Jack Thomas Andraka (born January 8, 1997) is an American university student, inventor, and cancer researcher. While still a high school student he came to national attention after winning the grand prize at the 2012 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair where he presented a method for possibly detecting the early stages of pancreatic and other cancers. His work has been questioned by some scientists and writers because it has not been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. As of 2018 he was enrolled at Stanford University as a junior majoring in anthropology and in electrical engineering.
Andraka in 2013
Jack Thomas Andraka
January 8, 1997
Crownsville, Maryland, U.S.
|Fields||Cancer research, medical research, invention|
According to Andraka, he invented a new type of sensor, similar to diabetic test strips, for early-stage pancreatic cancer screening. This paper sensor measures the level of mesothelin (a suspected cancer biomarker) in a sample to test for the presence of cancer in a patient. Andraka coated strips of filter paper with a mixture of single-walled carbon nanotubes, which made the paper conductive, and antibodies against human mesothelin. Samples containing mesothelin were applied to these paper test strips, and the binding of mesothelin to the antibody was quantified by measuring changes in the electrical properties of the strip.
Andraka said that tests on human blood serum obtained from both healthy people and patients with chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (a precursor to pancreatic carcinoma), or pancreatic cancer showed a dose-dependent response. According to him, his method is 168 times faster, 1⁄26667 times as expensive, and 400 times more sensitive than ELISA, 25% to 50% more accurate than the CA19-9 test, and over 90 percent accurate in detecting the presence of mesothelin.
Several years of trials would be needed to determine whether testing with Andraka's device would be sensitive and specific enough as a screening test for pancreatic cancer; if not sensitive enough, too many cases would be missed and if not specific enough, too many unnecessary follow on tests would be performed.
Andraka has given a number of accounts of what inspired him to work on pancreatic cancer, including the death of a family friend whom he described as almost an uncle. He has told these various narratives as recently as his talk in TEDx Nijmegen 2013.
Andraka learned from the work of many previous scientists that one reason for the poor survival rate from pancreatic cancer was the lack of early detection and an effective screening method. He says that he was undeterred due to his teenage optimism, and he went on to consult "a teenager's two best friends: Google and Wikipedia", as well as drawing upon content from YouTube. He began to think of various ways of detecting and preventing cancer growth and terminating the growth before the cancer cells become invasive.
In an interview with the BBC, Andraka said the idea for his pancreatic cancer test came to him while he was in biology class at North County High School, drawing on the class lesson about antibodies and the article on analytical methods using carbon nanotubes he was surreptitiously reading in class at the time. Afterward he followed up with more research on nanotubes and cancer biochemistry aided by free online scientific journals. He then contacted 200 professors at Johns Hopkins University and the National Institutes of Health with a plan, budget, and timeline for his project, hoping to receive laboratory space and help from a professional. Of these professors, 199 declined Andraka's plan, while Anirban Maitra, Professor of Pathology, Oncology, and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, invited Andraka to his lab.
A 2011 article published by Sharon et al. refutes many of Andraka's claims about specificity of using mesothelin as a biomarker for pancreatic cancer. Specifically, the group showed that mesothelin serum levels in healthy donors were not statistically different from serum levels in pancreatic cancer patients. Dr. Ira Pastan, who discovered mesothelin, said that Andraka's method "makes no scientific sense. I don't know anybody in the scientific community who believes his findings." George M. Church, professor of genetics at Harvard University, also raised concerns about the cost, speed, and sensitivity claims. The novelty of Andraka's work has also been questioned. In 2005, seven years before Andraka won the Intel ISEF, a group of researchers at Jefferson Medical College and the University of Delaware reported a carbon-nanotube based sensor for use in breast cancer diagnostics that uses a methodology nearly identical to Andraka's purportedly novel methodology. In addition, a carbon-nanotube based sensor similar to Andraka's was reported in 2009 by Wang et al., a group of researchers at Jiangnan University and University of Michigan, and a carbon-nanotube based sensor for applications in cancer diagnosis was reported in a 2008 paper by Shao et al. that used a methodology similar to Andraka's.
