Jack McIver Weatherford is the former DeWitt Wallace Professor of anthropology at Macalester College in Minnesota. He is best known for his 2004 book, Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. In 2006, he was awarded the Order of the Polar Star, Mongolia’s highest national honor for foreigners.
His books in the late 20th century on the influence of Native American cultures have been translated into numerous languages. In addition to publishing chapters and reviews in academic books and journals, Weatherford has published numerous articles in national newspapers to popularize his historic and anthropological coverage of Native American cultures, as well as the American political culture in Congress in the 20th century. He has become a frequent commentator on TV and radio.
|Occupation||professor, ethnographer, anthropologist|
|Notable works||Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World;|
The History of Money;
Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World
Weatherford was born in Columbia, South Carolina, to Anna Ruth Grooms and Alfred Greg Weatherford, as the oldest of seven children. Their father was a sergeant in the United States Army, which caused the family to move often. Now, Weatherford lives in Mongolia and Charleston, South Carolina. One of Professor Weatherford's distant ancestors is William Weatherford, a Creek leader of mixed race in the nineteenth century.
He graduated from the University of South Carolina in 1967, with a B.A in Political Science. In 1972, he received an M.A. in sociology from the University of South Carolina, and an M.A in anthropology in 1973. In 1977, he received his Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of California, San Diego. He earned a post-doctoral degree in policy studies from Duke University, Institute of Policy Sciences.
He became a professor of anthropology at Macalester College in Minnesota. He has written extensively on indigenous cultures in North American and in other countries. His books include Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World (1988), which was translated into numerous languages; Native Roots: How the Indians Enriched America (1991), and Savages and Civilization: Who Will Survive? (1994) on the contemporary clash of world cultures. Weatherford's early books on Native Americans won the Minnesota Book Award in 1989 and in 1992. He also received the 1992 Anthropology in the Media Award from the American Anthropological Association, and the 1994 Mass Media Award of the National Conference of Christians and Jews.
He became more widely known for his book, The History of Money (1997), which was chosen as a selection of the Conservative Book of the Month Club. In addition, Weatherford's articles about the anthropology of 20th-century American politics and analysis of its clans, have led to his being invited as a commentator on radio and television programs, including The Today Show, ABC Evening News with Peter Jennings, Geraldo's Now It Can Be Told, Larry King, All Things Considered, Nightwatch, Tony Brown's Journal, and the Voice of America. He has appeared in international programs from Bolivia to Mongolia.
Since the late twentieth century, Weatherford has studied and published on the cultures and history of Mongolia. His work has been recognized by that nation's government: in 2006, he was awarded the Order of the Polar Star, Mongolia’s highest national honor. In addition, Weatherford was awarded the honorary order by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia and the medal of the President of Mongolia in 2010.
Weatherford has worked with contemporary groups in places such as Bolivia and the Amazon. He has also worked with historical analysis such as the impact of the American Indians on world history. In recent years, he has concentrated on the Mongols by looking at their impact since the time that Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes in 1206.
Batu Khan (; Mongolian: Бат хаан, Bat haan, Tatar: Бату хан, Chinese: 拔都 Bá dū, Russian: хан Баты́й, Greek: Μπατού; c. 1205–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Mongolian: Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde, which ruled Rus', Volga Bulgaria, Cumania, and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies of Poland and Hungary. "Batu" or "Bat" literally means "firm" in the Mongolian language. After the deaths of Genghis Khan's sons, he became the most respected prince called agha (elder brother) in the Mongol Empire.Culture of Mongolia
The Culture of Mongolia has been heavily influenced by the Mongol nomadic way of life.Dayan Khan
Dayan Khan (Mongolian: Даян Хаан) (given name: Batumöngke; 1464–1517/1543) was a Mongol khan who reunited the Mongols under Chinggisid supremacy in the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia. His reigning title, "Dayan", means the "Great Yuan", as he enthroned himself as Great Khan of the Great Yuan, though the Yuan dynasty, the principal khanate of the Mongol Empire, had already been overthrown by the Chinese Ming dynasty a century earlier (1368).
Dayan Khan and his queen, Mandukhai, eliminated Oirat power and abolished the taishi system used by both local and foreign warlords. Dayan Khan's victory at Dalan Tergin reunified the Mongols and solidified their identity as Chinggisid people. His decision to divide the Six tumens of Eastern Mongolia as fiefs for his sons created decentralized but stable Borjigin rule over Mongolia for a century.Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World
Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World (2004) is a history book written by Jack Weatherford, Dewitt Wallace Professor of Anthropology at Macalester College. It is a narrative of the rise and influence of Genghis Khan and his successors, and their influence on European civilization. Weatherford provides a different slant on Genghis Khan than has been typical in most Western accounts, attributing positive cultural effects to his rule.
