J. P. Mallory

James Patrick Mallory (born 1945) is an Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist. Mallory is an emeritus professor at Queen's University, Belfast,[1] a member of the Royal Irish Academy[2] and the editor of the Journal of Indo-European Studies[3] and Emania: Bulletin of the Navan Research Group (Belfast).[4]


Mallory was born in Belfast in 1945.[5] He received his A.B. in History from Occidental College in California in 1967,[6] then served three years in the US Army as a military police sergeant. He received his Ph.D. in Indo-European studies from UCLA in 1975.[7][8] He has held several posts at Queen's beginning in 1977, becoming Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology in 1998.

Mallory's research has focused on Early Neolithic and Bronze Age Europe, the problem of the homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans, and the archaeology of early Ireland. He favors an integrative approach to these issues, comparing literary, linguistic and archaeological evidence to solve historical puzzles.

One consequence of Mallory's preference for an integrated approach is that he has been strongly critical of the widely publicised theory of Indo-European origins held by Colin Renfrew, which locates the urheimat or homeland of this language family in early Neolithic Anatolia and associates its spread with the spread of agriculture. A key element of his criticism has been a vigorous defence of linguistic palaeontology as a valid tool for solving the Indo-European homeland problem, arguing that Renfrew is sceptical about it precisely because it offers some of the strongest evidence against the latter's own model. Mallory's book with D. Q. Adams, entitled The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford University Press 2006) provides a comprehensive account of the reconstructed language Proto-Indo-European and assesses what it can tell us about the society that spoke it.

Major works


  • Mallory, J. P. (1989). In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27616-1.
  • Mallory, J. P.; T. E. McNeill (1991). The Archaeology of Ulster. Belfast: Dufour Editions. ISBN 0-85389-353-5.
  • Mallory, J. P.; Victor H. Mair (2000). The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05101-1.
  • Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199287910.
  • Mallory, J. P. (2013). The Origins of the Irish. London–New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500051755.
  • In Search of the Irish Dreamtime: Archaeology and Early Irish Literature. London: Thames & Hudson, 2016.

