Jack Northman Anderson (October 19, 1922 – December 17, 2005) was an American newspaper columnist, syndicated by United Features Syndicate, considered one of the fathers of modern investigative journalism. Anderson won the 1972 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting for his investigation on secret American policy decision-making between the United States and Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. In addition to his newspaper career, Anderson also had a national radio show on the Mutual Broadcasting System, acted as Washington bureau chief of Parade magazine, and was a commentator on ABC-TV's Good Morning America for nine years.
Among his exposés was reporting the Nixon administration's investigation and harassment of John Lennon during its fight to deport Lennon, the continuing activities of fugitive Nazi officials in South America, and the savings and loan crisis. He revealed the history of a CIA plot to assassinate Fidel Castro, and was credited for breaking the story of the Iran–Contra affair under President Reagan. He said that the scoop was "spiked" because the story had become too close to President Ronald Reagan.
Jack Northman Anderson
October 19, 1922
Long Beach, California, U.S.
|Died||December 17, 2005 (aged 83)|
Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.
Anderson was born in Long Beach, California, to Orlando and Agnes (née Mortensen) Anderson, devout Mormons of Swedish and Danish descent. He grew up with his family in Salt Lake City, Utah. After high school, he served two years as a missionary for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the church's Southern States Mission.
Anderson's aptitude for journalism appeared at the early age of 12 when he began writing the Boy Scouts Column for The Deseret News. He published his first articles in his local newspaper, The Murray Eagle. He edited his high school newspaper, The Granitian. He joined The Salt Lake Tribune in 1940, where his muckraking exploits included infiltrating polygamous Mormon fundamentalist sects. During World War II, he served in the U.S. Armed Forces in China, where he reportedly fought the Japanese alongside Chinese guerrillas. He worked on the Shanghai edition of Stars and Stripes, produced by troops.
After a stint as a war correspondent during 1945, Anderson was hired by Drew Pearson for the staff of his column, the "Merry-Go-Round". Anderson took over responsibility for this column and gave his own name to it - Washington Merry-go-Round - after Pearson died in 1969. In its heyday, Anderson's column was the most influential and widely read in the U.S.; published in nearly a thousand newspapers, he reached an audience of 40 million. He co-founded Citizens Against Government Waste with J. Peter Grace in 1984.
Anderson feuded with FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover in the 1950s, when he exposed the scope of the Mafia, a threat that Hoover had long downplayed. Hoover's retaliation and continual harassment lasted into the 1970s. Hoover once described Anderson as "lower than the regurgitated filth of vultures."
Anderson told his staff, "Let's do to Hoover what he does to others." Anderson had his people go through Hoover's garbage, a tactic that the FBI used in its surveillance of political dissidents. Anderson's revelations about Hoover tipped the attitudes of the public and the press toward the FBI director.
Anderson grew close to Joseph McCarthy, and the two exchanged information from sources. When Pearson went after McCarthy, Anderson reluctantly followed at first, then actively assisted with the eventual downfall of his onetime friend.
In the mid-1960s Anderson exposed the corruption of Senator Thomas J. Dodd and unearthed a memo by an ITT executive admitting the company paid off Richard Nixon's campaign to stymie anti-trust prosecution. His reporting on Nixon-ITT corruption earned him a place on the Master list of Nixon's political opponents. Anderson collaborated with Pearson on The Case Against Congress, published in 1968.
Other notable topics that Anderson covered included organized crime, the John F. Kennedy assassination, Ted Kennedy's role in the drowning death of a staffer at Chappaquiddick, Watergate, the 1970 meeting between Elvis Presley and President Nixon, fugitive Nazis, the white supremacist group the Liberty Lobby and other far-right organizations, the death of Howard Hughes, the ABSCAM public corruption investigation, the investigation into fugitive financier Robert Vesco, the Iran-Contra scandal, and the activities of numerous Washington agencies, elected officials, and bureaucrats.
Anderson's reporting included several errors and he issued retractions. Notably, during the 1972 presidential race, Anderson retracted a story accusing Democratic vice-presidential nominee Thomas Eagleton of multiple drunk driving arrests. But his campaign was already severely damaged, and Eagleton was dropped from the ticket.
In 1972 Anderson was the target of an assassination plot conceived by senior White House staff. Two Nixon administration conspirators admitted under oath that they plotted to poison Anderson on orders from senior White House aide Charles Colson.
White House "plumbers" G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt met with a CIA operative to discuss the possibilities, including drugging Anderson with LSD, poisoning his aspirin bottle, or staging a fatal mugging. The plot was aborted when the plotters were arrested for the Watergate break-in. Nixon had long been angry with Anderson. He blamed the fallout from Anderson's election-eve story about a secret loan from Howard Hughes to Nixon's brother for Nixon's loss of the 1960 presidential election.
