Jack Chesbro

John Dwight Chesbro (June 5, 1874 – November 6, 1931) was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) pitcher. Nicknamed "Happy Jack", Chesbro played for the Pittsburgh Pirates (1899–1902), the New York Highlanders (1903–1909), and the Boston Red Sox (1909). Chesbro finished his career with a win-loss record of 198-132, an earned run average of 2.68, and 1,265 strikeouts. His 41 wins during the 1904 season remains an American League record.[1] Though some pitchers have won more games in some seasons prior to 1901,[2][3] historians demarcating 1901 as the beginning of 'modern-era' major league baseball refer to and credit Jack Chesbro and his 1904 win-total as the modern era major league record and its holder. Some view Chesbro's 41 wins in a season as an unbreakable record.[4]

Chesbro's 1904 pitching totals of 51 games started and 48 complete games also fall into the same historical category as his 1904 wins total, as they are all-time American League single-season records.[5][6] These 1904 single-season totals for games started and complete games, like the wins total, are also the most recorded by a pitcher in either the American or National League since the beginning of the twentieth century[7][8][9][10] and the co-existence of the American and National Leagues as major leagues. If one demarcates 1901 as the beginning of major league baseball's modern era, Jack Chesbro holds the modern era major league historical single-season records for wins by a pitcher (41), games started by a pitcher (51), and complete games pitched (48).

Chesbro was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946 by the Veterans Committee, though he had received little consideration from the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA). Some baseball historians consider the 1946 election a mistake, and believe that Chesbro was elected solely on the basis of his 1904 season.

Jack Chesbro
Chesbro with the Highlanders
Born: June 5, 1874
North Adams, Massachusetts
Died: November 6, 1931 (aged 57)
Conway, Massachusetts
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
July 12, 1899, for the Pittsburgh Pirates
Last MLB appearance
October 2, 1909, for the Boston Red Sox
MLB statistics
Win–loss record198–132
Earned run average2.68
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Election MethodVeterans Committee

Early life

He was born John D. Chesbro on June 5, 1874 in Houghtonville, a village in North Adams, Massachusetts.[11] He was the fourth of five children of Chad Brown Chesebrough, a shoemaker, and Martha Jane Fralensburgh.[12][13]

In 1892, Chesbro began playing for a sandlot ball team in Houghtonville.[14] He worked in 1894 as an attendant at the Middletown State Homeopathic Hospital in Middletown, New York in order to play for the Asylums, the team representing the mental hospital. There, an inmate gave Chesbro the nickname "Happy Jack", due to his pleasant demeanor.[15]

Professional career

Minor leagues (1895–1899)

Chesbro began his professional career in minor league baseball in 1895. That year, he pitched for the Albany Senators of the New York State League until they folded, at which point he joined the Johnstown Buckskins. When the league disbanded during the season, he joined the Springfield Maroons of the Eastern League.[12] In 1896, Chesbro pitched for the Roanoke Magicians of the Virginia League, until it disbanded. He pitched the remainder of the 1896 season in Cooperstown, New York for the Cooperstown Athletics. There, the local newspaper shortened his last name to "Chesbro" so that it would fit in the box score.[16]

Chesbro pitched for the Richmond Bluebirds of the Atlantic League from 1897 through 1899. After the 1898 season, he was drafted by Ned Hanlon of the Baltimore Orioles. However, Hanlon took a job with the Brooklyn Superbas and the Orioles were nearly contracted, resulting in Chesbro not signing with Baltimore, as Hanlon allowed the option to lapse.[12][17] He returned to Richmond for the 1899 season.

Major League Baseball (1899–1909)

Chesbro was sold by Richmond to the Pittsburgh Pirates on July 7, 1899 for $1,500 ($45,174 in current dollar terms). He made his Major League Baseball (MLB) debut with the Pirates on July 12, 1899. He recorded a 6–9 win–loss record for the 1899 Pirates. After the season, on December 8, 1899, Chesbro was traded with George Fox, Art Madison, John O'Brien, and $25,000 ($752,900 in current dollar terms) to the Louisville Colonels for Honus Wagner, Fred Clarke, Bert Cunningham, Mike Kelley, Tacks Latimer, Tommy Leach, Tom Messitt, Deacon Phillippe, Claude Ritchey, Rube Waddell, Jack Wadsworth, and Chief Zimmer.[18] The Louisville club dissolved that offseason, and Chesbro, Fox, Madison and O'Brien were assigned to Pittsburgh in March as the National League (NL) reduced from 12 to eight teams.[12]

