home to the Devon carpet moth (Lampropteryx otregiata), which may be found only on this site within the whole of Berkshire; also the snipe and jack snipe visit the pools in winter, whilst siskins and redpolls have been recorded feeding in the alders.

Drumming (snipe)

Drumming (also called bleating or winnowing) is a sound produced by snipe as part of their courtship display flights. The sound is produced mechanically (rather than vocally) by the vibration of the modified outer tail feathers, held out at a wide angle to the body, in the slipstream of a power dive. The display is usually crepuscular, or given throughout moonlit nights. The behaviour is generally characteristic of the genera Coenocorypha, Gallinago and Lymnocryptes. Sounds made by the closely related woodcocks (Scolopax spp.) in the course of their 'roding' display flights may be homologous to drumming.

The sound made by Gallinago snipes has been variously described as "drumming", "bleating", "throbbing", a "rattle" and an "eerie fluting". The drumming of the jack snipe (Limnocryptes minimus) has been likened to the sound made by a cantering or galloping horse. Miskelly records Coenocorypha snipes giving a non-vocal “roar” homologous to the drumming displays of Gallinago snipes, a sound formerly ascribed to a mythological bird, the hakawai. When breeding in northern Japan, Latham's snipe (Gallinago hardwickii) are known as “thunder birds” for the drumming noise made in the course of their display flights.

Foryd Bay

Y Foryd, also known as Foryd Bay, is a tidal bay in Gwynedd, Wales. It is located at the south-western end of the Menai Strait, about two miles south-west of Caernarfon. Several rivers flow into the bay and there are large areas of mudflats and salt marsh. A shingle spit partly blocks the mouth of the bay. At the north-western end is Fort Belan, built during the 18th century.

The bay has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest and in 1994 it became a Local Nature Reserve because of its importance for wildlife. Many birds visit in winter and during migration including large numbers of wildfowl and waders such as wigeon which peak at over 3000 birds. Notable species include brent goose, jack snipe, spotted redshank and greenshank. terns roost at the mouth of the bay.

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The supercilium is a plumage feature found on the heads of some bird species. It is a stripe which runs from the base of the bird's beak above its eye, finishing somewhere towards the rear of the bird's head. Also known as an "eyebrow", it is distinct from the eyestripe, which is a line which runs across the lores, and continues behind the eye. Where a stripe is present only above the lores, and does not continue behind the eye, it is called a supraloral stripe or simply supraloral. On most species which display a supercilium, it is paler than the adjacent feather tracts.The colour, shape or other features of the supercilium can be useful in bird identification. For example, the supercilium of the dusky warbler, an Old World warbler species, can be used to distinguish it from the very similar Radde's warbler. The dusky warbler's supercilium is sharply demarcated, whitish and narrow in front of the eye, becoming broader and more buffy towards the rear, whereas that of the Radde's warbler is diffusely defined, yellowish and broadest in front of the eye, becoming narrower and more whitish toward the rear. The supercilium of the northern waterthrush, a New World warbler, differs subtly from that of the closely related (and similarly plumaged) Louisiana waterthrush. The Louisiana has a bicoloured supercilium which widens significantly behind the eye, while the northern has an evenly buffy eyebrow which is either the same width throughout or slightly narrower behind the eye.A split supercilium divides above the lores. In some species, such as the jack snipe, the divided stripes reconnect again behind the eye. In others, such as the broad-billed sandpiper, the divided stripes remain separate.A supercilium drop is a feature found on some pipits; it is a pale spot on the rear of the ear-coverts which, although separated from the supercilium by an eyestripe, can appear at some angles to be a downward continuation of the supercilium.

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Situated north of the village of Surlingham and south of the River Yare, it comprises 68 acres (28 hectares) of mixed wetland habitat including shallow open water, dykes, reed and sedge fen, and small areas of willow carr, as well as deciduous woodland on the southern margin of the reserve.

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