Jack Kent Cooke (October 25, 1912 – April 6, 1997) was a Canadian-American businessman in broadcasting and professional sports. Starting in sales, Cooke was very successful, eventually becoming a partner in a network of radio stations and newspapers in Canada. After failing at starting a major league baseball team in Toronto and being turned down to own a television station in Toronto, Cooke moved to the United States and built a business empire in broadcasting and professional sports franchises. Cooke was the owner of the Washington Redskins (NFL), the Los Angeles Lakers (NBA), the Los Angeles Kings (NHL), the Los Angeles Wolves (United Soccer) and Toronto Maple Leafs (IL). He also developed The Forum in Inglewood, California, and FedExField near Landover, Maryland.
Jack Kent Cooke
Jack Kent Cooke in Toronto, c. 1955
|Born||October 25, 1912|
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
|Died||April 6, 1997 (aged 84)|
Washington, DC, U.S.
Sport teams owner
At age 14, Cooke got a job selling encyclopedias door to door. At the end of his first day, he took home over $20 to his mother, and is reported as later saying, "I think that was the proudest moment of my life." He later became a runner on the floor of the Toronto Stock Exchange. He was selling soap in Northern Ontario for Colgate-Palmolive in 1936 when he met Roy Thomson, who hired Cooke to run radio station CJCS in Stratford, Ontario. The two became partners in 1941, buying radio stations and newspapers in Ontario and Quebec.
With the financial backing of J. P. Bickell, Cooke purchased CKCL in 1945, changing the call letters to CKEY. He also continued to work with Thomson, and the two acquired the Canadian edition of Liberty magazine in 1948, naming it New Liberty. The following year, Thomson sold his half of the magazine to Cooke.
In 1951, Cooke ventured into sports, acquiring the minor league Toronto Maple Leafs baseball club. He transformed the games from straight athletic contests into complete entertainment packages, with a long list of special promotions and celebrity appearances. With his focus on entertainment, Cooke was compared to St. Louis Browns owner Bill Veeck. Five months after becoming owner, Cooke presented a 48-page booklet to all the teams in the league, outlining his promotional strategies. He was named minor league executive of the year by The Sporting News in 1952. That same year, Cooke purchased Consolidated Press, publisher of Saturday Night magazine. He made an unsuccessful bid for The Globe and Mail newspaper in 1955.
While owning the Maple Leafs baseball team, Cooke set his sights on bringing Major League Baseball to Toronto. He tried to purchase the St. Louis Browns, Philadelphia Athletics, and Detroit Tigers when they came up for sale, and in 1959 he became one of the founding team owners in the Continental League, a proposed third major league for professional baseball. The league disbanded a year later without ever playing a game. Cooke still hoped to get an American League expansion team in Toronto, but the city's lack of a major league venue became an impasse. Cooke sold the Maple Leafs in 1964. Before that, he had watched several team practices and observed Sparky Anderson, noting the player's leadership qualities and ability to teach younger players from all backgrounds. Cooke encouraged Anderson to pursue a career in managing, offering him the post for the Leafs. In 1964, Anderson accepted the offer. Cooke was inducted into the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame in 1985.
In 1960, Cooke lost a bid to obtain a licence for the first privately owned TV station in Toronto. There had been nine bids in a highly competitive process, and the licence was awarded to a consortium of Aldred-Rogers Broadcasting and the Telegram Corporation, which launched CFTO-TV.
Within weeks of being turned down for the Toronto TV license, Cooke applied for U.S. citizenship. With the support of Francis E. Walter, Cooke quickly became a citizen when both houses of Congress and President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved a waiver of the usual five-year waiting period. He sold CKEY at the end of 1960, and Consolidated Press in 1961.
At the time, Canada and the U.S. both had laws prohibiting foreign control of radio and TV stations. Cooke had entered the U.S. broadcasting industry in August 1959 by acquiring Pasadena, California radio station KRLA 1110 (now KRDC) through his brother, Donald Cooke, a U.S. citizen.