Teams of the American League (2350728586)
A photographic montage of American League teams and players in 1903

After going 15–13 for the 1900 Pirates, Chesbro won 21 games for the 1901 Pirates, while leading the NL with six shutouts.[19] He went 28–6 with a 2.17 earned run average (ERA) for the 1902 Pirates, leading the NL in wins and shutouts.[20] The Pirates won the National League pennant in 1901 and 1902.

At the end of the 1902 season, the upstart American League (AL) began to entice NL stars to join their league by offering competitive salaries. Chesbro agreed to sign with a new AL franchise, the New York Highlanders (presently known as the New York Yankees), for the 1903 season, for a $1,000 bonus ($28,958 in current dollar terms) to join the AL.[21] The news broke when Jesse Tannehill, who also agreed to join the Highlanders, told Pirates owner Barney Dreyfuss about the planned defection while under the influence of pain medication.[22] When he refused to participate in a postseason series, Dreyfuss released Chesbro from the Pirates.[22]

Jack Chesbro (4187828436)
Chesbro pitching for the Highlanders

Chesbro pitched the Highlanders' first game. He finished the 1903 season with a 21–15 record. Chesbro began throwing a spitball in the 1904 season,[23][24] which he learned from Elmer Stricklett, the inventor of the spitball.[25] Chesbro also began working on a "slow ball".[12][26] That year, he started 51 games and finished 48 while posting a 1.82 ERA, striking out 239 batters, and recording 41 wins and 48 complete games over ​454 23 innings pitched, setting MLB records for wins, complete games, and innings pitched in a season.[4][12] That year, no other pitcher in the league won more than 26.[27] Chesbro won 14 straight games from May 14 through July 4,[28] a New York franchise record that stood until Roger Clemens broke it in 2001.[29] His 239 strikeouts remained a team record until Ron Guidry struck out 248 in 1978.[30] On the last day of the season, in a game against the Boston Americans (now known as the Boston Red Sox), he threw a wild pitch in the top of the ninth inning, allowing the winning run to score from third base and causing the Highlanders to lose the pennant to Boston.[15] The ruling on this play was controversial. Even after Chesbro's death in 1931, his widow, with the support of former Highlanders manager Clark Griffith, continued to claim that the pitch was a passed ball, and blamed the winning run on catcher Red Kleinow.[31]

Before the 1905 season, Chesbro announced that he had created a pitch he called the "jump ball".[32] He struggled in the 1905 season, registering a 19-15 record.[12] During the 1905 season, Chesbro was involved in the first squeeze play in baseball. At third base, Chesbro mistakenly thought he had received a steal sign from manager Clark Griffith, while Willie Keeler bunted for a hit. As Chesbro scored, Griffith made a note of the play and taught it in spring training the following season.[33]

Many baseball observers expected Chesbro to return to form in 1906.[34] That season, Chesbro registered a 23–17 record while leading the AL in earned runs allowed.[35] He was removed from his starts sixteen times, the most in the AL.[36]

Chesbro announced he would work on keeping his weight down prior to the 1907 season,[37] but announced his intentions to retire in February 1907.[38] In March 1907, he announced he would return, but not at a pay cut.[39] He signed a new contract two weeks into the 1907 season,[40] in which he went 10–10.[12]

After the 1907 season, Chesbro announced that he was giving up the experimental spitball, intending to return to the "old style of pitching" in 1908.[41] He finished the 1908 season with a 14–20 record.[12]

Prior to the 1909 season, Chesbro was assigned to the Indianapolis Indians of the American Association, a minor league affiliate of the Highlanders.[42] However, Chesbro threatened to retire if transferred there, and did not report to the Highlanders at first.[12] Chesbro made nine appearances for the Highlanders in 1909, before he was waived and claimed by the Boston Red Sox in September 1909.[12] Chesbro pitched one game for the Red Sox, the season finale against the Yankees.[43] The Red Sox returned Chesbro to the Highlanders prior to the 1910 season, but he was placed on the ineligible list after he refused to report to the minor leagues.[12]

