JPEG XR (JPEG extended range) is a still-image compression standard and file format for continuous tone photographic images, based on technology originally developed and patented by Microsoft under the name HD Photo (formerly Windows Media Photo). It supports both lossy and lossless compression, and is the preferred image format for Ecma-388 Open XML Paper Specification documents.
Support for the format is available in Adobe Flash Player 11.0, Adobe AIR 3.0, Sumatra PDF 2.1, Windows Imaging Component, .NET Framework 3.0, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Internet Explorer 9, Internet Explorer 10, Internet Explorer 11, Pale Moon 27.2. As of August 2014, there were still no cameras that shoot photos in the JPEG XR (.JXR) format.
|Internet media type|
|Developed by||Microsoft, ITU-T, ISO/IEC|
|Initial release||14 April 2009|
01/2012 (ITU-T); 2012 edition (ISO/IEC)
|Type of format||Graphics file format|
|Standard||ITU-T Rec. T.832 (01/2012),|
|Open format?||Yes (New BSD license)|
|Website||ITU-T T.832 (01/2012),|
ISO/IEC 29199-2: 2012
Microsoft first announced Windows Media Photo at WinHEC 2006, and then renamed it to HD Photo in November of that year. In July 2007, the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Microsoft announced HD Photo to be under consideration to become a JPEG standard known as JPEG XR. On 16 March 2009, JPEG XR was given final approval as ITU-T Recommendation T.832 and starting in April 2009, it became available from the ITU-T in "pre-published" form. On 19 June 2009, it passed an ISO/IEC Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) ballot, resulting in final approval as International Standard ISO/IEC 29199-2. The ITU-T updated its publication with a corrigendum approved in December 2009, and ISO/IEC issued a new edition with similar corrections on 30 September 2010.
In 2010, after completion of the image coding specification, the ITU-T and ISO/IEC also published a motion format specification (ITU-T T.833 | ISO/IEC 29199-3), a conformance test set (ITU-T T.834 | ISO/IEC 29199-4), and reference software (ITU-T T.835 | ISO/IEC 29199-5) for JPEG XR. In 2011, they published a technical report describing the workflow architecture for the use of JPEG XR images in applications (ITU-T T.Sup2 | ISO/IEC TR 29199-1).
One file container format that can be used to store JPEG XR image data is specified in Annex A of the JPEG XR standard. It is a TIFF-like format using a table of Image File Directory (IFD) tags. A JPEG XR file contains image data, optional alpha channel data, metadata, optional XMP metadata stored as RDF/XML, and optional Exif metadata, in IFD tags. The image data is a contiguous self-contained chunk of data. The optional alpha channel, if present, can be compressed as a separate image record, enabling decoding of the image data independently of transparency data in applications which do not support transparency. (Alternatively, JPEG XR also supports an "interleaved" alpha channel format in which the alpha channel data is encoded together with the other image data in a single compressed codestream.)
Being TIFF-based, this format inherits all of the limitations of the TIFF format including the 4 GB file-size limit, which according to the HD Photo specification "will be addressed in a future update".
New work has been started in the JPEG committee to enable the use of JPEG XR image coding within the JPX file storage format — enabling use of the JPIP protocol, which allows interactive browsing of networked images. Additionally, a Motion JPEG XR specification was approved as an ISO standard for motion (video) compression in March 2010.
JPEG XR's design is conceptually very similar to JPEG: the source image is optionally converted to a luma-chroma colorspace, the chroma planes are optionally subsampled, each plane is divided into fixed-size blocks, the blocks are transformed into the frequency domain, and the frequency coefficients are quantized and entropy coded. Major differences include the following:
The HD Photo bitstream specification claims that "HD Photo offers image quality comparable to JPEG-2000 with computational and memory performance more closely comparable to JPEG", that it "delivers a lossy compressed image of better perceptive quality than JPEG at less than half the file size", and that "lossless compressed images … are typically 2.5 times smaller than the original uncompressed data".
A reference software implementation of JPEG XR has been published as ITU-T Recommendation T.835 and ISO/IEC International Standard 29199-5.