In 2012, Andraka filed a "World Patent" under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, which resulted in a preliminary search to determine patentability. The examination found "a lack of inventive step"  and prior art in US Patents 7824925 and 8110369. No subsequent patent has been filed in any of the patent offices under the PCT and a "Code 122" (European Patent not filed) was issued on June 3, 2015.
Andraka has been openly gay since he was 13. When asked to be interviewed about his sexual orientation, Andraka responded, "That sounds awesome! I’m openly gay and one of my biggest hopes is that I can help inspire other LGBT youth to get involved in STEM [Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics]. I didn't have many role models [who are gay scientists] besides Alan Turing."
He likes white-water kayaking and is a former member of the National Junior Wildwater Team, folds origami, and enjoys watching Glee and Bones. He notes: "I suppose I'd want [people] to know I'm not a complete nerd. I actually get out and stuff. I go kayaking. I'm not the creepy guy that wears big glasses and hides out in the corner."
Andraka's father, Steve, is a civil engineer and his mother, Jane, is a nurse anesthetist. She told the Baltimore Sun "... we're not a super-athletic family. We don't go to much football or baseball. Instead we have a million [science] magazines [and] sit around the table and talk about how people came up with their ideas and what we would do differently."
Andraka's older brother, Luke, won $96,000 in prizes at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair in 2010, with a project that examined how acid mine drainage affected the environment. In 2011, Luke won an MIT THINK Award.
was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1997th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 997th year of the 2nd millennium, the 97th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1990s decade.1997 in the United States
Events from the year 1997 in the United States.Bill Gates
William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, and humanitarian. He is best known as the principal founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, while also being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014.
In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest PC software company. Gates led the company as chief executive officer until stepping down in January 2000, but he remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which was established in 2000. He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive. This opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings.Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals, excluding and ranking against those with wealth that is not able to be completely ascertained. From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years, and held it consistently from March 2014 to July 2017, with an estimated net worth of US$89.9 billion as of October 2017. However, on July 27, 2017, and since October 27, 2017, he has been surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion at the time. As of August 6, 2018, Gates had a net worth of $95.4 billion, making him the second-richest person in the world, behind Bezos.
Later in his career and since leaving Microsoft, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors. He donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy. The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, and is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio.Biotechcellence
Biotechcellence is a national level technical symposium born from the co-operative efforts of Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and Association of Bio-technologists of Anna University. The symposium aims to highlight the advancements in Biotechnology in the Medical, Industrial and Agricultural fields that have taken place over the years. It serves as a platform for students to exhibit their ideas, opinions and research ideas. It also provides an opportunity for the participants to interact with prominent personalities associated with Biotechnology and its related fields.Carbon nanotube
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. These cylindrical carbon molecules have unusual properties, which are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of materials science and technology. Owing to the material's exceptional strength and stiffness, nanotubes have been constructed with a length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than that for any other material.
In addition, owing to their extraordinary thermal conductivity and mechanical and electrical properties, carbon nanotubes find applications as additives to various structural materials. For instance, nanotubes form a tiny portion of the material(s) in some (primarily carbon fiber) baseball bats, golf clubs, car parts, or damascus steel.Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family. Their name is derived from their long, hollow structure with the walls formed by one-atom-thick sheets of carbon, called graphene (as well as Buckminster Fuller's name). These sheets are rolled at specific and discrete ("chiral") angles, and the combination of the rolling angle and radius decides the nanotube properties, for example, whether the individual nanotube shell is a metal or semiconductor. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). Individual nanotubes naturally align themselves into "ropes" held together by van der Waals forces, more specifically, pi-stacking.