Edited volumes

Articles and Chapters

  • J.P. Mallory, "A Short History of the Indo-European Problem", Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) 1 (1973): 21–65.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Time Perspectives and Proto-Indo-European Culture", World Archaeology 8 (1976): 44–58.
  • J.P. Mallory, "The Ritual Treatment of the Horse in the Early Kurgan Tradition", JIES 9 (1981): 205–226.
  • J.P. Mallory and D. Telegin, "Poyava kolesnogo transportu na Ukraini sa radiokarbonnimi dannimi", Problemi khronologii kultur eneolita-bronzovogo veka Ukrainy i Yuga-Vostochnoy Evropy. Dnepropetrovsk, 1984.
  • J.P. Mallory and M.E. Huld, "Proto-Indo-European 'silver'", Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 97 (1984): 1–12.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Migration and Language Change", Peregrinatio Gothica III, eds. E. Straume & E. Skar. Oslo: Universitets Oldaksamling, 1992, pp. 145–53.
  • J.P. Mallory, "The Indo-European Homeland: An Asian Perspective", Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute, 54–55 (1994–1995): 237–54.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Speculations on the Xinjiang Mummies", JIES 23 (1995): 3-4.
  • J.P. Mallory, "The Indo-European Homeland Problem: A Matter of Time", The Indo-Europeanization of Northern Europe, eds. Karlene Jones-Bley & Martin E. Huld. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 1996, pp. 1–22.
  • J.P. Mallory, "The Indo-European phenomenon: linguistics and archaeology", History of Humanity, vol. 2: From the Third Millennium to the Seventh Century B.C., eds. A.H. Dani & J.P. Mohen. Paris: UNESCO; London/NY: Routledge, 1996, pp. 80–91; 2nd edn., 2003, pp. 239–265.
  • J.P. Mallory, "The Homelands of the Indo-Europeans", Archaeology and Language I: Theoretical and Methodological Orientations, eds. Roger Blench & Matthew Spriggs. London/NY: Routeledge, 1997, pp. 93–121.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Indoevropeyskie prarodiny", VDI 1 (1997).
  • J.P. Mallory, "Aspects of Indo-European agriculture", Studies in Honor of Jaan Puhvel. Part 1: Ancient Languages and Philology, eds. D. Disterheft, M. Huld & J. Greppin. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 1997, pp. 221–240.
  • J.P. Mallory, "The Old Irish Chariot", Mír Curad: Studies in Honor of Calvert Watkins, eds. J. Jasanoff, H. Melchert, & L. Oliver. Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beitrage zur Sprachwissenschaft, 1998, pp. 451–464.
  • J.P. Mallory, "A European Perspective on Indo-Europeans in Asia", The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia, vol. 1, ed. Victor Mair. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 1998, pp. 175–201.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Agriculture and the Indo-European Dispersals", Proceedings of the XIII International Congress Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences, Forli, Italy, 8–14 September 1996, vol. 3, eds. R. Cremonesi, C. Tozzi, A. Vigliardi, & C. Peretto. Forli: Abaco, 1998, pp. 185–90.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Uralics and Indo-Europeans: Problems of Time and Space", Early Contacts Between Uralic and Indo-European: Linguistics and Archaeological Considerations, eds. Christian Carpelan, Asko Parpola, & Petteri Koskikallio. Helsinki, Suomalais-Ugrilainen Eura, 2001, pp. 345–66.
  • J.P. Mallory, “Gli Indoeuropei e i popoli delle steppe: il modello della sostituzione delle lingue”, Radici prime dell'Europa: Gli intrecci genetici, linguistici, storici, eds. Gianluca Bocchi & Mauro Ceruti. Milan: Bruno Mondadori, 2001; trans. Marco Di Sario.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Indo-Europeans and Steppelands: The Model of Language Shift", Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual UCLA Indo-European conference, eds. Karlene Jones-Bley, Martin E. Huld, A.D. Volpe, & M. Robbins Dexter. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 2002, pp. 1–27.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Archaeological Models and Asian Indo-Europeans", Proceedings of the British Academy 116 (2002): 19–42.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Indigenous Indo-Aryans: the preservation and total distribution principles", JIES 30 (2003): 375–387.
  • J.P. Mallory, "The Date of Pazyryk", Ancient Interactions: East and West in Eurasia, eds. K. Boyle, Colin Renfrew, & M. Levine. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs, 2003, pp. 199–211.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang", American Journal of Physical Anthropology 124 (2004): 199–222.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Indo-European warfare", War and Sacrifice, eds. T. Pollard & I. Banks. Leiden: Brill, 2006, pp. 77–98.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Migrations in Prehistoric Eurasia: Problems in the Correlation of Archaeology and Language", Aramazd: Armenian Journal of Near Eastern Studies 3 (2008): 7–38.
  • J.P. Mallory, "The Anatolian homeland hypothesis and the Anatolian Neolithic", Proceedings of the 20th Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference, eds. S. Jamison, H. C. Melchert & B. Vine. Bremen: Hempen, 2009, pp. 133–162.
  • J.P. Mallory, "New radiocarbon dates and a review of the chronology of prehistoric populations from the Minusinsk Basin, Southern Siberia, Russia", Radiocarbon 51 (2009): 243–273.
  • J.P. Mallory, "L'hypothèse des steppes", Dossiers d'archéologie 338 (2010): 28–35.
  • J.P. Mallory, "Twenty-first century clouds over Indo-European homelands", Journal of Language Relationship 9 (2013): 145–154.


  1. ^ Prof. Mallory's Academic Homepage at QUB
  2. ^ Royal Irish Academy Membership entry Archived 2013-07-03 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Journal of Indo-European Studies
  4. ^ Prof. Mallory's Academic Homepage at QUB
  5. ^ http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2818014
  6. ^ Royal Irish Academy Membership entry Archived 2013-07-03 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ * J.P. Mallory, "The Indo-European Homeland Problem: The Logic of the Inquiry" Ph.D. dissertation - UCLA. Ann Arbor (Mass): Xerox Microfilms, 1975.
  8. ^ Royal Irish Academy Membership entry Archived 2013-07-03 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Abashevo culture