The following notable software products natively support JPEG XR:
|Product Name||Publisher||Read support||Write support|
|Capture One 7 or later||Phase One||Yes||Yes|
|Corel Paint Shop Pro X2 or later||Corel||Yes||Yes|||
|Fast Picture Viewer||Axel Rietschin Software Developments||Yes||N/A|||
|ImageMagick||ImageMagick Studio LLC||Yes||Yes|||
|Internet Explorer 9||Microsoft||Yes||N/A|||
|Microsoft Expression Design||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|||
|Microsoft Expression Media||Microsoft||Yes||No|
|Microsoft Image Composite Editor||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|||
|Pale Moon (web browser)||Moonchild productions||Yes||N/A|||
|Serif PhotoPlus X7||Serif Europe||Yes||Yes|
|Windows Live Photo Gallery||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|
|Windows Photo Gallery||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|
|Windows Photo Viewer||Microsoft||Yes||N/A|
|Xara Designer Pro||Xara Group Limited||Yes||No|||
|Zoner Photo Studio 13 or later||Zoner Software||Yes||Yes|
The following notable software support JPEG XR through a Plug-in:
|Product name||Publisher||Plug-in name||Plug-in publisher||Read support||Write support|
|Adobe Photoshop (CS2,CS5-CS6)||Adobe Systems||JPEG XR File Format Plug-in for Photoshop||Microsoft Corporation||Yes||Yes|||
|GIMP||The GIMP Development Team||JPEG XR plugin for GIMP||C. Hausner||Yes||Yes|||
|IrfanView 4.25 and later||Irfan Skiljan||HDP version 4.26||Irfan Skiljan||Yes||No|||
|Paint.NET||Rick Brewster||JPEG XR plugin for Paint.NET||C. Hausner||Yes||Yes|||
|Quick Look||Apple Inc.||JPEG XR plugin for Quick Look||B. Hoary||Yes||N/A|||
|Product Name||Publisher||Read support||Write support|
|Adobe Integrated Runtime 3.3||Adobe Systems||Yes||Yes|||
|Adobe Flash Player 11.3||Adobe Systems||Yes||Yes|||
|Integrated Performance Primitives (IPP)||Intel||Yes||Yes|||
|Windows Imaging Component (WIC)||Microsoft||Yes||Yes|
Microsoft has patents on the technology in JPEG XR. A Microsoft representative stated in a January 2007 interview that in order to encourage the adoption and use of HD Photo, the specification is made available under the Microsoft Open Specification Promise, which asserts that Microsoft allows implementation of the specification for free, and will not file suits on the patented technology for its implementation, as reportedly stated by Josh Weisberg, director of Microsoft's Rich Media Group. As of 15 August 2010, Microsoft made the resulting JPEG XR standard available under its Community Promise.
In July 2010, reference software to implement the JPEG XR standard was published as ITU-T Recommendation T.835 and International Standard ISO/IEC 29199-5. Microsoft included these publications in the list of specifications covered by its Community Promise.
In April 2013, Microsoft released an open source JPEG XR library under the BSD licence. This resolved any licensing issues with the library being implemented in software packages distributed under popular open source licences such as the GNU General Public License, with which the previously released "HD Photo Device Porting Kit" was incompatible.
The JPEG XR format replaces the HD Photo/Windows Media™ Photo format in both Windows 8 and the Windows Image Component (WIC). WIC accompanies the Internet Explorer 10 redistributable packages for down-level versions of Windows.
The CPT file format is a graphics file format used by some versions of Corel Photo Paint.
It is also possible to open CPT version 6 files with IrfanView, but not with Paint Shop Pro (although it is from Corel). CPT version 6 is an almost identical copy of the TIFF format, whereas since Corel Photo-Paint 7.0 (released in 1997), this was deprecated for a new proprietary format (known as CPT7), however the user can still export the older TIFF-based CPT6 files. Chasys Draw IES can open CPT7 files as well as CPT8 and the latest CPT9; this support is available as from Chasys Draw IES version 4.58.01 .
Corel Photo Paint is not released as a standalone program. It is part of the Corel Draw Graphics Suite, available only for Windows.
The .cpt extension is also used for files encrypted using ccrypt, and also for screen captures in the video game Tekken Tag Tournament (PlayStation 2), which are saved to the Memory Card.Comparison of browser engines (graphics support)
This article compares graphics support for several browser engines.Comparison of graphics file formats
This is a comparison of image file formats.Comparison of image viewers
This article presents a comparison of image viewers and image organizers which can be used for image viewing.G.723
G.723 is an ITU-T standard speech codec using extensions of G.721 providing voice quality covering 300 Hz to 3400 Hz using Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) to 24 and 40 kbit/s for digital circuit multiplication equipment (DCME) applications. The standard G.723 is obsolete and has been superseded by G.726.