Post-MLB career

Chesbro returned to Massachusetts during the 1910 Major League Baseball season, where he worked on a farm in Conway, Massachusetts that he purchased a decade prior.[12] He pitched for a semi-professional baseball team in Whitinsville, Massachusetts,[44] leading them to a championship.[12] Chesbro coached for Massachusetts Agricultural College (presently known as the University of Massachusetts Amherst) in 1911 and continued to pitch for semipro clubs in Massachusetts.[45]

Chesbro met with Highlanders owner Frank J. Farrell and new manager Harry Wolverton in February 1912 about attempting a comeback. Wolverton agreed to give Chesbro a chance at pitching for the Highlanders.[46] However, before leaving for camp he reconsidered and released Chesbro.[12] Chesbro's request for reinstatement as a free agent was granted in March, while the Highlanders granted him his unconditional release.[47] Chesbro decided to travel to Hot Springs, Arkansas, where teams participated in spring training, in an attempt to find a team willing to give him a chance at a comeback.[12] He worked out with Brooklyn and Pittsburgh,[48] but both teams passed on him.

Chesbro appeared in an old-timers game at Braves Field, sponsored by The Boston Post to benefit Boston Children's Hospital, on September 11, 1922.[12] He served as a Washington Senators coach in 1924, which were managed by his former Highlanders manager, Clark Griffith.[49] However, he and Ben Egan were let go when the Senators hired Al Schacht on June 1.[12] In 1927, he managed a minor league team in South Deerfield, Massachusetts, pitching for the team on occasion.[50]


Chesbro was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946 balloting by the Veterans Committee, which considers individuals who are eligible for the Hall of Fame, but no longer eligible to be elected by the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA). That year, the Veterans Committee elected eleven players: Chesbro, Jesse Burkett, Frank Chance, Johnny Evers, Clark Griffith, Tommy McCarthy, Joe McGinnity, Eddie Plank, Joe Tinker, Rube Waddell, and Ed Walsh.[51] During years where Chesbro was eligible on the BBWAA ballot, Chesbro received zero votes in the 1936 balloting, one vote in the 1937 balloting, two votes in the 1938 balloting, and six votes in the 1939 balloting, zero votes in the 1942 balloting, and zero votes in the 1945 balloting.[52]

Chesbro's 1904 record for games won in a season (41 wins) has stood for over a century—one of the oldest major records in baseball, or in any other sport. Under current playing practices, his record is unbreakable.[4][11] Chesbro started 51 games that season (plus 4 relief appearances) and pitched 48 complete games, for a record of 41–12. Today, it is uncommon for a pitcher to start even 35 games in a season and complete games are a rarity. The only other 40-win season since 1900 was 40 by Ed Walsh in 1908, and only three other pitchers in the modern era have won as many as 35--Christy Mathewson (37 in 1908), Walter Johnson (36 in 1913) and Joe McGinnity (35 in 1904). Since the pitcher's mound was lowered to its current height of 10 inches in 1969, no pitcher has won more than 27 games in a season.

Tinker considered Chesbro one of the six toughest pitchers he faced in MLB.[53] Dan Holmes, who runs the Hall of Fame's website, called Chesbro "one of the best pitchers in the game at that time."[54]

However, Chesbro's induction is considered dubious, as his overall career was overshadowed by his 1904 season.[55] Baseball historian Bill James considers Chesbro to be undeserving of induction to the Hall of Fame.[56] In particular, James compared Chesbro's statistics to those of former Pittsburgh Pirate teammates Deacon Phillippe (189–109, 2.59), Sam Leever (194–100, 2.47), and Jesse Tannehill (197–117, 2.80), none of whom are in the Hall of Fame. In his book The Politics of Glory, James charged that the induction of undeserving players created a "second tier" in the Hall of Fame.[56] James claimed that Chesbro was inducted into the Hall of Fame solely on the basis of his 1904 season, even though other pitchers who did not make the Hall of Fame have similar career statistics.[12]

Personal life

Chesbro married Mabel Suttleworth of Conway, Massachusetts, in 1896. After his retirement, Chesbro farmed and raised poultry in Conway, where he died on November 6, 1931 of a myocardial infarction;[15] he was buried at Howland Cemetery in Conway.[12] Mabel died in 1940.[57]