The Abashevo culture is an early Bronze Age (ca. 2500–1900 BCE) archaeological culture found in the valleys of the Volga and Kama River north of the Samara bend and into the southern Ural Mountains. It receives its name from the village of Abashevo in Chuvashia. Artifacts are kurgans and remnants of settlements. The Abashevo was the easternmost of the Russian forest zone cultures that descended from Corded Ware ceramic traditions. The Abashevo culture played a significant role in the origin of the Sintashta culture. The Abashevo culture does not pertain to the Andronovo culture and genetically belongs to the circle of Central European cultures employing the Corded Ware ceramics of the type represented by the Fatyanovo culture.The economy was mixed agriculture. Cattle, sheep, and goats, as well as other domestic animals were kept. Horses were evidently used, inferred by cheek pieces typical of neighboring steppe cultures. The population of Sintashta derived their stock-breeding from Abashevo, although the role of the pig shrinks sharply.It follows the Yamna culture and Balanovo culture in its inhumation practices in tumuli. Flat graves were also a component of the Abashevo culture burial rite, as in the earlier Fatyanovo culture. Grave offerings are scant, little more than a pot or two. Some graves show evidence of a birch bark floor and a timber construction forming walls and roof.There is evidence of copper smelting, and the culture would seem connected to copper mining activities in the southern Urals. The Abashevo culture was an important center of metallurgy and stimulated the formation of Sintashta metallurgy.The Abashevo ethno-linguistic identity is a subject of speculation, although it likely reflected a merger of the earlier Indo-European Poltavka culture in the Volga-Ural steppes, Fatyanovo-Balanovo traditions, and contacts with speakers of Uralic; Abashevo was likely the area in which some loan-words entered Uralic. The skulls of the Abashevo differ from those of the Timber Grave culture, early Catacomb culture, or the Potapovka culture. The anthropological type is a transitional group in which Mongoloid and Europoid features are commingled, probably due to Siberian admixture. Abashevo probably witnessed a bilingual population undergo a process of assimilation. Some members of the hunter-gatherer Volosovo culture were apparently also absorbed into the Abashevo populace, as Corded-impressed Abashevo pottery has been found alongside comb-stamped Volosovo ceramics at archaeological sites, sometimes even in the same structure.Abashevo occupied part of the area of the earlier Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture, the eastern variant of the earlier Corded Ware culture, but whatever relationship there is between the two cultures is uncertain. The pre-eminent expert on the Abashevo culture, A. Pryakhin, concluded that it originated from contacts between Fatyanovo / Balanovo and Catacomb / Poltavka peoples in the southern forest-steppe. Early Abashevo ceramic styles strongly influenced Sintashta ceramics.It was preceded by the Yamna culture and succeeded by the Srubna culture and the Sintashta culture.

Afanasievo culture

The Afanasievo culture, or Afanasevo culture (Russian Афанасьевская культура Afanas'yevskaya kul'tura; "[the] Afanasevan culture"), is the earliest known archaeological culture of south Siberia, occupying the Minusinsk Basin and the Altai Mountains during the eneolithic era, c. 3300 to 2500 BC. It is named after a nearby mountain, Gora Afanasieva (Russian: Гора Афанасьева, lit. 'Afanasiev's mountain') (also known as Bateni).David W. Anthony believes that the Afanasevans were descended from people who migrated c. 3700–3300 BCE across the Eurasian Steppe from the Repin culture of the Don-Volga region (and possibly members of the neighbouring Yamnaya culture). Because of its geographical location and dating, Anthony and earlier scholars such as Leo Klejn, J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair have linked the Afanasevans to the Proto-Tocharian language.

Baltic languages

The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. Baltic languages are spoken by the Balts, mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

Scholars usually regard them as a single language family divided into two groups: Western Baltic (containing only extinct languages) and Eastern Baltic (containing two living languages, Lithuanian and Latvian). The range of the Eastern Baltic linguistic influence once possibly reached as far as the Ural Mountains, but this hypothesis has been questioned.Old Prussian, a Western Baltic language that became extinct in the 18th century, ranks as the most archaic of the Baltic languages.Although morphologically related, the Lithuanian, Latvian and, particularly, Old Prussian vocabularies differ substantially from one another, and as such they are not mutually intelligible, mainly due to a substantial number of false friends, and foreign words, borrowed from surrounding language families, which are used differently.