Note that this is a completely different codec from G.723.1.Gary Sullivan (engineer)
Gary Joseph Sullivan (born 1960) is an American electrical engineer who led the development of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and HEVC video coding standards and created the DirectX Video Acceleration (DXVA) API/DDI video decoding feature of the Microsoft Windows operating system.
He was the chairman of the Joint Video Team (JVT) standardization committee that developed the H.264/AVC standard, and he personally edited large portions of it. Since January 2010, he has been a co-chairman of the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) and an editor for developing the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. He has also led and contributed to a number of other video and image related standardization projects such as extensions of ITU-T H.263 video coding, multiview and 3D video coding for AVC and HEVC, and JPEG XR image coding. Since October 2015, he has been a co-chairman of the Joint Video Exploration Team (JVET) for exploration of video coding beyond the capability of HEVC. He has also published research work on various topics relating to video and image compression.Half-precision floating-point format
In computing, half precision is a binary floating-point computer number format that occupies 16 bits (two bytes in modern computers) in computer memory.
In the IEEE 754-2008 standard, the 16-bit base-2 format is referred to as binary16. It is intended for storage of floating-point values in applications where higher precision is not essential for performing arithmetic computations.
Although implementations of the IEEE Half-precision floating point are relatively new, several earlier 16-bit floating point formats have existed including that of Hitachi's HD61810 DSP of 1982, Scott's WIF and the 3dfx Voodoo Graphics processor.Nvidia and Microsoft defined the half datatype in the Cg language, released in early 2002, and implemented it in silicon in the GeForce FX, released in late 2002. ILM was searching for an image format that could handle a wide dynamic range, but without the hard drive and memory cost of floating-point representations that are commonly used for floating-point computation (single and double precision). The hardware-accelerated programmable shading group led by John Airey at SGI (Silicon Graphics) invented the s10e5 data type in 1997 as part of the 'bali' design effort. This is described in a SIGGRAPH 2000 paper (see section 4.3) and further documented in US patent 7518615.This format is used in several computer graphics environments including OpenEXR, JPEG XR, GIMP, OpenGL, Cg, and D3DX. The advantage over 8-bit or 16-bit binary integers is that the increased dynamic range allows for more detail to be preserved in highlights and shadows for images. The advantage over 32-bit single-precision binary formats is that it requires half the storage and bandwidth (at the expense of precision and range).The F16C extension allows x86 processors to convert half-precision floats to and from single-precision floats.ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates international standards, technical reports, and technical specifications within the field of audio, picture, multimedia, and hypermedia information coding. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 is the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) located in Japan.Image compression
Image compression is a type of data compression applied to digital images, to reduce their cost for storage or transmission. Algorithms may take advantage of visual perception and the statistical properties of image data to provide superior results compared with generic data compression methods which are used for other digital data.Integrated Performance Primitives
Intel Integrated Performance Primitives (Intel IPP) is a multi-threaded software library of functions for multimedia and data processing applications, produced by Intel.The library supports Intel and compatible processors and is available for Linux, macOS, Windows and Android operating systems. It is available separately or as a part of Intel Parallel Studio.Interlacing (bitmaps)
Interlacing (also known as interleaving) is a method of encoding a bitmap image such that a person who has partially received it sees a degraded copy of the entire image. When communicating over a slow communications link, this is often preferable to seeing a perfectly clear copy of one part of the image, as it helps the viewer decide more quickly whether to abort or continue the transmission.
Interlacing is supported by the following formats, where it is optional:
GIF interlacing stores the lines in the order 0, 8, 16, ...(8n), 4, 12, ...(8n+4), 2, 6, 10, 14, ...(4n+2), 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ...(2n+1).
PNG uses the Adam7 algorithm, which interlaces in both the vertical and horizontal direction.
TGA uses two optional interlacing algorithms, two-way: 0, 2, 4, ...(2n), 1, 3, ...(2n+1) and four-way: 0, 4, 8, ...(4n), 1, 5, ...(4n+1), 2, 6, ...(4n+2), 3, 7, ...(4n+3).
JPEG, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR (actually using a frequency decomposition hierarchy rather than interlacing of pixel values)
PGF (also using a frequency decomposition)Interlacing is a form of incremental decoding, because the image can be loaded incrementally. Another form of incremental decoding is progressive scan. In progressive scan the loaded image is decoded line for line, so instead of becoming incrementally clearer it becomes incrementally larger. The main difference between the interlace concept in bitmaps and in video is that even progressive bitmaps can be loaded over multiple frames.