In the last section, he reviews the historiography of Genghis Khan in the West and argues that the leader's early portrayal in writings as an "excellent, noble king" changed to that of a brutal pagan during the Age of Enlightenment. Weatherford made use of three major non-Western sources: The Secret History of the Mongols, the Ta' rīkh-i jahān-gushā of Juvayni and the Jami al-Tawarikh of Rashid-al-Din Hamadani.Glimpses of World History
Glimpses of World History, a book published by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1942, is a panoramic sweep of the history of humankind. It is a collection of 196 letters on world history written from various prisons in British India between 1930–1933. The letters were written to his young daughter Indira, and were meant to introduce her to world history.The letters start off with one he sends to his daughter on her birthday. He says he is sad about not being able to send her any "material" gift from prison, so he would try to give her something he can "afford", a series of letters from his heart.
Written from prison, where he had no recourse to reference books or a library but his personal notes, Glimpses of World History contains the history of humankind from 6000 BC to the time of writing of the book. It covers the rise and fall of great empires and civilizations from Greece and Rome to China and West Asia; great figures such as Ashoka and Genghis Khan, Mohandas K. Gandhi and Vladimir Lenin; wars and revolutions, democracies and dictatorships.
He wrote about many cultures throughout the globe in detail because, as he himself said, he didn't like the way history was taught in schools where it was confined to the history of a single country and that too narrow, and he wanted his daughter Indira to know why people did what they did. It was possible only through knowing the history of the whole world.
The letters are written in informal language, with contemporary and personal events also mentioned. They reflect the world view of Nehru, and his grasp of history. It could be considered as one of the first attempts at historiography from a non-Eurocentric angle - a statement that is itself subject to the charge of Eurocentrism, given the long history of historical writing outside of Europe, for instance in China (from The Classic of History, c. 550 BC) or the Islamic world (from Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari in the 9th century AD to Biruni and Ibn Khaldun).
Nehru stated in his preface that The Outline of History by H. G. Wells was a major influence on the work. The New York Times described it as: "... one of the most remarkable books ever written.... Nehru makes even H.G. Wells seem singularly insular..... One is awed by the breadth of Nehru's culture."In particular, his chapter on Genghis Khan and the Mongol invasion runs counter to dominant European views of the time. Prefacing his introduction to the Mongol empire, which was larger than the British empire and lasted as long, he said: "It would be foolish not to recognize the greatness of Europe. But it would be equally foolish to forget the greatness of Asia."
And he goes on to state: "Genghis is, without doubt, the greatest military genius and leader in history.... Alexander and Caesar seem petty before him." According to Jack Weatherford, this was possibly the first re-evaluation of the Mongol empire since the 18th century.
Nehru's interpretation of the Sepoy Mutiny—sparked by the order for the Sepoys to bite off the paper cartridges for their rifles which were greased with animal fat, namely beef and pork—is that "the Revolt of 1857-58 was the last flicker of feudal India."Khanate
A khanate or khaganate is a political entity ruled by a khan or khagan. This political entity is typical for people from the Eurasian Steppe and it can be equivalent to tribal chiefdom, principality, kingdom or empire.Khutulun
Khutulun (c. 1260 – c. 1306), also known as Aigiarne, Aiyurug, Khotol Tsagaan or Ay Yaruq (lit. Moonlight) was an ancient Mongol noblewoman and wrestler. The most famous daughter of Kaidu, a cousin of Kublai Khan, her father was "most pleased by her abilities", and she accompanied him on military campaigns. Both Marco Polo and Rashid al-Din Hamadani wrote accounts of their encounters with her.Korguz
Korguz (died 1242) was an Uyghur governor of Khorasan during the reign of the Mongol ruler
Ogedei Khan. He began his career teaching Mongol children and thereafter assumed governorship of Khorasan. Originally a Buddhist, he converted to Islam later in his life. Korguz defied the family of the recently deceased Chagatai. For this reason, he was ordered to death by Töregene Khatun who directed that stones be stuffed into his mouth in public until Korguz fatally choked.List of assassinations by the Assassins
List of assassination (attempt)s attributed to the Assassins (Hashshashins) of the Nizari Ismaili state, active in Persia, Iraq, Egypt and the Levant.Möngke Khan
Möngke (Mongolian: ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ Möngke / Мөнх Mönkh; Chinese: 蒙哥; pinyin: Ménggē; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259. He was the first Khagan from the Toluid line, and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign. Under Möngke, the Mongols conquered Iraq and Syria as well as the kingdom of Dali.Oghul Qaimish
Oghul Qaimish (died 1251) was the principal wife of Güyük Khan and ruled as regent over the Mongol Empire after the death of her husband in 1248. She was a descendant of the Mergid tribe. However, H.H. Howorth believed that she was an Oirat.Pax Mongolica
The Pax Mongolica (Latin for "Mongol Peace"), less often known as Pax Tatarica ("Tatar Peace"), is a historiographical term modelled after the original phrase Pax Romana which describes the stabilizing effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries. The term is used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified administration helped to create and the period of relative peace that followed the Mongols' vast conquests.
