Jacal

The jacal (həˈkɑːl; Mexican Spanish from Nahuatl xacalli contraction of xamitl calli; literally "hut") is an adobe-style housing structure historically found throughout parts of the southwestern United States and Mexico.[1] This type of structure was employed by some Native people of the Americas prior to European colonization and was later employed by both Hispanic and Anglo settlers in Texas and elsewhere.[2]

Typically, a jacal consisted of slim close-set poles tied together and filled out with mud, clay and grasses. More sophisticated structures, such as those constructed by the Anasazi, incorporated adobe bricks—sun-baked mud and sandstone.

Jacal construction is similar to wattle and daub. However, the "wattle" portion of jacal structures consists mainly of vertical poles lashed together with cordage and sometimes supported by a pole framework, as in the pit-houses of the Basketmaker III period of the Ancestral Puebloan (a.k.a. Anasazi) Indians of the American Southwest. This is overlain with a layer of mud/adobe (the "daub"), sometimes applied over a middle layer of dry grasses or brush which functions as insulation.

San Xavier del Bac, c1913
Southern Arizona's San Xavier del Bac in 1913. Tohono O'odham jacals can be seen in front of the mission, many of which are still used today.

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ "Texas-Mexican Vernacular Architecture". The Handbook of Texas online. Retrieved 17 Jun 2017.
  2. ^ "DeWitt Colony Life". Sons of DeWitt Colony Texas. Retrieved 17 Jun 2017.
Almoloya de Juárez

Almoloya de Juárez is a town in the State of Mexico and the seat of the municipality of Almoloya de Juárez. The name Almoloya comes from the Nahuatl, that is properly Almoloyan, composed of: atl, "water"; molo "impersonal voice of moloni, to flow the source" and yan, "place"; that it means "place where flows the water source".

Bare Island projectile point

The Bare Island projectile point is a stone projectile point of prehistoric indigenous peoples of North America. It was named by Fred Kinsey in 1959 for examples recovered at the Kent-Halley site on Bare Island in Pennsylvania.

Battle of Tres Jacales

The Battle of Tres Jacales was an Old West gunfight that occurred on June 30, 1893. While out searching for a gang of rustlers, a group of American lawmen under the command of the Texas Ranger Frank Jones were attacked at the Mexican village of Tres Jacales. During the exchange of gunfire, Jones was mortally wounded and the remaining Americans were forced to retreat back into Texas.

Celt (tool)

In archaeology, a celt is a long, thin, prehistoric, stone or bronze tool similar to an adze, a hoe or axe-like tool.

Cumberland point

A Cumberland point is a lithic projectile point, attached to a spear and used as a hunting tool. These sturdy points were intended for use as thrusting weapons and employed by various mid-Paleo-Indians (c. 11,000 BP) in the Southeastern US in the killing of large game mammals.

Gazebo

A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes octagonal or turret-shaped, often built in a park, garden or spacious public area.

Grinding slab

In archaeology, a grinding slab is a ground stone artifact generally used to grind plant materials into usable size, though some slabs were used to shape other ground stone artifacts. Some grinding stones are portable; others are not and, in fact, may be part of a stone outcropping.

Grinding slabs used for plant processing typically acted as a coarse surface against which plant materials were ground using a portable hand stone, or mano ("hand" in Spanish). Variant grinding slabs are referred to as metates or querns, and have a ground-out bowl. Like all ground stone artifacts, grinding slabs are made of large-grained materials such as granite, basalt, or similar tool stones.

Luna Jacal

The Luna Jacal or Luna's Jacal was the residence of Gilberto Luna, a Mexican pioneer farmer in the area of Texas that would become Big Bend National Park. The jacal, an indigenous Tejano dwelling suited to the desert environment, was built about 1890 with a low sandstone and limestone wall about 4 feet (1.2 m), with forked poles set upright into the walls, supporting roof poles. The house backs up to a large boulder. A heavier line of poles extends the length of the jacal. The roof was made of ocotillo branches weighted down with earth and stones, presently replaced with an inappropriate soil-cement roof. Luna raised a large family at the jacal, peacefully coexisting with otherwise hostile Comanche who used the Alamo Creek area as a war trail. Luna died there in 1947 at age 108 or 109.Luna's jacal was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in November 8, 1974. It was restored in 1971 and again stabilized in 1983.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Big Bend National Park

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Big Bend National Park.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Big Bend National Park, Brewster County, Texas. There are six districts and three individual properties listed on the National Register within the park.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted June 7, 2019.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Brewster County, Texas

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Brewster County, Texas

This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Brewster County, Texas. There are seven districts and five individual properties listed on the National Register in the county. Two sites are also listed as Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks including one that is a State Antiquities Landmark.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted June 7, 2019.