Applied quantum chemistry, specifically orbital hybridization, best describes the chemical bonding in nanotubes. The chemical bonding of nanotubes involves entirely sp2-hybrid carbon atoms. These bonds, which are similar to those of graphite and stronger than those found in alkanes and diamond (which employ sp3-hybrid carbon atoms), provide nanotubes their unique strength.Discovery Education 3M Young Scientist Challenge
The Young Scientist Challenge is a youth science and engineering competition administered by Discovery Education and 3M for middle school students in the United States, similar to the European Union Contest for Young Scientists. Students apply by creating a 1-2 minute video detailing their idea for a new invention intended to solve an everyday problem. Ten finalists are chosen annually to work alongside a 3M scientist during a summer mentorship and receive a trip to the 3M Innovation Center in St. Paul, Minnesota, to compete for $25,000 and the title of America’s Top Young Scientist.Glen Burnie, Maryland
Glen Burnie is a census-designated place (CDP) in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, United States. It is a suburb of Baltimore. The population of Glen Burnie was 67,639 at the 2010 census.Jefferson Awards for Public Service
Multiplying Good, formerly the Jefferson Awards for Public Service, was created in 1972 by the American Institute for Public Service. The organization officially launched its new brand, with its slogan "The Power of Service to Others," on February 13th, 2019, in an effort to more closely align the foundations' name with its mission. The organization seeks to multiply good in four distinct but related ways: The Jefferson Awards for Public Service, Youth Programs, Champions Programs, and Media Partners.The Jefferson Awards are given at both national and local levels, and recognize those individuals who have embodied the spirit of service that the organization was founded with. Local winners are ordinary people who do extraordinary things without expectation of recognition and come from national networks of "Media Partners" and "Corporate Champions", and from the associated "Students In Action", Lead360 and GlobeChangers programs. Multiplying Good is led by its CEO, Hillary Schafer, its president, Sam Beard, and its chairman, Jack Russi, in conjunction with the Foundation's board of governors.Jerry Reinsdorf
Jerry M. Reinsdorf (born February 25, 1936) is a CPA, lawyer and an owner of the NBA's Chicago Bulls and the MLB's Chicago White Sox. He started his professional life as a tax attorney with the Internal Revenue Service. He has been the head of the White Sox and Bulls for over 25 years.
He made his initial fortune in real estate, taking advantage of the Frank Lyon Co. v. United States decision by the United States Supreme Court which allowed economic owners of realty to sell property and lease it back, while transferring the tax deduction for depreciation to the title owner.
As the owner and chairman of the Chicago Bulls since 1985, he has turned the franchise into a lucrative business that won six NBA Championships in the 1990s (1991–1993 and 1996–1998). He is controversial for his involvement (along with Jerry Krause) in breaking up the championship team by not hiring back Phil Jackson. He hired Michael Jordan as a baseball player during his sabbatical from basketball. He also moved the Bulls from Chicago Stadium to the United Center.
As a baseball owner since 1981, he has brought success to the White Sox franchise. The franchise made the playoffs in 1983 for the first time since 1959 and won the World Series in 2005 for the first time since 1917. He moved the White Sox from Comiskey Park to New Comiskey Park in 1991, which was renamed U.S. Cellular Field in 2003, and once again to Guaranteed Rate Field in 2016. In both sporting endeavors, he has developed a reputation as an anti-labor union hardliner. Since the early 1990s, he has been considered one of the most, if not the most, influential basketball owners. He has been influential in instituting the salary cap and revenue sharing.
On April 4, 2016, Reinsdorf was elected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor.Jimmy Carter
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A Democrat, he previously served as a Georgia State senator from 1963 to 1967 and as the 76th governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. Carter has remained active in public life during his post-presidency, and in 2002 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in co-founding the Carter Center.
Raised in Plains, Georgia, Carter graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1946 with a Bachelor of Science degree and joined the United States Navy, where he served on submarines. After the death of his father in 1953, Carter left his naval career and returned home to Georgia to take up the reins of his family's peanut-growing business. Carter inherited comparatively little due to his father's forgiveness of debts and the division of the estate among the children. Nevertheless, his ambition to expand and grow the Carters' peanut business was fulfilled. During this period, Carter was motivated to oppose the political climate of racial segregation and support the growing civil rights movement. He became an activist within the Democratic Party. From 1963 to 1967, Carter served in the Georgia State Senate, and in 1970, he was elected as Governor of Georgia, defeating former Governor Carl Sanders in the Democratic primary on an anti-segregation platform advocating affirmative action for ethnic minorities. Carter remained as governor until 1975. Despite being a dark-horse candidate who was little known outside of Georgia at the start of the campaign, Carter won the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination. In the general election, Carter ran as an outsider and narrowly defeated incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford.