For example: Interlaced GIF is a GIF image that seems to arrive on your display like an image coming through a slowly opening Venetian blind. A fuzzy outline of an image is gradually replaced by seven successive waves of bit streams that fill in the missing lines until the image arrives at its full resolution.
Interlaced graphics were once widely used in web design and before that in the distribution of graphics files over bulletin board systems and other low-speed communications methods. The practice is much less common today, as common broadband internet connections allow most images to be downloaded to the user's screen nearly instantaneously, and interlacing is usually an inefficient method of encoding images.Interlacing has been criticized because it may not be clear to viewers when the image has finished rendering, unlike non-interlaced rendering, where progress is apparent (remaining data appears as blank). Also, the benefits of interlacing to those on low-speed connections may be outweighed by having to download a larger file, as interlaced images typically do not compress as well.Joint Photographic Experts Group
The Joint Photographic Experts Group is the joint committee between ISO/IEC JTC 1 and ITU-T (formerly CCITT) that created and maintains the JPEG, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) – titled as Coding of still pictures. In the ITU-T, its work falls in the domain of the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG). ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 – SG16 and previously also with Study Group 8 – SG8) is responsible for the JPEG and JBIG standards. The scope of the organization includes the work of both the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.In April 1983, ISO started to work to add photo quality graphics to text terminals. In the mid-1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group VIII (SG8) – Telematic Services and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 – Coding of Audio and Picture Information. They were historically targeted on image communication. In 1986, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Photographic Expert Group. The JPEG committee was created in 1986. In 1988, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Bi-level Image Group (JBIG). The group typically meets three times annually in North America, Asia and Europe. The group often meets jointly with the JBIG committee.Lapped transform
In signal processing, a lapped transform is a type of linear discrete block transformation where the basis functions of the transformation overlap the block boundaries, yet the number of coefficients overall resulting from a series of overlapping block transforms remains the same as if a non-overlapping block transform had been used.Lapped transforms substantially reduce the blocking artifacts that otherwise occur with block transform coding techniques, in particular those using the discrete cosine transform. The best known example is the modified discrete cosine transform used in the MP3, Vorbis, AAC, and Opus audio codecs.Although the best-known application of lapped transforms has been for audio coding, they have also been used for video and image coding and various other applications. They are used in video coding for coding I-frames in VC-1 and for image coding in the JPEG XR format. More recently, a form of lapped transform has also been used in the development of the Daala video coding format.Rico Malvar
Henrique "Rico" S. Malvar (born 1957) is a distinguished Brazilian engineer and a senior signal processing researcher at Microsoft Research's largest laboratory in Redmond, Washington, United States. He was the Managing Director of the lab following the departure of long-time Managing Director Dan Ling in 2007, and oversaw about 350 researchers. Currently, he is the Chief Scientist of Microsoft Research.Windows Media
Windows Media is a discontinued multimedia framework for media creation and distribution for Microsoft Windows. It consists of a software development kit (SDK) with several application programming interfaces (API) and a number of prebuilt technologies, and is the replacement of NetShow technologies.
The Windows Media SDK is replaced by Media Foundation.Windows Photo Viewer
Windows Photo Viewer (formerly Windows Picture and Fax Viewer) is an image viewer included with the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was first included with Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 under its former name. It was temporarily replaced with Windows Photo Gallery in Windows Vista, but has been reinstated in Windows 7. This program succeeds Imaging for Windows. In Windows 10, it is deprecated in favor of a Universal Windows Platform app called Photos, although it can be brought back with a registry tweak.Windows Photo Viewer can show individual pictures, display all pictures in a folder as a slide show, reorient them in 90° increments, print them either directly or via an online print service, send them in e-mail or burn them to a disc. Windows Photo Viewer supports images in BMP, JPEG, JPEG XR (formerly HD Photo), PNG, ICO, GIF and TIFF file formats.YCoCg
The YCoCg color model is the color space formed from a simple transformation of an associated RGB color space into a luma value (denoted as Y) and two chroma values called chrominance green (Cg) and chrominance orange (Co). It is supported in video and image compression designs such as H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, HEVC, JPEG XR, and Dirac. It is simple to compute, has good transform coding gain, and can be losslessly converted to and from RGB with fewer bits than are needed with other color models. A reversible scaled version, YCoCg-R, is used in Display Stream Compression.
See Compression methods for techniques and Compression software for codecs
ISO standards by standard number