Anderson has been credited as breaking to a nationwide audience in 1975 the story of the Glomar Explorer, a ship constructed under tight security by the CIA to recover the lost nuclear-armed Soviet submarine K-129. Rejecting a plea from the Director of Central Intelligence William Colby to suppress the story, Anderson said he published the story because "Navy experts have told us that the sunken sub contains no real secrets and that the project, therefore, is a waste of the taxpayers' money."
In November 1988 Anderson hosted a two-hour prime-time television special entitled American Expose: Who Murdered JFK? The program asserted that the assassination of John F. Kennedy was a conspiracy involving an alliance between organized crime and the Cuban government, and that the Warren Commission did not publicly reveal the true findings. Anderson's theory was based on interviews with mobster John Roselli who - prior to his death 12 years earlier - said he learned of a conspiracy through mob sources. Anderson's conversations with Roselli were re-enacted with an actor portraying Roselli. According to Anderson, Cuban leader Fidel Castro wanted Kennedy killed in retaliation for CIA plots to kill Castro, and leaders of La Cosa Nostra in the United States opposed him due to his brother Robert F. Kennedy's efforts as US Attorney General against organized crime. He said that Santo Trafficante, Carlos Marcello, and Jimmy Hoffa had the "motive and means to kill the president", and reiterated reports connecting Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby to the mob. Anderson also alleged that President Lyndon B. Johnson covered up the conspiracy for fear that public knowledge of the CIA plots would trigger war with the Soviet Union.
According to Anderson's report, private photographic analysts concluded that the shot that killed Kennedy came from the front, and that E. Howard Hunt and James Earl Ray were depicted in photographs of the "three tramps". Hunt denied the charge on the program and said he had witnesses who could prove he was in Dallas. An Associated Press (AP) writer described it as a "bizarre allegation," to which Anderson provided "no explanation of their alleged connection".
Chicago Tribune columnist Steve Daily called the program "limp" and said Anderson's conclusion that organized crime was responsible for the assassination was based "on circumstantial evidence and the word of dead gangster Johnny Roselli." Howard Rosenberg of the Los Angeles Times wrote that it was "tawdry and strident" and said Anderson's "so-called evidence was unclear, unconvincing and untrustworthy." The Deseret News said Anderson was trying to "rewrite history".
To demonstrate the weak security within the U.S. Capitol, in 1989, Anderson brought a gun to an interview in the office of Bob Dole, Senate minority leader. He was reprimanded and Congress passed a change of rules for reporters' access to the Capitol and politicians.
Investigative reporter Les Whitten shared the byline of Anderson's column in the 1970s. Anderson also used a staff of "legmen" on his payroll, who earned little but gained valuable reporting experience. Among Anderson's legmen—reporters who went out into the field and gathered the information, forwarding it to writers such as Anderson—was Brit Hume, later a television reporter for ABC News and Washington managing editor for the Fox News Channel.
Anderson was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 1986. In July 2004 at the age of 81, Anderson retired from his syndicated column, Washington Merry-Go-Round. He died of complications from Parkinson's disease.
In April 2006, Anderson's son Kevin said that some FBI agents had approached his mother (Jack's widow), Olivia, earlier that year to gain access to his father's files. This was purportedly in connection with the Lawrence Franklin espionage scandal. FBI spokesmen said that Anderson's archives contained classified information and confirmed that they wanted to remove the papers before they were made public. The agents claimed to be looking for documents pertaining to American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) as part of an espionage investigation. In November 2006, the FBI quietly gave up its pursuit of the archive. The Chronicle of Higher Education reported that the archive contains Anderson's CIA file, along with information he had compiled about prominent public figures such as Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Dodd, and J. Edgar Hoover.
Anderson is a surname deriving from a patronymic meaning "son of Anders/Andrew" (itself derived from the Greek name "Andreas", meaning "man" or "manly"). It originated in parallel in the British Isles and the Nordic countries.
In Scotland, the name first appeared in records of the 14th century as "Fitz Andreu" (meaning son of Andrew), and developed in various forms by the Scottish Gaelic patronymic of "MacGhilleAndrais" which means the servant of St. Andrew. Variations of this name were MacAndrew, Gillanders and Anderson. The name soon migrated to other parts of Scotland due to the popularity of the name "Andrew" as associated with the Patron Saint of Scotland and the largest grouping lies in the north-east of Scotland from the Mearns through Aberdeenshire, Banff and Moray.
In England, the very first recorded spelling of the family name is probably that of William Andreu, which was dated 1237, in the ancient charters of the county of Buckinghamshire, England, in the year 1237.Anderson is the eighth most frequent surname in Scotland and 52nd most common in England.In Sweden, the form Andersson is the most common surname.In Norway and Denmark, the form Andersen is quite common, being the fifth most common surname in both countries - see Andersen.