On his second day in office, Carter pardoned all the Vietnam War draft evaders. During Carter's term as president, two new cabinet-level departments, the Department of Energy and the Department of Education, were established. He established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II), and the return of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama. On the economic front he confronted persistent stagflation, a combination of high inflation, high unemployment and slow growth. The end of his presidential tenure was marked by the 1979–1981 Iran hostage crisis, the 1979 energy crisis, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In response to the invasion, Carter escalated the Cold War by ending détente, imposing a grain embargo against the Soviets, enunciating the Carter doctrine, and leading an international boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. In 1980, Carter faced a primary challenge from Senator Ted Kennedy, but he won re-nomination at the 1980 Democratic National Convention. Carter lost the general election in an electoral landslide to Republican nominee Ronald Reagan. Polls of historians and political scientists usually rank Carter as an average president; he often receives more positive evaluations for his post-presidential work.
In 2012, Carter surpassed Herbert Hoover as the longest-retired president in U.S. history, and in 2017 became the first president to live to the 40th anniversary of his inauguration. He is currently the oldest and earliest-serving of all living U.S. presidents. Carter could become the oldest living former president ever; on March 22, 2019, he will surpass George H. W. Bush. In 1982, he established the Carter Center to promote and expand human rights. He has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, monitor elections, and advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations. Carter is considered a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity charity. He has written over 30 books ranging from memoirs and politics to poetry and inspiration. He also has criticized some of Israel's actions and policies in regards to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and has advocated for a two-state solution.Laurie Hernandez
Lauren Zoe Hernandez (born June 9, 2000) is an American artistic gymnast. She competed as a member of the U.S. women's gymnastics team at the 2016 Summer Olympics, winning gold in the team event and silver on the balance beam. She was part of the gold-medal-winning team dubbed the "Final Five" at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.In 2016, Hernandez won season 23 of Dancing with the Stars with partner Val Chmerkovskiy. In 2017, Hernandez was on an episode of Stuck In The Middle.List of Scouts
This is a list of notable Scouts and Scouters.Maria Keller
Maria Keller is the founder of Read Indeed, a nonprofit organization that donates books to kids without any books around the world. Keller, who is from Orono, Minnesota, had already donated over one million books at age 13 in 2013, five years ahead of schedule. While in Washington DC, accepting an award for her service, she met a man who asked her "Have you heard about that girl who donated over a million books?!" And she laughed and explained to him the she was that girl.Keller received the Jefferson Award for Public Service in 2014. By 2014 Read Indeed books had reached kids in 30 US states and 13 countries. As of 2017 more than two million books had been donated worth $4 million.Maria attends Orono High School.North County High School (Glen Burnie, Maryland)
North County High School is an Anne Arundel County Public Schools high school located in Glen Burnie, Maryland. The school was established in 1990 as a result of the merger of Andover High School and Brooklyn Park High School. It later moved into the former Lindale Junior High School building, with Lindale moving to the former Andover site. The school mascot is the Knight and the school colors are silver, red and black, chosen by the school students and faculty of both Andover and Brooklyn Park High Schools. North County's rival is Glen Burnie High School
North County High School has a rigorous STEM Magnet Program, and the IT3 (International Trade, Transportation, and Tourism) Signature Program. The school has a multitude of college course offerings such as Advanced Placement. North County became one of the campuses for Anne Arundel Community College in 2012. In 2016, North County High School German teacher, Katrina Griffin, was named the 2017 National Language Teacher of the Year by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.Open access
Open access (OA) is a mechanism by which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other barriers, and, in its most precise meaning, with the addition of an open license applied to promote reuse.Academic articles (as historically seen in print-based academic journals) have been the main focus of the movement. Conventional (non-open access) journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges. Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, book chapters, and monographs.Oprah Winfrey
Oprah Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American media executive, actress, talk show host, television producer and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, which was the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011 in Chicago. Dubbed the "Queen of All Media", she was the richest African American of the 20th century and North America's first black multi-billionaire, and has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history. She has also been sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world.Winfrey was born into poverty in rural Mississippi to a teenage single mother and later raised in inner-city Milwaukee. She has stated that she was molested during her childhood and early teens and became pregnant at 14; her son was born prematurely and died in infancy. Winfrey was then sent to live with the man she calls her father, Vernon Winfrey, a barber in Tennessee, and landed a job in radio while still in high school. By 19, she was a co-anchor for the local evening news. Winfrey's often emotional, extemporaneous delivery eventually led to her transfer to the daytime talk show arena, and after boosting a third-rated local Chicago talk show to first place, she launched her own production company and became internationally syndicated.
