JBIG

JBIG is an early lossless image compression standard from the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group, standardized as ISO/IEC standard 11544 and as ITU-T recommendation T.82 in March 1993.[1] It is widely implemented in fax machines. Now that the newer bi-level image compression standard JBIG2 has been released, JBIG is also known as JBIG1. JBIG was designed for compression of binary images, particularly for faxes, but can also be used on other images. In most situations JBIG offers between a 20% and 50% increase in compression efficiency over the Fax Group 4 standard, and in some situations, it offers a 30-fold improvement.

JBIG is based on a form of arithmetic coding developed by IBM (known as the Q-coder) that also uses a relatively minor refinement developed by Mitsubishi, resulting in what became known as the QM-coder. It bases the probability estimates for each encoded bit on the values of the previous bits and the values in previous lines of the picture. JBIG also supports progressive transmission, which generally incurs a small overhead in bit rate (around 5%).

JBIG
Filename extension.jbg, .jbig
Developed byISO, IEC, ITU-T
Initial release1993
Type of formatImage file formats
Extended toJBIG2
StandardsISO/IEC 11544, ITU-T Recommendations T.82, T.85

Patents

Doubts about patent licence requirements for JBIG1 implementations by IBM, Mitsu­bishi and AT&T prevented the codec from being widely implemented in open-source software.[2] For example, as of 2012, none of the commonly used web browsers supported it. Since 2012, there are now no more JBIG1 patents in force – the last ones to expire were Mitsubishi's patents in Canada and Australia (on 25 February 2011) and in the United States (on 4 April 2012).[2][3]

See also

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29

References

  1. ^ Akramullah, Shahriar (2014). "Video Coding Standards". Digital Video Concepts, Methods, and Metrics. Apress. pp. 55–100. doi:10.1007/978-1-4302-6713-3_3. ISBN 978-1-4302-6712-6.
  2. ^ a b JBIG1 patent information
  3. ^ US5404140

External links

Binary image

A binary image is a digital image that has only two possible values for each pixel. Typically, the two colors used for a binary image are black and white. The color used for the object(s) in the image is the foreground color while the rest of the image is the background color. In the document-scanning industry, this is often referred to as "bi-tonal".

Binary images are also called bi-level or two-level. This means that each pixel is stored as a single bit—i.e., a 0 or 1. The names black-and-white, B&W, monochrome or monochromatic are often used for this concept, but may also designate any images that have only one sample per pixel, such as grayscale images. In Photoshop parlance, a binary image is the same as an image in "Bitmap" mode.Binary images often arise in digital image processing as masks or as the result of certain operations such as segmentation, thresholding, and dithering. Some input/output devices, such as laser printers, fax machines, and bilevel computer displays, can only handle bilevel images.

A binary image can be stored in memory as a bitmap, a packed array of bits. A 640×480 image requires 37.5 KiB of storage. Because of the small size of the image files, fax machine and document management solutions usually use this format. Most binary images also compress well with simple run-length compression schemes.

Binary images can be interpreted as subsets of the two-dimensional integer lattice Z2; the field of morphological image processing was largely inspired by this view.

CPT (file format)

The CPT file format is a graphics file format used by some versions of Corel Photo Paint.

It is also possible to open CPT version 6 files with IrfanView, but not with Paint Shop Pro (although it is from Corel). CPT version 6 is an almost identical copy of the TIFF format, whereas since Corel Photo-Paint 7.0 (released in 1997), this was deprecated for a new proprietary format (known as CPT7), however the user can still export the older TIFF-based CPT6 files. Chasys Draw IES can open CPT7 files as well as CPT8 and the latest CPT9; this support is available as from Chasys Draw IES version 4.58.01 [1].

Corel Photo Paint is not released as a standalone program. It is part of the Corel Draw Graphics Suite, available only for Windows.

The .cpt extension is also used for files encrypted using ccrypt, and also for screen captures in the video game Tekken Tag Tournament (PlayStation 2), which are saved to the Memory Card.

Comparison of graphics file formats

This is a comparison of image file formats.

Evenks

The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia. In Russia, the Evenks are recognised as one of the indigenous peoples of the Russian North, with a population of 38,396 (2010 census). In China, the Evenki form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognised by the People's Republic of China, with a population of 30,875 (2010 census). There are 537 Evenks, called Khamnigan in Mongolian, in Mongolia (2015 census).