The Scandinavian forms Andersson and Andersen were often rendered as Anderson by immigrants to the English-speaking countries, whereby the latter form became one of the most common surnames in Anglophone North America. The name was eleventh-most common surname reported in the 1990 United States census, accounting for 0.3% of the population. It was the twelfth-most common surname reported in the 2000 United States Census. Anderson is also one of the most popular surnames in Canada.Other spelling variations include: Andison, Andersonne, Andersoun, Andirsoone, Andresoun, Androson, Andirston, Andresson, Andrewson, and Andresen.Bob Norman
Robert Creed Norman (born April 12, 1969) is a South Florida journalist who joined WPLG-Channel 10 in 2011 as an on-air investigative reporter. Previously he worked for several years as a weekly newspaper and online columnist who first broke the corruption story of $1 billion Ponzi scheme operator Scott Rothstein's October 27, 2009 flight to Morocco under suspicious circumstances. Rothstein, who returned to face inquiries, is a former Fort Lauderdale attorney investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and arrested on 1 December 2009. In 2008 Bob Norman reported an unusual circumstance following the murder of Melissa Britt Lewis, employee of Rothstein Rosenfeldt Adler (RRA) law firm, wherein the prosecuting attorney in the Lewis murder case came to work with RRA two months after the murder. Rothstein has not been connected to the murder, however murder victim Ms. Lewis had been close to Debra Villegas, RRA Chief Operating Officer, whose husband Tony Villegas was identified as the murderer by the City of Plantation Police represented by Scott Rothstein.Bob Norman, who has also exposed other public corruption such as illegal activities of Broward County, Florida public officials, formerly wrote for New Times Broward-Palm Beach, and browardpalmbeach.com as well as the Miami New Times, all owned by Village Voice Media. His work exposing wrongdoing at the North Broward Hospital District (Broward Health) prompted then-Gov. Jeb Bush to fire the CEO and General Counsel as well as remove six of seven members of the board from that agency. In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Norman reported on chronic failures of the federal Immigration and Naturalization Services department. Mistakes made here in South Florida led to Mohamed Atta's being allowed into the U.S. -- to subsequently live in Broward County and train at Florida flight schools—when he could have been deported had rules been followed. The piece also detailed the undue influence and pressure on immigration agents by the airline industry to rush their work, sometimes at the expense of safety. For that reporting, Tom Brokaw presented Norman with a prestigious Livingston Award for Young Journalists in 2002. His reporting is also credited with leading to the criminal conviction of Hollywood City Commissioner Keith Wasserstrom, criminal corruption charges against Deerfield Beach Mayor Al Capellini, Broward County Commissioner Diana Wasserman-Rubin and the removal of Broward Circuit Judge Ana Gardiner for improper conduct and the resignation of Broward County Judge Claudia Robinson from the bench after Norman's work prompted a Judicial Qualifications Commission investigation into alleged favoritism on the bench.Until 2006, Norman maintained his online column The Daily Pulp (former site). Norman then moved his posts to The Daily Pulp: Bob Norman's Blog on browardpalmbeach.com. Norman's blog remained with New Times Broward-Palm Beach until 2011, when his blog then became part of WPLG-Channel 10's websiteA resident of Plantation, Florida, Bob Norman is married to South Florida Sun-Sentinel staff writer Brittany Wallman. and is a graduate of the University of Kentucky. Bob Norman moved to Broward County in 1998, after working 5 years as a crime reporter in Fort Myers, Florida.Jack Anderson
Jack Anderson may refer to:
Jack Anderson (columnist) (1922–2005), American newspaper columnist
Jack Anderson (cyclist) (born 1987), Australian road racing cyclist
Jack Anderson (dance critic) (born 1935), American poet, dance critic, and dance historian
Jack Anderson (figure skater) (born 1924), American ice dancer
Jack Z. Anderson (1904–1981), United States Representative from California
Jack Anderson (footballer, born 1908) (1908–1960), Australian rules footballer for Richmond and North Melbourne
Jack Anderson (footballer, born 1909) (1909–1982), Australian rules footballer for St Kilda
Jack Anderson (racing driver), retired NASCAR Grand National Driver in 1964 Capital City 300
Jack E. Anderson (1929–1993), creator of oversized statues in the Midwestern United States
Jack R. Anderson, director of bands at the University of PittsburghMaster list of Nixon's political opponents
A master list of Nixon political opponents was compiled to supplement the original Nixon's Enemies List of 20 key people considered opponents of President Richard Nixon. The master list was compiled by Charles Colson's office and sent in memorandum form to John Dean. Dean later provided to the Senate Watergate Committee this updated "master list" of political opponents. The original list split out "Black Congressmen", listing "all of the Black congressmen [and congresswomen]".