The conquests of Genghis Khan (r. 1206–1227) and his successors, spanning from Southeast Asia to Eastern Europe, effectively connected the Eastern world with the Western world. The Silk Road, connecting trade centres across Asia and Europe, came under the sole rule of the Mongol Empire. It was commonly said that "a maiden bearing a nugget of gold on her head could wander safely throughout the realm". Despite the political fragmentation of the Mongol Empire into four khanates (Yuan dynasty, Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanate and Ilkhanate), nearly a century of conquest and civil war was followed by relative stability in the early 14th century. The end of the Pax Mongolica was marked by the disintegration of the khanates and the outbreak of the Black Death in Asia which spread along trade routes to much of the world in the mid-14th century.Sorghaghtani Beki
Sorghaghtani Beki (Mongolian: Сорхагтани Бэхи/ᠰᠥᠯᠺᠥᠺᠲᠠᠨᠢᠪᠡᠺᠢ) or Bekhi (Bek(h)i is a title), also written Sorkaktani, Sorkhokhtani, Sorkhogtani, Siyurkuktiti (c.1190-1252; posthumous name: Chinese: 顯懿莊聖皇后; pinyin: Xiǎnyì Zhuāngshèng Huánghòu) was a Keraite princess and daughter-in-law of Genghis Khan. Married to Tolui, Genghis' youngest son, Sorghaghtani Beki became one of the most powerful and competent people in the Mongol Empire. She made policy decisions at a pivotal moment that led to the transition of the Mongol Empire towards a more cosmopolitan and sophisticated style of administration. She raised her sons to be leaders, and maneuvered the family politics so that all four of her sons, Möngke Khan, Hulagu Khan, Ariq Böke, and Kublai Khan, went on to inherit the legacy of their grandfather.
Given her enormous impact at such a critical point of the mighty Mongol Empire, she is likely one of the most influential and powerful women in history. Sorghaghtani Beki was a Christian, specifically a member of the Church of the East (often referred to as "Nestorian Christianity"). As a moving spirit behind the Mongol Empire, Sorghaghtani is responsible for much of the trade openings and intellectual exchange of the largest contiguous empire in world history.The Secret History of the Mongol Queens
The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire is a 2010 book by Jack Weatherford, about the impact and legacy of Genghis Khan's daughters and Mongol queens such as Mandukhai the Wise and Khutulun. The book references Mongolian, Central Asian, Persian, European and Chinese sources such as Altan Tobchi, Erdeni Tobchi, Erdenyin Tunamal Sudar, Tarikh-i-Rashidi, Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini, and Ming shi in addition to various secondary sources in English, Mongolian, and German.
Weatherford also analyzes the role of Mongol women in the Mongol Empire and how they influenced the Mongol nation, modern Mongolia, and most of the modern world.
The book was translated into Mongolian, Chinese, Korean, Malaysian, Thai and Russian.
Chinese-American actress Joan Chen mentioned that she had read the book to prepare for her role as Chabi in the TV series Marco Polo.Tug (banner)
A tug (Mongolian: туг [tʰʊɡ], Turkish: tuğ, Ottoman Turkish: طوغ ṭuġ or توغ tuġ) or sulde (Mongolian: сүлд) is a pole with circularly arranged horse or yak tail hairs of varying colors arranged at the top. It was historically flown during the period of the Mongol Empire, and later adopted in derived Turco-Mongol and Turkic khanates and the Ottoman Empire.
In the 17th century, it was also adopted by Slavic cavalry (cossacks, haidamaka), under the name bunchuk (Ukrainian: Бунчук; Polish: Buńczuk). It is still used by some units of the Polish military.Töregene Khatun
Töregene Khatun (also Turakina) (d. 1246) was the Great Khatun and regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246.