Ja'far al-Sadiq

Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad (Arabic: جعفر بن محمد الصادق‎‎; 700 or 702–765 CE), commonly known as Ja'far al-Ṣādiq or simply as-Sadiq (The Truthful), was an 8th-century Muslim scholar and scientist.[5] He is considered as the sixth Shī'ah Imam, and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.[6] He was a descendant of Ali on the side of his father, Muhammad al-Baqir, and of Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr on the maternal side of his family, Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was raised by Ali, but was not his son.[7] Ali used to say: "Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakr is my son but from Abu Bakr's lineage".[8] Al-Sadiq is the 6th imam and recognized by the majority of the Shia sects as an Imam, and is revered in traditional Sunni Islam as a transmitter of Hadith, prominent jurist,[4] and mystic to sufis. Despite his wide-ranging attributions in a number religious disciplines, no works penned by Ja'far himself remain extant.[9]

Al-Sadiq was born in either 700 or 702 CE. He inherited the position of imam from his father in his mid-thirties. As imam, al-Sadiq stayed out of the political conflicts that embroiled the region, evading the many requests for support that he received from rebels. He was the victim of some harassment by the Abbasid caliphs, and was eventually, according to most Shia Muslims, poisoned at the orders of the Caliph al-Mansur.

In addition to his connection with Sunni schools of Sunni jurisprudence,[10] he was a significant figure in the formulation of Shia doctrine. The traditions recorded from al-Sadiq are said to be more numerous than all hadiths recorded from all other Shia imams combined.[11] As the founder of "Ja'fari jurisprudence", al-Sadiq also elaborated the doctrine of Nass (divinely inspired designation of each imam by the previous imam), and Ismah (the infallibility of the imams), as well as that of Taqiyyah.[12][13]

The question of succession after al-Sadiq's death was the cause of division among Shias who considered his eldest son, Isma'il (who had died before his father) to be the next imam, and those who believed his third son Musa al-Kadhim was the imam. The first group became known as the Ismailis and the second, larger, group was named Ja'fari or the Twelvers.[14][15]

Jaʿfar Al-Sādiq
جعفر الصادق  (Arabic)

6th imam of Twelver and 5th imam of Ismaili Shia
Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (A.S.)
Arabic text with the name of Jafar ibn Muhammad and one of his titles, "Al-Sadiq"
TitleImam
Other namesJaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAli
Personal
Bornc. 702 CE
83 AH[2]
Died765 (aged 62–63) CE
148 AH)[4]
Resting placeJannat al-Baqi, Medina, Saudi Arabia
24°28′1″N 39°36′50.21″E / 24.46694°N 39.6139472°E
ReligionIslam
SpouseFatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram
Hamīdah al-Barbariyyah[3]
Children
ParentsMuhammad al-Baqir
Farwah bint al-Qasim
LineageBanu Hashim
Other namesJaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAli
Muslim leader
Period in office733–765 CE
PredecessorMuhammad al-Baqir
Successordisputed
TwelversMusa al-Kadhim
Isma‘ilisIsma‘il ibn Ja‘far
AftahisAbdullah al-Aftah

Shumattiyyah – Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq

Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq

Birth and early life

Ja'far al-Sadiq was born in Medina either in 80/699–700 or 83/703–704. On his father's side he was a great-great grandson of Ali, the first imam. His mother, Farwah bint al-Qasim was a great-granddaughter of Abu Bakr. Al-Sadiq was the first of the Shia imams to be descended from both Abu Bakr, the first ruler of the Rashidun Caliphate, and Ali, the first Imam. However, shias believed that the previous caliphs, by taking over control of the Islamic Empire, had unlawfully unseated Ali, who was the rightful heir to the caliphate.[16] During the first fourteen years of his life he lived alongside his grandfather Zayn al-Abedin, and witnessed the latter's withdrawal from politics. He also noted the respect that the famous jurists of Medina held toward Zayn al-Abedin in spite of his few followers.[17][18]

In his mother's house, al-Sadiq also interacted with his grandfather Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, who was respected by the people of Medina as a famous traditionalist. During this period, Umayyad power was at its climax, and the childhood of al-Sadiq was coincided with the growing interest of the people of Medina in prophetic science and interpretations of the Quran.[18]

Imamate

Al-Sadiq was thirty-four or thirty-seven when he inherited the position of Imamah or imamate upon the death of his father Muhammad al-Baqir. He held the imamate for 28 years, longer than any other Shia imam.[18] His Imamate was a crucial period in Islamic history for both political and doctrinal areas. Prior to al-Sadiq, the majority of Shias had preferred the revolutionary politics of Zaid (al-Sadiq's uncle) to the mystical quietism of al-Sadiq's father and grandfather.[4][18] Zaid had claimed that the position of an imam was conditional on his appearing publicly to claim his rights.[19][20] Al-Sadiq, on the other hand, elaborated the doctrine of Imamate, which says "Imamate is not a matter of human choice or self-assertion," but that each imam possesses a unique Ilm (knowledge) which qualifies him for the position. This knowledge was passed down from the prophet Muhammad through the line of Ali's immediate descendants. The doctrine of Nass or "divinely inspired designation of each imam by the previous imam", therefore, was completed by al-Sadiq.[a] In spite of being designated as the Imam, al-Sadiq would not lay claim to the Caliphate during his lifetime.[15][20]