Cooke formed American Cablevision in the 1960s, and acquired several cable television companies. He acquired majority ownership of TelePrompTer cable TV, and sold it in the late 1970s for $646 million. In 1979, he bought the Chrysler Building in New York City, one of the world's most renowned skyscrapers. In 1985, Cooke bought the Los Angeles Daily News for $176 million. A year later, he acquired another cable TV company. He sold the cable systems in 1989.
In 1961, Cooke purchased a 25% interest in the Washington Redskins after team owner and founder George Preston Marshall became incapacitated by a stroke, becoming majority owner in 1974 and sole owner in 1985.
In 1997, Cooke completed a stadium deal near Landover, Maryland, for a new home for his team. This community was named Raljon—a name devised by Cooke by combining the names of his sons Ralph and John. Shortly afterward, he died of cardiac arrest. The stadium was posthumously named Jack Kent Cooke Stadium, which was changed under subsequent ownership to FedExField in 1999 (the Raljon name was discontinued at the same time).
In his will, Cooke left the team and stadium to his foundation with instructions to sell it. Cooke's son, John Kent Cooke, tried to put in a competitive bid to keep the team in the family, but it instead went to local businessman Daniel Snyder and his associates for a record-setting $800 million.
In September 1965, Cooke purchased the Los Angeles Lakers for $5 million ($40,000,000 in current dollar terms) from Bob Short. Under Cooke's ownership the Lakers moved from the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena to The Forum and changed their colors from Royal and Light Blue to the current Purple (which he referred to as "Forum Blue") and Gold.
The Lakers during Cooke's ownership reached seven NBA Finals and won the 1972 NBA Finals.
As a Canadian, Cooke particularly enjoyed ice hockey, and he was determined to bring the National Hockey League (NHL) to Los Angeles. In 1966, the NHL announced it intended to sell six new franchises, and Cooke prepared a bid. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission, which operated the Sports Arena, supported a competing bid headed by Los Angeles Rams owner Dan Reeves, and advised Cooke that if he won the franchise he would not be allowed to use that facility. In response, Cooke threatened to build a new arena in the Los Angeles suburb of Inglewood. Nearly 30 years later Cooke told the Los Angeles Times sportswriter Steve Springer that he recalled "one official representing the commission laughing at him" (Springer's words) when Cooke warned he would build in Inglewood. Cooke won the franchise, and paid $2 million for the new Los Angeles NHL club, which he called the "Kings." Springer: "Cooke went to Inglewood and built the Forum. Good-bye, Lakers. Good-bye, Kings." The Kings played their first game on October 14, 1967—at the Long Beach Arena, while construction was being completed at Cooke's new arena.
Cooke claimed The Forum would be "the most beautiful arena in the world." It opened December 30, 1967, to rave reviews. Cooke was soon calling it "The Fabulous Forum." The Kings struggled both on the ice and at the gate, however. Cooke had been told that there were more than 300,000 former Canadians living within a three-hour drive of Los Angeles, and remarked, "Now I know why they left Canada: They hate hockey!" Cooke sold the Forum, Kings, and Lakers in 1979 to Dr. Jerry Buss for a then-record combined $67.5 million ($233,000,000 in current dollar terms); part of the compensation included the Chrysler Building.
In 1967, Cooke was a founder of the United Soccer Association and owned the Los Angeles Wolves team, which became a charter NASL team the following year. In 1971, he was a financial backer of the first Muhammad Ali vs Joe Frazier boxing match, held at Madison Square Garden and won by Frazier.
A lover of horses and a fan of Thoroughbred horse racing, Cooke owned Kent Farms, a 640-acre (2.6 km2) estate in Middleburg, Virginia, not far from Washington, D.C. In December 1984 he purchased the historic Elmendorf Farm in Lexington, Kentucky from the estate of Maxwell Gluck. He bred and raced a number of successful horses, notably Flying Continental whose wins included the 1990 Jockey Club Gold Cup.
Cooke was married five times; however, two of the five marriages were to the same woman, Marlene Ramallo Chalmers. He was married to Chalmers at the time of his death.