See also


  • Fleitz, David L. (2004). Ghosts in the gallery at Cooperstown: Sixteen little-known members of the Hall of Fame. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1749-8. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
In-line citations
  1. ^ "MLB Statistics, Pitching, All-Time By Year, AL, W". Major League Baseball (MLB), mlb.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  2. ^ "MLB Statistics, Pitching, All-Time By Year, MLB, W". Major League Baseball (MLB), mlb.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  3. ^ "Baseball Reference, Leaders, Pitching Leaderboards, Wins, Single-Season". Sports Reference LLC, Baseball-Reference, www.baseball-reference.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  4. ^ a b c Campbell, Bruce (July 30, 2007). "Slugger Bonds' record-to-be will be broken in time". Enid News & Eagle. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
  5. ^ "MLB Statistics, Pitching, All-Time By Year, AL, GS". Major League Baseball (MLB), mlb.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  6. ^ "MLB Statistics, Pitching, All-Time By Year, AL, CG". Major League Baseball (MLB), mlb.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  7. ^ "Single-Season Leaders & Records for Games Started (Baseball-Reference, Leaders, Pitching Leaderboards, Games Started, Single-Season)". Sports Reference LLC, Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  8. ^ "Baseball-Reference.com, Single-Season Leaders & Records". Sports Reference LLC, Baseball-Reference. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  9. ^ "MLB Statistics, Pitching, All-Time By Year, MLB, GS". Major League Baseball (MLB), mlb.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  10. ^ "MLB Statistics, Pitching, All-Time By Year, MLB, CG". Major League Baseball (MLB), mlb.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  11. ^ a b Fleitz, p. 48
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t McElreavy, Wayne. "Jack Chesbro". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  13. ^ "John Dwight Chesebrough". Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  14. ^ Gentile, Derek (August 8, 2006). "Eagle Top: 50 The pride of North Adams, Jack Chesbro". The Berkshire Eagle. Retrieved November 25, 2011. (subscription required)
  15. ^ a b c "Jack Chesbro, Pioneer of Spitball Hurlers and Ace on Old New York Highlanders, Dies of Heart Attack". The Evening Independent. November 7, 1931. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  16. ^ Fleitz, p. 50
  17. ^ "One To Naught In Windy City: Orphans Succeed in Shutting Out St. Louis Nine". Deseret Evening News. August 4, 1899. p. 5. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  18. ^ "1899 Pittsburgh Pirates Trades and Transactions". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  19. ^ "1901 National League Pitching Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  20. ^ "1902 National League Pitching Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  21. ^ "American League Here; Another Baseball Team Proposed for New York Next Season" (PDF). The New York Times. September 7, 1902. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  22. ^ a b Fleitz, p. 52
  23. ^ "Happy Jack: Chesbro and his Famous Spit Ball Was Too Much For The Bostons". Youngstown Vindicator. October 8, 1904. p. 12. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  24. ^ "Chesbro Tells How To Throw The 'Spit Ball'". The Pittsburg Press. October 9, 1904. p. 19. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  25. ^ "Spitball's Inventor Dies at 87". The Hartford Courant. June 9, 1964. p. 25. Retrieved November 25, 2011. (subscription required)
  26. ^ "Chesbro Has Slow Ball Which Puzzles Batters". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Pittsburg Press. July 22, 1904. p. 3. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  27. ^ "1904 American League Pitching Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  28. ^ Fleitz, p. 54
  29. ^ Amore, Dom (September 6, 2001). "At 19-1, Just Two Old Giants Rocket Ties Best Start 89 Years After Marquard". Hartford Courant. p. C.1. Retrieved November 25, 2011. (subscription required)
  30. ^ Fleitz, p. 58