Under the Umayyad rulers

Al-Sadiq's Imamate extended over the latter half of the Umayyad Caliphate, which was marked by many revolts (mostly by Shia movements), and eventually the violent overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate by the Abbasids, decendents of Muhammad's uncle, Abbas. Al-Sadiq maintained his father's policy of quietism, and played no part in the numerous rebellions. He stayed out of the uprising of Zaydits who gathered around al-Sadiq's uncle, Zayd, who had the support Mu'tazilites and the traditionalists of Medina and Kufa.[18] Al-Sadiq also did not support the rebellion led by his cousin, Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya who was inspired by Kaysanites.[18] Al-Sadiq played no part in the Abbassid rebellion against the Umayyads.[4] His response to a message requesting help from Abu Muslim, the Khorasani leader of an uprising against the Umayyads, became famous. Al-Sadiq asked for a lamp and burned Abu Muslim's letter, saying to the envoy who brought it, "Tell your master what you have seen."[19] In burning Abû Muslim's letter he had also said, "This man is not one of my men, this time is not mine."[21] Al-Sadiq also evaded requests for assistance to other claims to the throne, without advancing his own claims. He had said that even though he, as the designated imam, was the true leader of the Ummah, he would not press his claim to the caliphate.[15] This conscious position of neutrality was likely why Ja'far was tolerated by the Umayyad court for so long.[22] This position also gave rise to the legal precedent of Taqiyyah.[22]

Under the Abbasid rulers

The end of the Umayyad dynasty and beginning of the Abbasid was a period during which central authority was weak, allowing al-Sadiq to teach freely in a school which trained about four thousands students. A school of this size was unusual for religious teachers at this time.[23] Among these were Abū Ḥanīfa and Malik ibn Anas, founder of two major Sunni schools of law, the Hanafiyah and the Malikiyah.[24][25][26] Wasil ibn Ata, founder of Mu`tazila school, was also among his pupils. After the Abbasid revolution had overthrown the Umayyad caliphate, it turned against Shia groups who had previously been its allies against the Umayyads. The new Abbasid rulers, who had risen to power on the basis of their descent from Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, were suspicious of al-Sadiq, because Shias had always believed that leadership of the Ummah was a position issued by divine order, and which was given to each imam by the previous imam. In addition, al-Sadiq had a large following, both among scholars and among those who believed him to be the imam.[14] During rule of Al-Mansur, al-Sadiq was summoned to Baghdad along with some other prominent men from Medina in order for the Caliph to keep a close watch on them. Al-Sadiq, however, asked the Caliph to excuse him from going there by reciting a hadith which said that "the man who goes away to make a living will achieve his purpose, but he who sticks to his family will prolong his life."[19] al-Mansur reportedly accepted his request. After the defeat and death of his cousin Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya in 762, however, al-Sadiq thought it advisable to obey al-Mansur's summons. After a short stay in Baghdad, however, he convinced the Caliph that he was not a threat, and was allowed to return to Medina.[4][12]

Toward the end of his life, he was subject to some harassment by the Abbasid caliphs. The governor of Medina was instructed by the Caliph to burn down his house, an event which reportedly did al-Sadiq no harm.[b][19] To cut his ties with his followers, al-Sadiq was also watched closely and occasionally imprisoned.[14] Through these trials, Al-Sadiq appears to have continued his scholarship and remained an influential teacher in his native Medina and beyond.[22]

Family life

Al-Sadiq married Fatimah Al-Hasan, a descendant of Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali, with whom he had two sons, Isma'il ibn Jafar (the Ismaili sixth Imām) and Abdullah al-Aftah. Following his wife's death, al-Sadiq purchased a Berbery or Andalusian slave named Hamidah Khātūn (Arabic: حميدة خاتون‎), freed her, trained her as an Islamic scholar, and then married her. She bore him two more sons; Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Twelver imam), and Muhammad al-Dibaj. She was revered by the Shias, especially by women, for her wisdom. She was known as Hamidah the Pure. Ja'far al-Sadiq used to send women to learn the tenets of Islam from her, said that "Hamidah is pure from every impurity like the ingot of pure gold."[27]

Imam Ja‘far also had a son called 'Is-haq', who reportedly married Sayyidah Nafisah bint Al-Hasan. Nafisah was a descendant of Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali, and teacher of Sunni Imam Ash-Shafi‘i.[28][29][30]

Death

Baghi tomb
The historical tomb of Al-Baqi' was destroyed in 1926. Ja'far al-Sadiq was one of four Shia imams buried here.

Al-Sadiq was arrested several times by Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs Hisham, Saffah, and Mansur. He was particularly seen as a threat by the newly minted Abbasids who felt challenge by his strong claim to the title of caliph.[22] When he died in 148/765 at the age of 64 or 65, many Shi'i sources suspected that he was poisoned at the behest of Mansur. Al-sadiq's death led to uncertainty about the succession of the Imamate.[4][11] He was buried in Medina, in the famous Jannatul Baqee cemetery, and his tomb was a place of pilgrimage until 1926. It was then that the Wahhabis conquered Medina for the second time and razed the tomb because of the prohibition of tombs by the Prophet, along with all other prominent Islamic shrines, with the exception of that of the prophet Muhammad.[31]

According to Tabatabai upon hearing the news of al-Sadiq's death, Mansur wanted to put an end to the Imamate. Mansur reportedly wrote to the governor of Medina, commanding him to read the imam's testament, and to behead the person named in it as the future imam. However, the governor found that al-Sadiq had chosen four people rather than one: Mansur himself, the governor, the imam's oldest son Abdullah al-Aftah, and Musa al-Kazim, his younger son.[11]

Succession

The Shia group had begun to split during the lifetime of al-Sadiq, when his eldest son Isma'il ibn Jafar predeceased him. His death occurred in the presence of many witnesses.[11] After the death of Ja'far al-Sadiq, his following fractured further, with the larger group, who came to be known as the Twelvers, following his younger son Musa al-Kadhim. Another group believed instead that Isma'il had been designated as the next imam, and that since he had predeceased his father, the imamate had passed to Isma'il's son Muhammad ibn Ismail and his descendants. This latter group became known as the Isma'ilis. Some Isma'ilis believe that Isma'il had not actually died, but would reappear as Mahdi, the rejuvenator of Islam in the Shia doctrine.