Cooke's first marriage, his longest, lasted 45 years. He and Barbara Jean Carnegie married in 1934, and divorced in 1979. In the divorce action, Carnegie was awarded what was then the largest divorce settlement in history — $42 million ($145,000,000 in current dollar terms). The presiding judge during the bench trial was Joseph Wapner, who later became famous as the judge on television's The People's Court. Cooke and Carnegie had two sons: John Kent Cooke and Ralph Kent Cooke.
On October 31, 1980, Cooke married Jeanne Maxwell Williams, a sculptor from Las Vegas. The marriage lasted 10 months. It ended with a $1 million ($3,000,000 in current dollar terms) divorce settlement.
Cooke's third marriage, on July 24, 1987, to Suzanne Elizabeth Martin, a college dropout aged 31 at the time and 43 years his junior, was even shorter, at 73 days. Cooke agreed to marry Martin if she signed a prenuptial agreement and aborted the first-trimester fetus she was carrying (as a result of having skipped taking one or two birth control pills); it would have been her third abortion in two years. After their wedding, Martin told Cooke she had changed her mind and decided to keep the baby, and Martin and Cooke separated four weeks later. After they divorced, Martin gave birth to a girl who was named Jacqueline Kent Cooke. In her divorce action, in which her lawyers used the child as a "wedge", Martin sought $15 million ($33,000,000 in current dollar terms) from Cooke, plus $18,000 ($40,000 in current dollar terms) a month in alimony and child support. In Fauquier County Circuit Court, a judge rejected Martin's request that he ignore the prenuptial agreement, and improve her financial settlement in which she received a $75,000 ($165,000 in current dollar terms) annual stipend, a Jaguar, and the use for five years of an apartment in the Watergate complex. Cooke's lawyer Milton Gould said: "This is a conspiracy to try to use a little kid as a means of getting money. Well, we're not going to abandon this child. She will get money, but the woman doesn't deserve any. ... There have been few courtesans in the history of the world that have been as well rewarded as this one." When Cooke died, his will gave his daughter Jacqueline a trust fund of $5 million ($8,000,000 in current dollar terms), but did not give anything to her mother, Suzanne Elizabeth Martin, "because of her misconduct and behavior which were calculated to harm me".
Cooke married his fourth wife, Marlene Ramallo Chalmers, who had been jailed for three months for a 1986 arrest for cocaine trafficking, on May 5, 1990. They were divorced in late 1993 after she made headlines in September by driving drunk in the Georgetown section of Washington, D.C., with a man holding onto the hood and pounding on the windshield of her car. They remarried in 1995 and remained married until his death.
Cooke had famously informed a reporter that "I don't intend to die." He died of congestive heart failure on April 6, 1997, at George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C. A memorial service was held at Trinity Episcopal Church in Upperville, Virginia, on April 10 and was attended by over 400 Washington and sports dignitaries.
Following Cooke's death, his final wife, Marlene Ramallo Chalmers, had been cut out of his will. Chalmers filed a lawsuit against Cooke's estate, and reportedly received $20 million in a settlement reached about a year after Cooke's death.
The bulk of Cooke's $825 million estate went into establishing the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation, whose stated mission was to "help young people of exceptional promise reach their full potential through education."
Cooke's will, which revealed his multiple changes of heart regarding his wives and children, received considerable public attention at the time of his death. In February 2007, his daughter Jacqueline filed a $275 million lawsuit against the estate, seeking more money than her $5 million trust fund.