  31. ^ Jim Reisler, Before They Were The Bombers: The New York Yankees' Early Years, 1903–1915 (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co, 2002), p. 98.
  32. ^ "Happy Jack's New Ball: Pitcher Chesbro Invents a Puzzling Throw; Of Opposite Order from the Famous "Spit."; Playing Schedule Fixed up. Billiard Tourney". Los Angeles Times. January 31, 1905. p. II3. Retrieved November 25, 2011. (subscription required)
  33. ^ Singer, Tom (November 4, 2011). "La Russa leads pack of innovative skippers: Unconventional tactics changed and shaped the game". MLB.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  34. ^ "Daniels Led Swimmers in the Olympic Games; New York Athletic Club Lad Easily First in His Heat. Schwartz Also Qualified: Mitchel Still in Bad Shape and May Only Compete in the Discus-Throwing Event". The New York Times. April 26, 1906. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  35. ^ "1906 American League Pitching Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  36. ^ "Pitchers Taken From Game.; New York Leads All American League Clubs -- Chesbro at Top" (PDF). The New York Times. November 4, 1906. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  37. ^ "Chesbro Hopes To Win Back His Lost Laurels". The Pittsburgh Press. December 28, 1906. p. 16. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  38. ^ "Chesbro Quits Baseball" (PDF). The New York Times. February 23, 1907. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  39. ^ "Pitcher Chesbro in Lumber Business" (PDF). The New York Times. March 20, 1907. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  40. ^ "American League.; Boston Again Defeats "Yankees" in Heavy Hitting Game, 4 to 3" (PDF). The New York Times. May 2, 1907. p. 12. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  41. ^ "Baseball Notes". The Pittsburgh Press. December 27, 1907. p. 16. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  42. ^ "Happy Jack and Dummy Taylor: Two Former Metropolitan Stars Are Relegated To Bush Leagues". The Day. February 3, 1909. p. 10. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  43. ^ "Yankees Close Season in Boston; Jack Chesbro Tried Against Old Teammates, but Is Driven from the Box. Teams Make Even Break: New Yorks Take First, 6 to 5 -- Batting Rally Gives Locals Second Contest by Score of 6 to 1". The New York Times. October 3, 1909. p. S1. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  44. ^ "Whitinsville Won; Leads Mill League". Evening Tribune. July 17, 1910. p. 6. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  45. ^ "Woonsocket Blanked the Whitinsville Team 2 to 0: Still Retain Lead in Mill League, Chesbro Pitches Milford to Victory". Evening Tribune. June 18, 1911. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  46. ^ "Jack Chesbro Will Return To Highlanders". The Gazette Times. February 3, 1912. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  47. ^ "Jack Chesbro Reinstated". The New York Times. March 20, 1912. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  48. ^ "Rain Keeps Superbas Idle" (PDF). The New York Times. March 14, 1912. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  49. ^ "Jack Chesbro To Help Griffith With Senators". The Baltimore Sun. February 10, 1924. p. SF3. Retrieved November 25, 2011. (subscription required)
  50. ^ "Chesbro Still Pitching.; New York Highlanders' One-Time Star Manages South Deerfield Club". The New York Times. July 10, 1927. Retrieved November 25, 2011. (subscription required)
  51. ^ "Eleven Gain Hall of Fame". Los Angeles Times. April 24, 1946. p. A6. Retrieved November 25, 2011. (subscription required)
  52. ^ Fleitz, p. 47
  53. ^ Tinker, Joe (April 3, 1916). "Six Hardest Pitchers I Ever Faced". Boston Daily Globe. p. 7. Retrieved November 25, 2011. (subscription required)
  54. ^ Newberry, Paul (August 29, 2005). "A century later, Ty Cobb still hard to figure out". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  55. ^ "Richie Ashburn singled out as worthy of Hall of Fame". Reading Eagle. March 12, 1985. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  56. ^ a b Gutman, Dan (April 3, 1994). "Baseball: A New Lineup For The Hall of Fame?". Newsday. p. 36. (subscription required)
  57. ^ Fleitz, p. 61