Fax

Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device. The original document is scanned with a fax machine (or a telecopier), which processes the contents (text or images) as a single fixed graphic image, converting it into a bitmap, and then transmitting it through the telephone system in the form of audio-frequency tones. The receiving fax machine interprets the tones and reconstructs the image, printing a paper copy. Early systems used direct conversions of image darkness to audio tone in a continuous or analog manner. Since the 1980s, most machines modulate the transmitted audio frequencies using a digital representation of the page which is compressed to quickly transmit areas which are all-white or all-black.

G.723

G.723 is an ITU-T standard speech codec using extensions of G.721 providing voice quality covering 300 Hz to 3400 Hz using Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) to 24 and 40 kbit/s for digital circuit multiplication equipment (DCME) applications. The standard G.723 is obsolete and has been superseded by G.726.

Note that this is a completely different codec from G.723.1.

HylaFAX

HylaFAX is the leading fax server for Unix-like computer systems. It uses a client-server design and supports the sending and receiving of faxes as well as text pages, on any scale from low to very high volumes, if necessary making use of large numbers of modems. It is open-source, free software and can be used commercially without charge.

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates international standards, technical reports, and technical specifications within the field of audio, picture, multimedia, and hypermedia information coding. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 is the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) located in Japan.

JBG

JBG may refer to:

JBG Smith, an American real estate investment trust

JBIG, an image compression format

Jerusalem Botanical Gardens

Juan B. Galaviz Charter School in Houston, Texas, United States

JBIG2

JBIG2 is an image compression standard for bi-level images, developed by the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group. It is suitable for both lossless and lossy compression. According to a press release from the Group, in its lossless mode JBIG2 typically generates files 3–5 times smaller than Fax Group 4 and 2–4 times smaller than JBIG, the previous bi-level compression standard released by the Group. JBIG2 has been published in 2000 as the international standard ITU T.88, and in 2001 as ISO/IEC 14492.

Joan L. Mitchell

Joan Laverne Mitchell (May 24, 1947 – December 2, 2015) was an American computer scientist, data compression pioneer, and inventor who, as a researcher at IBM, coinvented the JPEG digital image format.

Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group

The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG) is a group of experts nominated by national standards bodies and major companies to work to produce standards for bi-level image coding. The "joint" refers to its status as a committee working on both ISO and ITU-T standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1), whose official title is Coding of still pictures.The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group created the JBIG and JBIG2 standards. The group often meets jointly with the JPEG committee, which typically meets three times annually.ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 – VCEG and previously also with Study Group 8 – SG8) is responsible for both JPEG and JBIG standards. It includes two sub-groups: the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG SG) and the Joint Bi-level Image experts Group (JBIG SG).In the mid-1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group (SG) VIII (Telematic Services) and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 (Coding of Audio and Picture Information). They were historically targeted on image communication. In 1986, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Photographic Expert Group. In 1988, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Bi-level Image Group – JBIG.

Joint Photographic Experts Group

The Joint Photographic Experts Group is the joint committee between ISO/IEC JTC 1 and ITU-T (formerly CCITT) that created and maintains the JPEG, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) – titled as Coding of still pictures. In the ITU-T, its work falls in the domain of the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG). ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 – SG16 and previously also with Study Group 8 – SG8) is responsible for the JPEG and JBIG standards. The scope of the organization includes the work of both the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.In April 1983, ISO started to work to add photo quality graphics to text terminals. In the mid-1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group VIII (SG8) – Telematic Services and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 – Coding of Audio and Picture Information. They were historically targeted on image communication. In 1986, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Photographic Expert Group. The JPEG committee was created in 1986. In 1988, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Bi-level Image Group (JBIG). The group typically meets three times annually in North America, Asia and Europe. The group often meets jointly with the JBIG committee.

Motion JPEG 2000

Motion JPEG 2000 (MJ2 or MJP2) is a file format for motion sequences of JPEG 2000 images and associated audio, based on the MP4/QuickTime format. Filename extensions for Motion JPEG 2000 video files are .mj2 and .mjp2, as defined in RFC 3745.