The 1978–79 NBA season was the Lakers' 31st season in the NBA and 19th season in Los Angeles. It would be the final season for the team under the ownership Jack Kent Cooke, who would sell the team to Dr. Jerry Buss during the summer that followed.1997 Washington Redskins season
The 1997 Washington Redskins season was the franchise's 66th season in the National Football League (NFL) and their 61st in Washington, D.C.. The team failed to improve on their 9–7 record from 1996 and finished 8–7–1, knocking them out of playoff contention for the fifth straight year. This was the Redskins' first season playing in their new stadium, Jack Kent Cooke Stadium, that would be later called FedExField. In an infamous game with the New York Giants on November 23, 1997, The Redskins missed the potential game-winning 54-yard field goal when Scott Blanton shanked the ball wide right, It what would have been a 37-yard field goal. However, Michael Westbrook was called for unsportsmanlike conduct and crazy sequences lead the redskins to their first tie since 1971.1999 FIFA Women's World Cup
The 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, the third edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, was held in the United States and won by the host team. The final between the U.S. and China, held on 10 July at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California, was the most-attended women's sports event in history with an official attendance of 90,185. U.S. President Bill Clinton was among those in attendance. The final was scoreless after extra time and won by the U.S. in a penalty shootout. This remains the only Women's World Cup tournament in which the host nation has won.
An official music video of the number Let's Get Loud by Jennifer Lopez was filmed live at the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup.Aaron Fulkerson
Aaron Roe Fulkerson is an information technology businessman and founder of MindTouch, Inc. Fulkerson helped pioneer the open core business model, collaborative networks, and the application of Web Oriented Architecture to enterprise software.Fulkerson is Founder and board member at MindTouch, a supplier of open source and collaborative network software. Prior to co-founding MindTouch with Steve Bjorg, Aaron was a member of Microsoft’s Advanced Strategies and Policies division and worked on distributed systems research. Previously he owned and operated a successful software and Information Technology consulting firm, Gurion Digital LLP. He won a Jack Kent Cooke Foundation scholarship in 2002. Aaron advises Microsoft on open source practices and is a founding advisory member of the OuterCurve Foundation (formerly known as the CodePlex Foundation). He is also the technical editor to MCGraw Hill's "Implementing Enterprise 2.0." Aaron is a contributing blogger and writer for Forbes, GigaOm OSTATIC, TechWeb Internet Evolution, Fortune Magazine, CNNMoney.com, CMSWire and ReadWriteWeb. In 2008 Aaron was cited one of seven "Leading Corporate Social Media Evangelists" by ReadWriteWeb. Aaron is also a frequent speaker on the topics of enterprise software, Enterprise 2.0, Social CRM (SCRM), open source, education, and entrepreneurship,In March 2010, he was named on the Mindtouch website as the forty-sixth in the list of "Most Powerful Voices in Open Source".Elizabeth City Daily Advance
Elizabeth City Daily Advance is a daily newspaper based in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The newspaper is owned by Cooke Communications.
Cooke Communications, a private company led by the son of Jack Kent Cooke, bought the Daily Advance in 2009 from Cox Newspapers as part of a 13-paper sale, along with other North Carolina papers The Daily Reflector and Rocky Mount Telegram.Elmendorf Farm
Elmendorf Farm was a Kentucky Thoroughbred horse farm in Fayette County, Kentucky, involved with horse racing since the 19th century. Once the North Elkhorn Farm, many owners and tenants have occupied the area, even during the American Civil War. Most of the land has since been sold off or leased to neighboring stud farms.FedExField
FedExField, originally Jack Kent Cooke Stadium, is an American football stadium located near the Capital Beltway in Prince George's County, Maryland, U.S., five miles (8.0 km) east of Washington, D.C., near the site of the old Capital Centre arena. The stadium is the home of the Washington Redskins of the National Football League (NFL). From 2004 until 2010, it had the largest seating capacity in the NFL at over 91,000. Currently, the capacity is 82,000. FedEx Field is in the Summerfield census-designated place and has a Landover postal address.Harold O. Levy
Harold Oscar Levy (December 14, 1952 – November 27, 2018) was an American lawyer and philanthropist who last served as the executive director of the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation, the largest scholarship foundation in the United States. Having previously held leadership roles as a corporate attorney, venture capital investor and as a manager in the financial services industry, Levy is best known for having served as Chancellor of the New York City public schools, the largest school system in the U.S., from 2000 to 2002.Isidore Bethel