Credited with creating a more intimate confessional form of media communication, Winfrey popularized and revolutionized the tabloid talk show genre pioneered by Phil Donahue. Through this medium, Winfrey broke 20th-century taboos and allowed LGBT people to enter the mainstream through television appearances. In 1994, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.By the mid-1990s, Winfrey had reinvented her show with a focus on literature, self-improvement, mindfulness and spirituality. Though she was criticized for unleashing a confession culture, promoting controversial self-help ideas, and having an emotion-centered approach, she has also been praised for overcoming adversity to become a benefactor to others. Winfrey had also emerged as a political force in the 2008 presidential race, delivering about one million votes to Barack Obama in the razor close 2008 Democratic primary. In 2013, Winfrey was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama and honorary doctorate degrees from Duke and Harvard. In 2008, she formed her own network, Oprah Winfrey Network.Robby Novak
Robby Novak (born 2004) is an American personality best known for portraying Kid President on YouTube and on television. He is featured in a series of YouTube videos and in a television show, produced by actor Rainn Wilson, and SoulPancake industry. Novak's first YouTube clip as Kid President, designed in collaboration with Montague, was uploaded in the summer of 2012 and subsequently published on SoulPancake's YouTube channel in October of 2012. Novak was featured in a television show on Hub Network called Kid President: Declaration of Awesome in the summer of 2014.Stephen Curry
Wardell Stephen Curry II ( STEF-ən; born March 14, 1988) is an American professional basketball player for the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association (NBA). A six-time NBA All-Star, he has been named the NBA Most Valuable Player (MVP) twice and won three NBA championships with the Warriors. Many players and analysts have called him the greatest shooter in NBA history. He is credited with revolutionizing the game of basketball by inspiring teams to regularly employ the three-point shot as part of their winning strategy.In 2014–15, Curry won his first MVP award and led the Warriors to their first championship since 1975. The following season, he became the first player in NBA history to be elected MVP by a unanimous vote and to lead the league in scoring while shooting above 50–40–90. That same year, the Warriors broke the record for the most wins in an NBA season en route to reaching the 2016 NBA Finals, which they lost to the Cleveland Cavaliers. Curry helped the Warriors return to the NBA Finals in 2017 and 2018, where they won back-to-back titles.
Curry is the son of former NBA player Dell Curry and older brother of current NBA player Seth Curry. He played college basketball for Davidson. There, he was twice named Southern Conference Player of the Year and set the all-time scoring record for both Davidson and the Southern Conference. During his sophomore year, he also set the single-season NCAA record for three-pointers made.
During the 2012–13 season, Curry set the NBA record for three-pointers made in a regular season with 272. He surpassed that record in 2015 with 286, and again in 2016 with 402. Curry is currently third in all-time made three-pointers in NBA history. The 2012–13 season saw Curry and teammate Klay Thompson earn the nickname of the Splash Brothers, with the pair going on to set the NBA record for combined three-pointers in a season with 484 in 2013–14, a record they broke the following season (525) and again in the 2015–16 season (678).Thaddeus S. Lott Sr.
Thaddeus Scott Lott Sr. (May 30, 1934 – October 22, 2015) was a Houstonian educator. Lott gained national attention from ABC News PrimeTime Live in 1991 for the results of his implementation of direct instruction at Mabel B. Wesley Elementary School.