External links

1899 Pittsburgh Pirates season

The 1899 Pittsburgh Pirates season was the 18th season of the Pittsburgh Pirates franchise and their 13th in the National League. The Pirates finished seventh in the National League with a record of 76–73.

1901 Pittsburgh Pirates season

The 1901 Pittsburgh Pirates finished in first place in the National League, 7½ games ahead of the second-place Philadelphia Phillies. It was the first year that the American League operated as a major league, but there would be no World Series between the leagues until 1903.

The team was managed by Fred Clarke, who was also their starting left fielder. Clarke, in his fifth year as a manager at age 28, won his first pennant. The Pirates won the National League championship in the next two years as well.

1902 Pittsburgh Pirates season

The 1902 Pittsburgh Pirates won a second straight National League pennant, by an overwhelming 27.5 game margin over the Brooklyn Superbas. It was the Pirates' first ever 100-win team, and still holds the franchise record for best winning percentage at home (.789).

Ginger Beaumont won the batting title with a .357 mark, Tommy Leach led the league in home runs with 6 (a major league record for fewest HRs to lead the league), Honus Wagner led the league in RBI with 91, and Jack Chesbro led the league with 28 wins. As a team, the Pirates led the league in every significant batting category, the last time that has been done in the NL. They scored 775 runs, which was 142 more than any other team.

The team allowed four home runs during their 1902 season, the fewest in MLB history.

1903 New York Highlanders season

The New York Highlanders' 1903 season finished with the team in 4th place in the American League with a record of 72–62. The team was managed by Clark Griffith and played its home games at Hilltop Park (formally "American League Park"). The season began with the Baltimore Orioles relocating to New York in what would be a first of many seasons in the city. The club was at first officially the "Greater New York" baseball club, in deference to the established New York Giants, which were based in the Polo Grounds. This was the first winning season for the franchise that would be later known as the now-storied New York Yankees.

1904 New York Highlanders season

The 1904 New York Highlanders season, their second in New York and fourth overall, finished with the team in second place in the American League with a record of 92–59. The team was managed by Clark Griffith and played home games at Hilltop Park.

1904 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1904 throughout the world.

1905 New York Highlanders season

The 1905 New York Highlanders season was a season in American baseball. It was the team's third season in New York and fifth overall. The Highlanders finished in sixth place in the American League with a record of 71–78. The team was managed by Clark Griffith and played its home games at Hilltop Park.

1906 New York Highlanders season

The 1906 New York Highlanders season, its fourth in New York and sixth overall, finished with the team in 2nd place in the American League with a record of 90–61. The team was managed by Clark Griffith and played its home games at Hilltop Park.

1908 New York Highlanders season

The 1908 New York Highlanders season finished with the team in 8th place in the American League with a record of 51–103. Their home games were played at Hilltop Park.

The Highlanders finished in last place, 17 games out of seventh. It was the second-worst season in club history. Starting first baseman Hal Chase left the team in September under allegations that he was throwing games. After Clark Griffith's departure, the Highlanders lost 70 of their last 98 games under new manager Kid Elberfeld.

1909 Boston Red Sox season

The 1909 Boston Red Sox season was the ninth season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished third in the American League (AL) with a record of 88 wins and 63 losses. The team played its home games at Huntington Avenue Grounds.

1909 New York Highlanders season

The 1909 New York Highlanders season saw the team finishing with a total of 74 wins and 77 losses, coming in 5th in the American League.

New York was managed by George Stallings, the team's fourth manager in as many years. Games were played at Hilltop Park. The alternate and equally unofficial nickname, "Yankees", was being used more and more frequently by the media. The eventually-famous curving "NY" logo appeared for the first time, on the sleeve and cap of the uniform.

1946 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1946 were conducted by methods refashioned and then fashioned again during the year. As in 1945 the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent players and elected no one. Also as in 1945 the Old Timers Committee responded by electing the biggest class yet, then ten and now eleven people: Jesse Burkett, Frank Chance, Jack Chesbro, Johnny Evers, Clark Griffith, Tommy McCarthy, Joe McGinnity, Eddie Plank, Joe Tinker, Rube Waddell, and Ed Walsh.

Most of those "old timers" were star players from the 1900s and 1910s rather than the 19th century. Afterward the jurisdiction of the BBWAA was formally reduced to cover only players who retired during the last 25 years; in 1947 those would be players active in 1922 and later. Perhaps the relatively narrow scope would help the writers concentrate their votes on a few candidates. To make certain, the rules for 1947 provided a runoff in case of no winner on the first ballot. On Dec. 3, the BBWAA also limited voting to writers who had been members for at least ten years.

The eleven old timers were selected in the summer of 1946 and inducted as part of the 1947 ceremonies. Among them, Ed Walsh alone was present.