Isidore Bethel is a French-American filmmaker. He edited and associate produced Of Men and War, which premiered at the Cannes Film Festival, won the VPRO Award for Best Feature-Length Documentary at the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam, was nominated for Best Documentary at the European Film Awards, and screened at the Museum of Modern Art's Documentary Fortnight. He also edited Grandir with director Dominique Cabrera, edited and produced Juan Manuel Sepúlveda's La Balada del Oppenheimer Park, nominated for Best Documentary at the 59th Ariel Awards, and has worked with Jean-Xavier de Lestrade.A graduate of Harvard University, the École Normale Supérieure, and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Bethel has received grants from the Institut Français, the Jean-Luc Lagardère Foundation, and the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation as well as support from Berlinale Talents, IFP, Film Independent, and Eurodoc. His first feature film, Liam, premiered at the Boston LGBT Film Festival in 2018 and received the Jury Prize in the Documentary section of the Paris LGBTQ+ Film Festival. He has taught film at Sarah Lawrence College in Paris and at Parsons Paris.JKC
JKC may refer to:
Japan Kennel Club, the primary registry body for purebred dog pedigrees in Japan
John Kennedy College, a boys' secondary school in Beau-Bassin, Mauritius
Jagarlamudi Kuppuswamy Chowdary College (abbreviated to JKC College), an educational institution in Andhra Pradesh, India
Jagadguru Kripalu Chikitsalaya, a hospital group in India, part of Jagadguru Kripalu Parishat
Jack Kent Cooke (1912–1997), Canadian entrepreneur and sports team owner
Jack Kent Cooke Stadium, later renamed FedExField, a sports stadium in MarylandJack Kent Cooke Foundation
The Jack Kent Cooke Foundation is a private, independent foundation dedicated to advancing the education of exceptionally promising students who have financial need. It offers the largest scholarships in the U.S., comprehensive counseling and other support services to students from 8th grade to graduate school. Since 2000 it has awarded over $175 million in scholarships to nearly 2,300 students and more than $97 million in grants to organizations that serve outstanding low-income students.Lansdowne, Virginia
Lansdowne is a census-designated place and planned community located near Leesburg, Virginia. The population as of the 2010 United States Census was 11,253.
It is north of State Route 7 and south of the Potomac River. A section of the Potomac Heritage Trail runs through Lansdowne. It is the home of the Inova Loudoun Hospital, The Jack Kent Cooke Foundation, Lansdowne Resort, Prison Fellowship, and Lansdowne Woods of Virginia, a high rise, luxury, gated, age-restricted community.
Lansdowne is part of the Washington Metropolitan Area and is approximately 25 miles west of Washington, D.C.Lawrence Kutner (psychologist)
Lawrence Kutner is an American child psychologist best known as the author of the internationally syndicated "Parent & Child" column in the New York Times from 1987 to 1993. He is a former member of the psychiatry faculty at Massachusetts General Hospital, and the author of six popular books on child psychology and parent-child communication. He was the founder of the Center for Mental Health and Media at Massachusetts General Hospital. In 2009 he became the executive director of the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation.Malvern Collegiate Institute
Malvern Collegiate Institute is a Toronto high school that was founded in 1903 as "East Toronto High School", in what was then the village of East Toronto. When the village was annexed by Toronto in 1908, the name of the street the school was located on was changed from Charles Street to Malvern Avenue (as Toronto already had a Charles Street), and the name of the institution was changed shortly thereafter.
The statue that stands on the west side of the school on Malvern Avenue just outside the library was built in 1922 in honour of the students that had attended Malvern C.I. and died in World War I.
Despite sharing its name with the unrelated Malvern neighbourhood (located approximately 16.1 km (10.0 mi) northeast of the school) in Scarborough, Malvern Collegiate is located in the upper-middle-class neighbourhood, The Beaches.
Notable alumni include Glenn Gould, Robert Fulford, and Don Getty who were all at the school at the same time in the 1950s. Norman Jewison, Bruce Kidd, Teresa Stratas and Jack Kent Cooke also attended the school.
Malvern celebrated its centennial in 2003.
In 2006, Toronto Life magazine stated that Malvern CI had the best English program in Toronto, a notable change from the 1980s, when the same magazine rated Malvern's English department as being in the bottom five of all Toronto collegiates.