Still other groups accepted either Abdullah al-Aftah or Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq (Al-Dibaj), both sons of the Ja'far al-Sadiq, as the imam. A final group believed that al-Sadiq had been the last imam, and that the lineage had not continued.

After the death of Musa al-Kazim, the majority of his followers recognized his son Ali al-Ridha as the eighth imam, while others believed that al-Kazim had been the last imam. This latter group became known as the Waqifiyah.

No major divisions occurred in Shiaism from the eighth to the twelfth imam, whom the majority of the Shia (Twelvers) considered to be Muhammad al-Mahdi. Among the sects which separated from the majority, only Zaidiyyah and Ismaili continue to exist today.[4][11][12][14][15][20][32]

Religious views

Al-Sadiq religious views are recorded as authority in the writing of number of contradictory positions. The use of his name as an authority within the Sufi, scientific, Sunni legal, Ismaili and extremist writings shows his importance as a figure within the development of early Muslim thought.[9] According to Ya'qubi it was customary for anyone who wanted to relate a tradition from him to say "the Learned One informed us". Malik ibn Anas, when quoting anything from al-Sadiq, would say "The Thiqa (truthful) Ja'far b. Muhammad himself told me that…" the same is reported from Abu Hanifa.[14][18] The works attributed to him may be of dubious authenticity, but they do establish his name at least as indicating a mastery of learning generally, and the Islamic sciences in particular.[9] Though most groups wished to recruit al-Sadiq's legacy for their own cause, the most extensive source for his teachings is to be found within the imami Shia tradition. For Twelver Shias Ja'far al-Ṣadiq is the sixth imam who established the Shiism as serious intellectual force in the late Umayyad and early Abbasid periods.[9] According to Tabatabai the number of traditions left behind by al-Sadiq and his father were more than all the hadiths recorded from Muhammad and all the other Shia imams combined.[11] Shia thought starting with Sayyid Haydar Amuli, and leading to Safavid philosophers like Mir Damad, Mulla Sadra and Qazi Sa’id Qumi continuing to the present day is based on Shia imam's tradition specially al-Sadiq.[13]

Ja'fari school of law

Shia jurisprudence became known as Ja'fari jurisprudence after Ja'far al-Sadiq, whose legal dicta were the most important source of Shia law. Like Sunni law, Ja'fari jurisprudence is based on the Quran and the Hadith, and also based on the consensus (Ijma). Unlike the Sunnis, Shias give more weight to reasoning ('Aql), while Sunnis only allow for a kind of analogical reasoning (Qiyas).[20][9][33] Al-Sadiq is presented as one who denounces personal opinion (Raʾy) and analogical reasoning (qiās) of his contemporaries arguing that God's law is occasional and unpredictable, and that the servants' duty is not to embark on reasoning in order to discover the law, but to submit to the inscrutable will of God as revealed by the imam.[9] In his book Maqbula Omar ibn Ḥanẓala (who was a disciple of al-Sadiq) asks the imam how legal disputes within the community should be solved, and whether one should take such cases to the ruler (Sultan) and his judges. Ja'far al-Sadiq replies in the negative saying that those who take their disputes to the rulers and their judges get only soḥt (unlawful decision). Instead al-Sadiq recommends an unofficial system of justice for the community, and that the disputants should turn to "those who relate our [i.e., the imams'] Hadiths". The reason for this is that the imams have "made such a one a judge (ḥākem) over you."[9]

Importance in Sufism

See Also: Encyclopedia Iranica: JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iii. And Sufism JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iii. And Sufism – Encyclopaedia Iranica

Ja'far Al-Sadiq holds a special prominence among Sufi orders due to his claimed connections to some of Sufism's earliest theologians. He is elevated as an individual of great spiritual knowledge ('ilm) in many early works of Sufi literature, such as those by Abu Bakr Kalābāḏi (d. 380/990) or later in the writings of Sufi poet Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm Aṭṭār (d. 618/1221).[23] 'Attar claims that Ja'far, more than the other Imams, was a spiritual forebear to Sufism when he says he, "spoke more than the other imams concerning the Path (ṭariqat)."[34] 'Attar's attributed sayings of Al-Sadiq are full of Sufi specific terminology such as "He had passed away (fa'na: figuratively refers to the death of the ego)"[34][32] and "window into the heart."[34] It is suspicious that these terms are absent from older collections of sayings attributed to Ja'far.[23] It is also worth noting that some historical jurists and authors, such as Moqaddas Ardabili (d. 993/1585), saw Sufi claims of relation to al-Sadiq as a fabricated tie created to lend historical justification to the Sufis[35]

While is as apparent in these writings that Ja'far al-sadiq was regarded as a founding figure in Sufism, the historical situation is more difficult to ascertain. Given his large following and established school (madrasa), he almost certainly was a teacher to "proto-sufis."[23] Perhaps, as claimed by 'Attar, this included Abu Noʿaym, Sofyān Ṯawri (d 161/776), a well known jurist and ascetic in his time.[34] It is through Sofyan that one of the most repeated attributions to Ja'far's character reportedly comes. 'Attar relates:

"Sadiq was seen wearing a precious robe of silk. They said,'Son of the Prophet of God, this is not in accord with the life of your holy family.' He took that man by the hand and drew it into his sleeve which was clad in coarse lint so that his hand was pricked. Sadiq said ‘This is for God and this is for men'[34]"

This verse shows us that Ja'far was viewed by Sufi sources as processing a humbleness and inner piety that was a cornerstone of malamatiyya thought. The malamatiyya were closely associated with the Sufis, and these two mystical traditions had, in many ways, been blended by the time of 'Attar.[23] Whether these stories are any most than myth crafted by later generations is not something that can be conclusively determined. What can be said is that Sufi teachers often traced the source of their knowledge back to the teaching of Al-Sadiq and that perceived content of these teaching remain relevant to Sufi practice today[32]

Theology

Ja'far al-Sadiq's view on theology is transmitted through Mufazzel who recorded his own questions and al-Sadiq's answers in a book known as Ketab al-Tawhid in which al-Sadiq gives proofs as the unity of God. This book is considered identical to the Ketāb al-ehlilaja which is a reply to Mufazzel's request from al-Sadiq for a refutation of those who deny God. Hesham ibn Ḥakam (d. 179/796) is another famous student of the imam who proposed a number of doctrines that later became orthodox Shia theology, including the rational necessity of the divinely guided imam in every age to teach and lead God's community.[9] Al-Sadiq is attributed with the statement: "Whoever claims that God has ordered evil, has lied about God. Whoever claims that both good and evil are attributed to him, has lied about God". This view which is accordance with that of Mu'tazilite doctrine seems to absolve God from the responsibility for evil in the world. Al-Sadiq says that God does not "order created beings to do something without providing for them a means of not doing it, though they do not do it, or not do it without God's permission". Al-Sadiq expressed a moderate view between compulsion (Jabr), and giving the choice to man (Tafviz), stating that God decreed some things absolutely, but left some others to human agency. This assertion was widely adopted afterwards and was called "al-amr bayn al-amrayn" which meant" neither predestination nor delegation but a position between the two."[12][19] Al-Ṣadiq's view therefore is recorded as supporting either position as it is reported in an exchange between him and an unknown interlocutor. The interlocutor asks if God forces his servants to do evil or whether he has delegated power to them. Al-Sadiq's answers negatively to both questions. When asked "What then?" he replies, "The blessings of your Lord are between these two".[9]

It is narrated in hadith that Ja'far al-Sadiq has said "We are the people well-grounded in knowledge and we are the ones who know how to interpret it.".[36]

Tafsir

The works attributed to Jafar al-Sadiq in Tafsir (Quranic exegesis) are mostly described as the Sufi-mystical works such as "Tafsir al-Qorʾān", "Manāfeʿ ṣowar al-Qorʾān" and "ḴawāsÂs al-Qorʾān al-aʿẓam". The attribution of these works to al-Sadiq, however, is suspected. In his books Ḥaqāʾeq al-tafsir and Ziādāt Ḥaqāʾeq al-tafsir, ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Solami cites al-Ṣadiq as one of his major (if not the major) source of knowledge concerning the meaning of Quranic verses.[9]

"Ketāb al-jafr", an early mystical commentary on the Quran (Tafsir), is also attributed to al-Sadiq.[14][9] According to Ibn Khaldun, it was originally written on the skin of a young bull, allowing the imam to reveal the hidden meaning of the Quran.[37] al-Sadiq is said to have proposed a fourfold model of Quran interpretation. He said that "The Book of God comprises four things: the statement set down, the implied purport, the hidden meanings, relating to the supra-sensible world, and the exalted spiritual doctrines." He said that the plain meanings were for the common people; the hidden meanings for the elite; the implied meanings for the "friends of god;" and the "exalted spiritual doctrines" were the "province of the prophets."[32] He stated that Hadith, or traditional sayings of the Prophet, should be rejected if they contradicted the Quran.[12]

Doctrine of Taqiyyah

Al-Sadiq adopted Taqiyyah as a defensive tool against the violence and threats that were directed against him and the Shias.[4][20] Taqiyya was a form of religious dissimulation,[38] or a legal dispensation whereby a believing individual can deny their faith while they are in fear or at risk of significant persecution.[39] In other words, Taqiyya says that it is acceptable to hide one's true opinions if by revealing them, one puts oneself or others in danger.[14] The doctrine was developed by al-Sadiq, and served to protect the Shias when Al-Mansur, the Abbasid caliph, conducted a brutal and oppressive campaign against Alids and their supporters.[38] According to Moezzi, in the early sources Taqiyya means "the keeping or safeguarding of the secrets of the Imams' teaching." "Divergence of traditions" is, therefore, sometimes justified by Shia imams as a result of the need for using Taqiyya. "He who is certain that we [the imams] proclaim only the truth (Al-Haqq), may he be satisfied with our teaching," asserts al-Sadiq; "and if he hears us say something contradictory to what he heard earlier, he should know that we are acting only in his own interest."[21] Practicing Taqiyya also had an esoteric significance for those who believed that their teachings should not be comprehensible to ordinary Ulama, and so hid their more profound teachings.[15]