Benny Bowcock

Benjamin James Bowcock (October 28, 1879 – June 16, 1961) was a Major League Baseball second baseman. He started the last fourteen games of the 1903 season for the St. Louis Browns, who were 65–74 and finished sixth in the American League. The 23-year-old rookie was a native of Fall River, Massachusetts.

All fourteen of Bowcock's games were played on the road. He made his major league debut in a September 18 doubleheader against the Philadelphia Athletics at Columbia Park. His last appearance was on September 28 against the Boston Americans at Huntington Avenue Grounds. The Browns won 5 and lost 9 while Bowcock was in the lineup, and he faced three Hall of Fame pitchers during that time: Chief Bender, Jack Chesbro, and Cy Young.

During his brief time in the big leagues he showed a strong bat and a weak glove. He was 16-for-50 (.320) with a slugging percentage of .480. He had 1 home run, 10 runs batted in, and 7 runs scored. At second base he made 7 errors in 61 total chances for a fielding percentage of .885, far below the league average of .943.

Elmer Stricklett

Elmer Griffin Stricklett (August 29, 1876 – June 7, 1964) was an American professional baseball pitcher. He pitched in Major League Baseball for the Chicago White Sox and Brooklyn Superbas from 1904 through 1907. Including his time in minor league baseball, Stricklett pitched professionally from 1897 through 1912.

Stricklett is considered one of the pioneers of the spitball. He learned the pitch while playing in the minor leagues. He later taught the spitball to Ed Walsh and Jack Chesbro, both of whom were elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

List of New York Yankees Opening Day starting pitchers

The New York Yankees are a Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in The Bronx, New York City, New York. They play in the American League East division. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. The Yankees have used 57 different Opening Day starting pitchers in their 110 seasons. Since the franchise's beginning in 1901, the 58 starters have a combined Opening Day record of 57 wins, 36 losses, 1 tie (57–36–1), and 17 no decisions. No decisions are only awarded to the starting pitcher if the game is won or lost after the starting pitcher has left the game. Although in modern baseball, ties are rare due to extra innings, in 1910, New York's Opening Game against the Boston Red Sox was declared a tie due to darkness – at the time, Hilltop Park had lacked adequate lighting.Whitey Ford, Ron Guidry, and Mel Stottlemyre hold the Yankees record for most Opening Day starts with seven. The other pitchers with three or more Opening Day starts for New York are CC Sabathia (6), Lefty Gomez (6), Red Ruffing (5), Jack Chesbro (4), Roger Clemens (4), Bob Shawkey (4), Ray Caldwell (3), Jimmy Key (3), Vic Raschi (3), and most recently Masahiro Tanaka (4). Jimmy Key holds the Yankee record for best Opening Day record with a perfect 3–0.On Opening Day, Yankee pitchers have a combined record of 35–12–1 when playing at home. Of those games, pitchers have a 1–0 record at Oriole Park, a 3–1–1 record at Hilltop Park, a 2–3 record from Polo Grounds, a 28–8 record at Yankee Stadium, and a 1–0 record at Shea Stadium. When on the road for Opening Day, Yankee pitchers have a combined record of 27–27.

During the 1901 and 1902 seasons, the franchise played in Baltimore as the "Baltimore Orioles". The franchise has Opening Day record of 1–1 as Baltimore. After their move to New York in 1903, the franchise was known as the New York Highlanders until 1912. As the Highlanders, they had a 6–3–1 Opening Day record. For seasons in which New York would later win the World Series, the starting pitchers have a 16–8 record.

List of New York Yankees team records

The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the Bronx, New York. They compete in the East Division of Major League Baseball's (MLB) American League (AL). The club began play in 1903 as the Highlanders, after owners Frank Farrell and William S. Devery had bought the defunct Baltimore Orioles and moved the team to New York City; in 1913, the team changed its nickname to the Yankees. From 1903 to 2018, the franchise has won more than 10,000 games and 27 World Series championships. The list below documents players and teams that hold particular club records.

Outfielder Babe Ruth holds the most franchise records, with 16, including career home runs, and career and single-season batting average and on-base percentage. Shortstop Derek Jeter has the second-most records among hitters, with eight. Jeter's marks include the records for career hits, singles, doubles, and stolen bases. Among pitchers, Whitey Ford has the most Yankees records with five, all of which are career totals. These include games won, games started, and innings pitched.