Pesse canoe

The Pesse canoe is believed to be the world's oldest known boat, and certainly the oldest known canoe. Carbon dating indicates that the boat was constructed during the early mesolithic period between 8040 BCE and 7510 BCE. It is now in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands.

Plano point

In archeology, Plano point is flaked stone projectile points and tools created by the various Plano cultures of the North American Great Plains between 9000 BC and 6000 BC for hunting, and possibly to kill other humans.

They are bifacially worked and have been divided into numerous sub-groups based on variations in size, shape and function including Alberta points, Cody points, Frederick points, Eden points and Scottsbluff points. Plano points do not include the hollowing or 'fluting' found in Clovis and Folsom points.

Quiggly hole

A quiggly hole, also known as a pit-house or simply as a quiggly or kekuli, is the remains of an earth lodge built by the First Nations people of the Interior of British Columbia and the Columbia Plateau in the U.S. The word quiggly comes from kick willy or keekwulee, the Chinook Jargon word for "beneath" or "under".

Racloir

In archeology, a racloir, also known as racloirs sur talon (French for scraper on the platform), is a certain type of flint tool made by prehistoric peoples.

It is a type of side scraper distinctive of Mousterian assemblages. It is created from a flint flake and looks like a large scraper. As well as being used for scraping hides and bark, it may also have been used as a knife. Racloirs are most associated with the Neanderthal Mousterian industry. These racloirs are retouched along the ridge between the striking platform and the dorsal face. They have shaped edges and are modified by abrupt flaking from the dorsal face.

SCM (Scheme implementation)

SCM is a programming language, a dialect of the language Scheme. It is written in the language C, by Aubrey Jaffer, the author of the SLIB Scheme library and the JACAL interactive computer algebra (symbolic mathematics) program. It conforms to the standards R4RS, R5RS, and IEEE P1178. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL).SCM runs on many different operating systems such as AmigaOS (also emulation), Linux, Atari-ST, macOS (SCM Mac), DOS, OS/2, NOS/VE, Unicos, VMS, Unix, and similar systems.

SCM includes Hobbit, a Scheme-to-C compiler written originally in 2002 by Tanel Tammet. It generates C files which binaries can be dynamically or statically linked with an SCM executable. SCM includes linkable modules for SLIB features like sequence comparison, arrays, records, and byte-number conversions, and modules for Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) system calls and network sockets, Readline, curses, and Xlib.

On some platforms, SCM supports unexec (developed for Emacs and bash), which dumps an executable image from a running SCM. This results in a fast startup for SCM.

SCM developed from Scheme In One Defun (SIOD) in about 1990. GNU Guile developed from SCM in 1993.

Sopris Phase

Sopris Phase (AD 1000-1250) is a Late Ceramic period hunter-gatherer culture of the Upper Purgatoire, also known as the Upper Purgatoire complex. It was first discovered in the southern Colorado, near the present town of Trinidad, Colorado. Sopris Phase appeared to be greatly influenced by Puebloan people, such as the Taos Pueblo and Pecos Pueblo, and through trade in the Upper Rio Grande area.

Tony Manzanares House

The Tony Manzanares House, near Los Ojos, New Mexico, was built in 1930. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.It is located 30 feet (9.1 m) east of the Los Ojos Road and 0.3 miles (0.48 km) north of La Puente Church, just above the first dropoff from the river.Its main section is built of hewn horizontal logs and mud plaster, with end notching of the logs; a rear addition uses jacal.

Tool stone

In archaeology, a tool stone is a type of stone that is used to manufacture stone tools,

or stones used as the raw material for tools.Generally speaking, tools that require a sharp edge are made using cryptocrystalline materials that fracture in an easily controlled conchoidal manner.

Cryptocrystalline tool stones include flint and chert, which are fine-grained sedimentary materials; rhyolite and felsite, which are igneous flowstones; and obsidian, a form of natural glass created by igneous processes. These materials fracture in a predictable fashion, and are easily resharpened. For more information on this subject, see lithic reduction.

Large-grained materials, such as basalt, granite, and sandstone, may also be used as tool stones, but for a very different purpose: they are ideal for ground stone artifacts. Whereas cryptocrystalline materials are most useful for killing and processing animals, large-grained materials are usually used for processing plant matter. Their rough faces often make excellent surfaces for grinding plant seeds. With much effort, some large-grained stones may be ground down into awls, adzes, and axes.

Wattle and daub

Wattle and daub is a composite building method used for making walls and buildings, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw. Wattle and daub has been used for at least 6,000 years and is still an important construction method in many parts of the world. Many historic buildings include wattle and daub construction, and the technique is becoming popular again in more developed areas as a low-impact sustainable building technique.

Hut dwelling designs and semi-permanent human shelters
Traditional immobile
Traditional mobile
Open-air
Modern
Named huts
Related topics

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