Works

According to Haywood half a dozen religious works bear al-Sadiq's name as author, though none of them can be firmly described as being written by al-Ṣadiq. It is probable that al-Sadiq was an author who left the writing to his students. The alchemist, Geber, for example, suggested that some of his works are "little more than records of Jaʿfar's teaching or summaries of hundreds of monographs written by him."[12][19][20][37] Ja'far Al-Sadiq is also cited in a wide range of historical sources, including al-Tabari, al-Yaqubi and Al-Masudi. Al-Dhahabi recognizes his contribution to Sunni tradition and Isma'ili scholars such as Qadi al-Nu'man[40] recorded his traditions in their work.[41]

Ketāb al-jafr is a commentary on the Quran which, according to Ibn Khaldun, was first written on the skin of a young bull, which allowed al-Sadiq to reveal the hidden meaning of the Quran.[37] Various versions of his will, and a number of collections of legal dicta, are attributed to him as well. There are many reports attributed to him in the early Shia Hadith collections such as Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni's Kitab al-Kafi, where they are featured as central sources of Imami doctrine.[4] "Al-haft wa'l-aẓella" and "Ketāb al-ṣerāṭ" which are containing "secret revelations" to Mofażżal are also attributed to al-Sadiq, and had an important role in the elaboration of the esoteric doctrine of the Nosayris, for whom al-Ṣadiq is an influential figure.[4]

Selected quotations

  • "The most perfect of men in intellect is the best of them in ethics."[42]
  • "Charity is the Zakat (alms) of blessings, intercession is the Zakat of dignity, illnesses are the Zakat of bodies, forgiveness is the Zakat of victory, and the thing whose Zakat is paid is safe from taking (by Allah)."[42]
  • "He who answers all that he is asked, surely is mad."[42]
  • "Whoever fears God, God makes all things fear him; and whoever does not fear God, God makes him fear all things."[19]
  • "Allah Almighty has said: people are dear to me like family. Therefore, the best of them is the one who is nicer to others and does his best to resolve their needs."[43]
  • "One of the deeds Allah Almighty appreciates the most is making his pious servants happy. This can be done through fulfilling their hunger, sweeping away their sorrows, or paying off their debts."[44]

His descendants according to Ismā'īlī Imāmah doctrine

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jāʿfar al-Sādiq (Imamāh‘Shi'ā)
 
Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Aftāh
(Aftāhīyyah)
 
Ismā‘il
(Ismā‘il’īyyah)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
Muhammed
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Wafi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
At-Tāqī
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ar-Rāḍī
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mahdi Billāh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fatimids (Ismailism)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Qā'im
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Mansur
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Mu'izz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Aziz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hakim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Az-Zahir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Mustansir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nizār al-Muṣṭafá (Nizārīyyah)
 
Muhammed
 
Al-Mustā‘lī (Mustā‘līyyah)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Āmīr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alamut Castle (Hassasins)
 
Al-Hāfeez (Ḥāfīzīyyah)
 
 
Aṭ-Ṭāyyīb (Ṭāyyībīyyah)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Zāfīr
 
Yūssuf
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nizārī Imāmah
 
 
Al-Fā'īz
 
 
Taiyabi Dā'ĩs
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Āḍīd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nizārī Ismāilism
 
 
 
 
 
Dawoodi Dā'ĩs
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sunni sources, however, claim that doctrines such as the Imamate were formulated many years after al-Sadiq and wrongly ascribed to him.[20]
  2. ^ The Shias consider this event as a miraculous escape from the fire by their Imam, who is said "boldly stamped on the flames, exclaiming "I am of the sons of Isma'il. I am a son of Ibrahim, the Friend of God," whom the Quran represents as having escaped the fire in safety. Quran, 21:69