The school's mascot is the Black Knight, and the school colours are red and black.
Malvern won the 2009 Anne Hope Award for its contributions in promoting human rights and equity education.In November 2011, a ceremony rededicating the statue located on the east side of the school was held, a week before Remembrance Day of that year to commemorate the repairs done to the arm. Less than 48 hours later, the statue was vandalized.Raljon, Maryland
Raljon, Maryland was a place name for the area around FedExField (originally called Jack Kent Cooke Stadium), in Landover, Maryland, where the Washington Redskins play. Former Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke derived the name from the names of his sons, Ralph and John. Introduced in 1997 to almost universal derision, the name enjoyed almost no currency beyond the Redskins and the United States Postal Service, which formally recognized the name after granting Cooke's request.Tony Kornheiser said "Lucky for us, Cooke didn't name his kids Peter and Ennis."Daniel Snyder discontinued the use of the name in 1999 when he bought the Redskins. The Redskins' official website now gives the location of FedExField as Landover.Richie Petitbon
Richard Alvin Petitbon (born April 18, 1938) is a former American football safety and head coach of the Washington Redskins of the National Football League. Petitbon first attended Loyola University New Orleans on a track and field scholarship and left after his freshman year to attend Tulane. After playing college football at Tulane, he played for the Chicago Bears from 1959 to 1968, the Los Angeles Rams in 1969 and 1970, and the Washington Redskins in 1971 and 1972. Petitbon recorded the second most interceptions in Bears history with 38 during his career, trailing Gary Fencik. Petitbon also holds the Bears record for the longest interception return, after scoring on a 101-yard return against the Rams in 1962. As of 2019, he also holds the Bears record for the most interceptions in a game (3 against the Green Bay Packers in 1967) and most interception return yards in a season (212 in 1962).He returned to the Redskins in 1978 as secondary coach under Jack Pardee. From 1981 to 1992, he was the Redskins' defensive coordinator under head coach Joe Gibbs, either alone or sharing the job with Larry Peccatiello. During this time period, Petitbon was considered one of the top coordinators in football. When Gibbs initially retired in 1993, Petitbon was named his successor. He did not find the same success as a head coach, lasting only one season. Aging and underachieving, the team finished 4-12 and Petibon was dismissed by Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke in favor of archrival Dallas Cowboys offensive coordinator Norv Turner. Following his firing, Petitbon never took another job in the NFL.
His brother, John Petitbon, also played in the NFL. Both Petitbon brothers are members of the Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame and the Louisiana High School Sports Hall of Fame.Rocky Mount Telegram
The Rocky Mount Telegram is a daily newspaper based in Rocky Mount, North Carolina.
Cooke Communications, a private company led by the son of Jack Kent Cooke, bought the Telegram in 2009 from Cox Newspapers as part of a 13-paper sale, along with other North Carolina papers The Daily Reflector and Elizabeth City Daily Advance.San Fernando Stakes
The San Fernando Stakes is an American Thoroughbred horse race held annually in mid January at Santa Anita Park in Arcadia, California. Open to four-year-old horses, it is contested on at a distance of 1 1⁄16 miles (8.5 furlongs) on Pro-Ride synthetic dirt. In 2011, Santa Anita returned to dirt racing.
First run in 1952, the San Fernando Stakes is the second leg of Santa Anita Park's Strub Series.
The race was contested at 1 1⁄8 miles from 1960 to 1997. It was run in two divisions in 1964, 1975, and 1977.Toronto Maple Leafs (International League)
The Toronto Maple Leafs were a high-level minor league baseball club located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, that played from 1896 to 1967. While the Maple Leafs had working agreements with numerous Major League Baseball clubs after the introduction of farm systems in the 1930s, they achieved great success as an unaffiliated club during the 1950s, when they were the strongest team on the field and in attendance in the Triple-A International League. The 1902, 1918, 1920, 1926, and 1960 teams were recognized as being among the 100 greatest minor league teams of all time.Toronto was without professional baseball from 1968 to 1976, when the American League added the Toronto Blue Jays via the 1977 Major League Baseball expansion.
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