Moving Picture Experts Group

The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission. It was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and Leonardo Chiariglione, group Chair since its inception. The first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada. As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and research institutions. MPEG's official designation is ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 – Coding of moving pictures and audio (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 11).

Mp3PRO

mp3PRO is an unmaintained proprietary audio compression codec that combines the MP3 audio format with the spectral band replication (SBR) compression method. At the time it was developed it could reduce the size of a stereo MP3 by as much as 50% while maintaining the same relative quality. This works, fundamentally, by discarding the higher half of the frequency range and algorithmically replicating that information while decoding.

The technology behind SBR was developed by the former Swedish company Coding Technologies AB (acquired by Dolby Laboratories in 2007) in the late 1990s. It was included in their MPEG-2 AAC derived codec aacPlus, which would later be standardized as MPEG-4 HE-AAC. Thomson Multimedia (now Technicolor SA) licensed the technology and used it to extend the MP3 format, for which they held patents, hoping to also extend its profitable lifetime. This was released as mp3PRO in 2001.It was originally claimed that mp3PRO files were compatible with existing MP3 decoders, and that the SBR data could simply be ignored. The reality was that MP3 players lacking specific mp3PRO decoding capability experienced a significant reduction in audio quality when playing mp3PRO files as only the lower half of the original frequency range is available.mp3PRO development has been abandoned. The format was never standardized and there is no publicly available reference source code or documentation in existence. A very old software encoder/player exists, but is not maintained. Nero's Soundtrax application, bundled in the Nero Multimedia Suite, is capable of encoding and decoding this format into several others. Some versions of the outdated MusicMatch Jukebox player were able to decode and encode this format, too. In the early 2000s, mp3PRO was usable in several portable music players and in popular music software, but its market share has deteriorated rapidly. The codec itself is largely surpassed in quality and efficiency, as well as device and application support, by modern codecs like AAC and its HE-AAC variants which employ the same SBR method.

TIFF

Tagged Image File Format, abbreviated TIFF or TIF, is a computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and photographers. TIFF is widely supported by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical character recognition, image manipulation, desktop publishing, and page-layout applications. The format was created by Aldus Corporation for use in desktop publishing. It published the latest version 6.0 in 1992, subsequently updated with an Adobe Systems copyright after the latter acquired Aldus in 1994. Several Aldus or Adobe technical notes have been published with minor extensions to the format, and several specifications have been based on TIFF 6.0, including TIFF/EP (ISO 12234-2), TIFF/IT (ISO 12639), TIFF-F (RFC 2306) and TIFF-FX (RFC 3949).

The Best of Big Bang

The Best of Big Bang is the third greatest hits album by the K-pop boy band Big Bang. The album was stated to release in November 23, 2011 but due to G-Dragon's scandal, it was postponed to December 14, 2011.

Video Coding Experts Group

The Video Coding Experts Group or Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG, also known as Question 6) is a working group of the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) concerned with video coding standards. It is responsible for standardization of the "H.26x" line of video coding standards, the "T.8xx" line of image coding standards, and related technologies.

Administratively, VCEG is the informal name of Question 6 (Visual coding) of Working Party 3 (Media coding) of Study Group 16 (Multimedia coding, systems and applications) of the ITU-T. Its abbreviated title is ITU-T Q.6/SG 16.

The goal of VCEG is to produce recommendations (international standards) for video coding and image coding methods appropriate for conversational (e.g. videoconferencing and video telephony) and non-conversational (e.g., streaming, broadcast, file download, media storage/playback, or digital cinema) audio/visual services. This mandate concerns the maintenance and extension of existing video coding recommendations, and laying the ground for new recommendations using advanced techniques to significantly improve the trade-offs between bit rate, quality, delay, and algorithm complexity. Video coding standards are desired with sufficient flexibility to accommodate a diverse number of transport types (Internet, LAN, Mobile, ISDN, GSTN, H.222.0, NGN, etc.).

Question 6 is part of Study Group 16, which is responsible for studies relating to multimedia service capabilities, and application capabilities (including those supported for NGN). This encompasses multimedia terminals, systems (e.g., network signal processing equipment, multipoint conference units, gateways, gatekeepers, modems, and facsimile), protocols and signal processing (media coding).

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