References

  1. ^ a b c A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 123. ISBN 964-438-127-0.
  2. ^ Gleaves, Robert. "JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 22 February 2015. According to Gleaves, most sources give 702 as the year of his birth, but there are some which give 699 and others which give 705.
  3. ^ A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 131. ISBN 964-438-127-0.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gleaves, Robert. "JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  5. ^ Jaffer-as-sadiq, Imam (3 November 2015). The Great Muslim Scientist and Philosopher Imam Jafar Ibn Mohammed As-Sadiq (as. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 9781519104762 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Dissent on Core Beliefs: Religious and Secular Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 142, ISBN 9781107101524
  7. ^ علامه مجلسی. بحارالانوار. 47. p. 5.
  8. ^ ابن ابی الحدید. شرح نهج البلاغه. 6. p. 53.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gleaves, Robert (April 5, 2012). "JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ ii. Teachings". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  10. ^ Abdullah Anik Misra (14 September 2012). "Was Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq Sunni or Shi'i?". Islamqa.org. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn (1997). Shi'ite Islam. Translated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr. SUNY press. pp. 68–69, 179–181. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Haywood, John A. "Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  13. ^ a b Tabåatabåa'åi, Muhammad Husayn (1981). A Shi'ite Anthology. Selected and with a Foreword by Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i; Translated with Explanatory Notes by William Chittick; Under the Direction of and with an Introduction by Hossein Nasr. State University of New York Press. pp. 9–11, 42–43. ISBN 9780585078182.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Campo, Juan E. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam (Encyclopedia of World Religions). USA: Facts on File. pp. 386, 652, 677. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1.
  15. ^ a b c d e Armstrong, Karen (2002). Islam, A Short History. Modern Library; Rev Upd Su edition. pp. 56–57, 66. ISBN 978-0812966183.
  16. ^ بلاذری, احمد بن یحیی. انساب الاشراف. 2. مؤسسه الاعلمی ‌‌للمطبوعات. p. 394.
  17. ^ Lalani, Arzina R. (9 March 2001). Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir. I. B. Tauris. p. 31,78. ISBN 978-1860644344.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Jafri, Syed Husain Mohammad (2002). The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam; Chapter 10. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195793871.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam in Persia and Irak. BURLEIGH PRESS. pp. 115, 130–141.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Martin, Richard C. (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, A-Z. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 369, 625. ISBN 978-0028656038.
  21. ^ a b Moezzi, Mohammad Ali Amir (1994). The Divine Guide in Early Shi'ism : The Sources of Esotericism in Islam. State University of New York Press. pp. 64–65, 139. ISBN 9780585069722.
  22. ^ a b c d -1022., Mufīd, Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad (1981). The book of guidance into the lives of the twelve imams = Kitāb al-irshād. Howard, I. K. A. (1st ed.). Elmhurst, N.Y.: Tahrike Tarsile Qurʼan. ISBN 9780940368125. OCLC 9893374.
  23. ^ a b c d e John B. Taylor, "Jaʿfar al-Sādiq, Spiritual Forebear of the Sufis," Islamic Culture40/2, April 1966, pp. 97–113.
  24. ^ Phyllis G. Jestice, Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1, p 415. ISBN 1576073556
  25. ^ Ludwig W. Adamec, Historical Dictionary of Islam, p 12. ISBN 0810863030
  26. ^ Umar F. Abd-Allah, Mālik and Medina: Islamic Legal Reasoning in the Formative Period, p 44. ISBN 9004247882
  27. ^ Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed Akhtar (1988). Slavery, from Islamic & Christian perspectives (2nd (rev.) ed., 1988. ed.). Richmond, B.C.: Vancouver Islamic Educational Foundation. ISBN 0-920675-07-7.
  28. ^ "Nafisa at-Tahira". www.sunnah.org.
  29. ^ Zayn Kassam and Bridget Blomfield "Remembering Fatima and Zaynab: Gender in Perspective", in "The Shi'i World", edited by Farhad Daftory. I.B Tauris Press 2015
  30. ^ Aliyah, Zainab (2 February 2015). "Great Women in Islamic History: A Forgotten Legacy". Young Muslim Digest. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  31. ^ Adamec, Ludwig W. (2002). The A to Z of Islam. Scarecrow Press; Revised edition. p. 53. ISBN 978-0810845053.
  32. ^ a b c d Corbin, Henry (2001). The History of Islamic Philosophy. Translated by Liadain Sherrard with the assistance of Philip Sherrard. London and New York: Kegan Paul International. p. 6,31.
  33. ^ Sharif, Mian Mohammad (1966). History of Muslim Philosophy, Vol 2. Germany: Allgauer Heimatverlag GmbH. pp. 906–907.
  34. ^ a b c d e 'Attar, Farid Al-din (1966). Nicholson (ed.). Tadhkirat al-Auiiya. Translated by Arberry. London: Routledge.
  35. ^ electricpulp.com. "JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iii. And Sufism – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  36. ^ Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864.
  37. ^ a b c De Smet, Daniel (April 5, 2012). "Ja'far al-Ṣadiq iv. And Esoteric sciences". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  38. ^ a b Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam. Yale University Press. pp. 39, 183. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.
  39. ^ Stewart, Devin, "Islam in Spain after the Reconquista", Teaching Materials, The Hagop Kevorkian Center for Near Eastern Studies at New York University, retrieved 6 August 2012
  40. ^ Madelung, W., The Sources of Ismāīlī Law, The University of Chicago Press, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1976), pp. 29–40
  41. ^ Meri, Josef W. "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia". Routledge, NY. 2005, p 409 ISBN 978-0-415-96690-0
  42. ^ a b c al-Husayn al-Muzaffar, Mohammed (1998). Imam Al-Sadiq. Translated by Jasim al-Rasheed. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. pp. 165–166, 230–247. ISBN 964-438-011-8.
  43. ^ Muhammadi Reishahri, Muhammad (2010). Mizan al-Hikmah. 2. Qum: Dar al-Hadith. p. 433.
  44. ^ Muhammadi Reishahri, Muhammad (2010). Mizan al-Hikmah. 2. Qum: Dar al-Hadith. p. 435.

Further reading

  • Muhammed Al-Husain Al-Mudaffar, Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq.
  • Sayyid Mahdi as-Sadr, THE AHLUL-BAYT Ethical Role-Models.
  • Mohammad Hussein il Adeeb, The Brief History of the Fourteen Infallibales.
  • Fahd, Toufic (1968), "Ğa'far aṣ-Ṣâdiq et la Tradition Scientifique Arabe [Ja'far aṣ-Ṣâdiq and the Arabic Scientific Tradition]", in Fahd, Toufic (ed.), Le Shî'isme Imâmite. Colloque de Strasbourg (6–9 mai 1968) (in French), Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp. 131–142

External links

Ja'far al-Sadiq
of the Ahl al-Bayt
Clan of the Quraysh
Born: 17 Rabī‘ al-Awwal 83 AH 24 April 702 CE Died: 15th Shawwāl 148 AH 8 December 765 CE
Shia Islam titles
Preceded by
Muhammad al-Baqir
6th Imam of Shia Islam
743–765
Succeeded by
Musa al-Kadhim
Twelver successor
Succeeded by
Isma'il ibn Jafar
Ismaili successor
Succeeded by
Abdullah al-Aftah
Fathite successor
Abdullah al-Aftah

Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq (d.766 CE / 149 A.H.) was the eldest surviving son of Ja'far al-Sadiq (after al-Sadiq’s death) and the full-brother of Isma'il ibn Jafar. Abdullah’s title "al-Aftah" derives from the Arabic words "aftah al-ra’s" (broad-headed) or "aftah al-rijlayn" (broad-footed) used to describe his appearance.