Several Yankees hold AL and MLB records. Ruth has MLB single-season records for extra-base hits and total bases, and holds four other AL single-season records. Outfielder Joe DiMaggio had a 56-game hitting streak in the 1941 season, which remains an MLB record. Jack Chesbro holds three AL records that he set in 1904: games won, games started, and complete games.

Mike Hopkins (baseball)

Michael Joseph Hopkins (November 1, 1872 – February 5, 1952) was a Major League Baseball catcher, at least for one day, during the 1902 season. He was born in Glasgow, Scotland. Nicknamed "Skinner", Hopkins is one of only eight players in major league history to be Scottish natives.

Hopkins played in one game for the Pittsburgh Pirates on August 24, 1902. Behind the plate, he handled four chances flawlessly for a fielding percentage of 1.000. He also had one passed ball. At the plate, he went 2-for-2 with a double for a 1.000 batting average and a slugging percentage of 1.500. The game was part of a doubleheader against the Cincinnati Reds, played at the Palace of the Fans in Cincinnati.

Some of his teammates on the pennant-winning 1902 Pirates were Hall of Famers Jack Chesbro, Fred Clarke, and Honus Wagner.

He died at the age of 79 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Togie Pittinger

Charles Reno (Togie) Pittinger (January 12, 1872 – January 14, 1909) was a starting pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for the Boston Beaneaters (1900–1904) and Philadelphia Phillies (1905–1907). Pittinger batted left-handed and threw right-handed. He was born in Greencastle, Pennsylvania. Pittinger was a hard-luck pitcher who played for two of the worst teams in the National League at the turn of the 20th century.

In 1901, Pittinger joined the Boston Beaneaters rotation that included Vic Willis, Bill Dinneen and Kid Nichols. He started 33 games, winning 13 with a 3.01 earned run average in 27 complete appearances. The next season, he collected 27 wins, tying with teammate Willis for the second place in the National League behind Jack Chesbro (29). In 1903, he had 18 victories with a 3.48 ERA, but led the NL with 22 losses. His 1904 season was almost the same, as he went 15–21 with a 2.66 ERA.

Before the 1905 season, Pittinger was sent by Boston to the Philadelphia Phillies in the same trade that brought Chick Fraser and Harry Wolverton to the Beaneaters. Pittinger finished with 23 wins, second to New York Giants star Christy Mathewson (31) for the NL lead. He also led the Phillies in starts (37), complete games (29), innings pitched (337) and strikeouts (136), while posting a 3.09 ERA. Hampered by shoulder problems, Pittinger averaged 8.5 wins and 115 innings from 1906–07. He did not return for the 1908 season.

In an eight-year career, Pittinger posted a 115–113 record with 832 strikeouts and a 3.10 ERA in 2040-2/3 innings pitched.

Pittinger died in Greencastle, Pennsylvania, two days after his 37th birthday after developing Bright's disease, which affects the kidneys..


Yankeeography is a biography-style television program that chronicles the lives and careers of the players, coaches, and other notable personnel associated with the New York Yankees Major League Baseball team. The series is aired on the YES Network and is produced by MLB Productions. The series is hosted by Yankees radio personality John Sterling. The series has earned five New York Sports Emmy Awards since its inception. In addition to airing on YES, MLB Productions has packaged many of the shows into DVD boxed sets.

After debuting as a weekly show with the 2002 launch of YES, Yankeeography only debuts new episodes periodically (as there are fewer prominent Yankees yet to be spotlighted). For instance, four episodes premiered in 2006: Tino Martinez, David Cone, the Yankees' 1996 World Series team, and Billy Martin. All Yankees with retired numbers have had shows completed with the exception of Bill Dickey. The show has been criticized for producing episodes on players who remain active while Hall of Famers from much earlier eras such as Jack Chesbro, Tony Lazzeri, Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez were not profiled. Some profiles have been updated to reflect new developments.

Veterans Committee
First basemen
Second basemen
Third basemen
Designated hitters
Executives /
Inductees in Yankees cap
Inductees who played
for the Yankees
Yankees' managers
Yankees' executives
Frick Award

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