Al-Hannanah Mosque

The Al-Hannanah Mosque (Arabic: مَـسـجـد الـحَـنّـانـة‎, romanized: Masjid al-Ḥannānah) is a Shi'ite mosque in Iraq. This mosque is also called Masjid ar-Ra's (Arabic: مَـسـجـد الـرّأس‎, Mosque of the Head (of Husayn ibn Ali)), because according to a narration attributed to Ja'far al-Sadiq, the head of his ancestor Husayn was kept in its middle, when being brought to his ‘aduww (Arabic: عَـدُوّ‎, opponent) Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad.

Al-Ja'fari

Ja'fari (Arabic: الجعفري‎ Persian: جعفري‎) is a surname commonly associated with descendants of Ja'far al-Sadiq, an important Muslim scholar and the 6th Shia Imam. In South Asia, Persia and the Levant, those of this genealogy, also often take the honorific title of Sayyid. Descendants of Ja'far al-Sadiq can most commonly be found amongst the Shi'i of Iraq, Iran and the Indian subcontinent. Some Sunni Muslims also associate with the surname Ja’fari.

Variant transliterations include Ja'fari, Jaafari, Jafari, Jafri, Jaffrey or Jaffery

Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq

Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq, (Arabic: علي العريضي بن جعفر الصادق‎ ʿAlī al-ʿUrayḍī ibn Jaʿfar al-Sādiq) better known simply as Ali al-Uraidhi, was the son of Ja'far al-Sadiq and the brother of Imam Isma'il, Imam Musa al-Kadhim, Abdullah al-Aftah, and Muhammad Al-Dibaj. He was known by the title al-Uraidhi, because he lived in an area called Uraidh, about 4 miles (or 6.4 km) from Medina. He was also known by the nickname Abu Hasan (i.e. father of Hasan). He was a great Muslim scholar.

Aqiqah

ʾAqīqah (Arabic: عقيقة‎), aqeeqa, or aqeeqah is the Islamic tradition of the sacrifice of an animal on the occasion of a child's birth.

Arcs of Descent and Ascent

The Arcs of Descent and Ascent, an ontological circle, are described in Neoplatonism, as well as in Islamic and Sufi cosmology, mainly inspired by the works of Ibn al-Arabi. In the Arc of Descent ("qaws al-nuzuli"), from unity to diversity, God creates successively the Intellect (Supreme Pen), the Universal Soul (Guarded Tablet), Prime Matter, Nature, the Universal Body (including the imaginal world) and the Earth. The Arc of Ascent ("qaws al-su'ud") is the way back to the Presence of God, the process of spiritual perfection.In a hadith attributed to Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth Imam of Shi'i Islam, the arc of descent is described as having seven stages. These stages have been commented on in Shaykhism.

Bazighiyya Shia

The Bazighiyya Shia (named for Bazigh ibn Yunus, to whom they were related) was a Ghulat sect of Shia Islam. They believed that Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq was God. Today, descendants of the followers of the sect either converted to Sunni Islam or mainstream Twelver Shia Islam.

Du'a Nudba

Du'a Nudba is one of the major Shiite prayers about Muhammad al-Mahdi and his occultation. Nudba means to cry and Shiites read the prayer for ask to help them during the occultation. The supplication recite in Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Ghadeer, and in every Friday morning. Mazar al-Kabir, Mazar al-Ghadim, and Mesbaho al-Zaer were narrated the supplication. These books were written with authentic narrators such as Sayyed Ibn Tawus. Muhammad Baqir Majlisi wrote this prayer in Zaad-ul-Maad from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. Also, Albazofari, a person who lived in minor occultation, narrated from The Four Deputies of Imam Mahdi that Imam Mahdi said to read the prayer.

Fathite

The Fathites (alternately Aftahiyya, Fathiyya) are a now-defunct branch of Shia Muslims who were supporters of Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq, believing him to be Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth imam of Shiism, in 766 CE. Abdullah's inheritance of the imamate was contested, with varying stories stating that either that he died within 70 days of his father, or that he was not sufficiently competent.One faction of Fathites believed that Abdullah al-Aftah had a son, Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Aftah, who inherited the Imamate. Others, however, believe Abdullah died without issue, and many Fathites later rejoined the Shia mainstream, becoming followers of Musa al-Kadhim, Ja'far's other son who was recognized as the 7th Twelver Shia imam.

Isma'il ibn Jafar

Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfar al-Mubārak (Arabic: إسماعيل بن جعفر‎; c. born: 719 AD, Medina - died circa 762 AD, Medina) was the eldest son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. He is also known as Isma'il Al-Ãraj ibn Ja'far (اسماعيل الاعرج ابن جعفر الصادق). Following Ja'far's death, the Shia community split between those who would become the Twelver Shia and those who believed that the Imamate passed to Ja'far's son, Isma'il; the Isma'ili branch of Shia Islam is accordingly named for Isma'il. According to both the Nizari and Mustaali Shia sects, he is the rightful successor of the sixth Imam, Jafar al-Sadiq, and the seventh Imam.

Kakakhel (tribe)

The Kakakhel claim to be Sayyid and settled in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa along with other cities of Pakistan. They were very small clan till 13th of century. They are descended by Syed Kastir Gul titled "Kaka Sahib" from the lineage of Imam Ja'far Al-Sadiq. The progenitor of tribe was "Ali" Titled "Syed Al Rijaal Saani" son of Syed Qaaf

List of 8th-century religious leaders

List of 7th-century religious leaders - List of 9th-century religious leaders - Lists of religious leaders by centuryThis is a list of the top-level leaders for religious groups with at least 50,000 adherents, and that led anytime from January 1, 701, to December 31, 800. It should likewise only name leaders listed on other articles and lists.

Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Aftah

Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq was a figure whose existence is contested: a portion of the Fathite Shia Muslims (followers of Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq), believed that Muhammad was the son of Imam Abdullah al-Aftah (died 766 CE), whom they believed to be the Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq. This assertion is contested by others, including many Fathites, who believe that Abdullah died without issue.When Abdullah al-Aftah died without an issue to succeed him in the Imamate, a portion of his followers believed in the necessity of the continuation of the Imamate in the children and the grandchildren of the Imam through pure vertical inheritance. Due to this they could not shift to the belief in the Imamate of the brother of Abdullah al-Aftah, Musa al-Kadhim. They therefore believed that Abdullah secretly had a son, claiming that this son was the Mahdi. They argued: "His name corresponds to the famous Prophetic hadith (of Muhammad): 'His name (i.e. the Mahdi) is my name (i.e. Muhammad), the name of his father is the name of my father (i.e. Abdullah).'"

There maybe evidence that he had a son named Sayed Alawi. Below is a detailed family tree.

Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq

Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq, surnamed al-Dibaj ("the handsome"), the younger full brother of Musa al-Kadhim, and son of Ja'far al-Sadiq appeared in Mecca in the year 200 A.H. / 815 C.E. claiming that he was the Awaited Mahdi. He believed in a Zaydi Shia type of Imamate and declared himself as the Caliph of the Muslims and took the oath of allegiance from them and was called the Leader of the faithful. He was recognized as the Imam by a small group of followers. His followers became denominated as the Shumaytiyya (Sumaytiyya) after their leader Yahya ibn Abi’l-Shumayt (al-Sumayt). However, his revolt against the Caliph al-Ma'mun proved unsuccessful in the very same year it started (i.e. 815 C.E.). He ended his revolt by abdicating and publicly confessing his error and was then banished from the Hejaz and the Tihamah. Al-Dibaj died in 203 A.H. / 818 C.E., and was buried near Bastam, Iran. The Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun himself was present until the burial was over and said the final prayer on the bier.

Sayeda Aisha Mosque

Sayeda Aisha Mosque is a mosque in Cairo, Egypt which contains mausoleum for Sayyida Aisha, a daughter of Ja'far al-Sadiq and a sister of Musa al-Kadhim.

Tafsir Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq

Tafsir Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq refers to a collection of hadiths reportedly narrated by Ja'far al-Sadiq that comment on the verses of the Qur'an. The approach of these narratives is generally mystical. Initially, they were recited at Sufi circles in Kufa and Baghdad. The first person to have reported this collection is Abu Abd al-Rahman Sulami as part of his Hadaiq al-Tafsir. While Sulami provides parts of the hadiths, Khargushi provides some other in his Arais al-Bayan fi Haqaiq al-Quran Ruzbihan Baqli.

The Nafidh Pasha collection in Sulaymaniyya library contains another Quranic exegesis attributed to Ja'far al-Sadiq. The hadiths in this work are gathered by Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Harb. His transmission chain going back to Ja'far al-Sadiq includes Abu Tahir ibn Mumin, Abu Muhammad Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Hamza, Muhammad ibn Hamza, Abu Muhammad Hassan ibn Abd Allah, Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Musa al-Riza, Imam Musa ibn Jafar. This is while that of Sulami is Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Nasr Baghdadi, Abd Allah Ahmad ibn Amir, and Ali al-Ridha.

Tawussite Shia

The Tawussite Shia (attributed to Ajlan ibn Tawus) were a Shia group who were a section of the supporters of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq who denied admitting that he died. They believed that he was the Awaited Mahdi and that he was alive and did not die.. This sect later all became mainstream Shiites and hence the sect became extinct.

After the death of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, the defeat of Muhammad ibn Abdallah An-Nafs Az-Zakiyya, the triumph of the Abbasids, and the popularity of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, reports became widespread on his Mahdism. Al-Nubakhti reports that: “Some Shiites (i.e. Tawussites) have reported (falsely) from Imam Sadiq that he said: ‘If you see my head rolling to you from the mountain, you should not believe that, for I am your Sahib (Mahdi)’” and: “If anyone informs you that he nursed me, washed my body (after death) and shrouded me, do not believe him, I am your companion (Sahib) and the companion of the sword.”Among the Tawussites was Aban ibn Uthman al-Ahmar, who was considered by Shia scholar al-Kashi to have been one of the men of Ijma (consensus), i.e. one of the supposed closest people to Imam Sadiq.

Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim

'Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim (Arabic: أم فروة بنت القاسم‎) or Umm Farwah FatimahMuhammad al-Baqir, and the mother of the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.

Waqifite Shia

The Waqifite Shia were a Shia sect who accepted the Imamate of Musa al-Kadhim, but refused to accept the Imamate of his successor Ali ar-Ridha.

 
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Ancestors of Ja'far al-Sadiq
8. Husayn ibn Ali
4. Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin
9. Shahrbanu
2. Muhammad al-Baqir
10. Hasan ibn Ali
5. Fatimah bint Hasan
11. Umm Ishaq bint Talha
1. Ja'far al-Sadiq
12. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr
6. Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad
3. Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim
14. Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr
7. Asma bint Abdul-Rahman
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