Dnieper–Donets culture

The Dnieper–Donets culture (ca. 5th—4th millennium BC) was a Mesolithic culture in the area north of the Black Sea/Sea of Azov between the Dnieper and Donets River, and bordering the European Neolithic area.

There are parallels with the contemporaneous Samara culture. The Dnieper–Donets culture was succeeded by the Yamnaya culture.

Douglas Q. Adams

Douglas Quentin Adams is a professor of English at the University of Idaho and an Indo-European comparativist. Adams studied at the University of Chicago, taking his PhD in 1972. He is an expert on Tocharian and a contributor on this subject to the Encyclopædia Britannica.

He has also co-authored two works on Indo-European culture and languages with J. P. Mallory of the Royal Irish Academy. He is a Linguistics Editor at the Journal of Indo-European Studies, founded by Roger Pearson.At the University of Idaho, Adams teaches courses on linguistics, and grammar and semantics for the English as a Second Language program.

Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture

The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (abbreviation: EIEC) is an encyclopedia of Indo-European studies and the Proto-Indo-Europeans. The encyclopedia was edited by J. P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams and published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. Archaeological articles are written by Mallory, linguistic articles are written by Adams, and includes a distinguished Who's Who of 1990s Indo-Europeanists who made contributions as sub-editors. While not a polemic, the work in part responds to Colin Renfrew's Anatolian hypothesis of Indo-European origins.

Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture

The Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture, 3200 BC–2300 BC, is an eastern extension of the Corded Ware culture into Russia.

It runs from Lake Pskov in the west to the middle Volga in the east, with its northern reach in the valley of the upper Volga. It is really two cultures, the Fatyanovo in the west, the Balanovo in the east. The Fatyanovo culture emerged at the northeastern edge of the Middle Dnieper culture, and was probably derived from an early variant of this culture.Fatyanovo migrations correspond to regions with hydronyms of a Baltic language dialect mapped by linguists as far as the Oka river and the upper Volga. Spreading eastward down the Volga they discovered the copper ores of the western Ural foothills, and started long term settlements in lower Kama river region. The Balanovo culture occupied the region of the Kama–Vyatka–Vetluga interfluves where metal resources (local copper sandstone deposits) of the region were exploited.Fatyanovo ceramics show mixed Corded Ware / Globular Amphorae traits. The later Abashevo culture pottery looked somewhat like Fatyanovo-Balanovo Corded Ware, but Abashevo kurgans were unlike Fatyanovo flat cemeteries, although flat graves were a recognizable component of the Abashevo burial rite. Balanovo burials (like the Middle Dnieper culture) were both of the flat and kurgan type, containing individual and also mass graves.Settlements are scant, and bear evidence of a degree of fortification. The villages were usually situated on the high hills of the riverbanks, consisting of several above-ground houses built from wooden logs with saddle roofs, and also joined by passages. The economy seems to be quite mobile, but then we are cautioned that domestic swine are found, which suggests something other than a mobile society. The Fatyanovo culture is viewed as introducing an economy based on domestic livestock (sheep, cattle, horse & dog) into the forest zone of Russia. The Balanovo also used draught cattle and two wheeled wagons.As is usual with such ancient cultures, our main knowledge comes from their inhumations. Shaft graves were evident, which might be lined with wood. The deceased were wrapped in animal skins or birch bark and placed into wooden burial chambers in subterranean rectangular pits. The interments are otherwise in accord with Corded Ware practices, with males resting on their right side and females on their left. Local metal objects of a Central European provenance type were present. Copper ornaments and tools have been found in Balanovo burials (Chalcolithic). Burial goods depended on sex, age, and social position. Copper axes primarily accompanied persons of high social position, stone axe-hammers were given to men, flint axes to children and women. Amulets are frequently found in the graves as well as metal working implements.The theory for an intrusive culture is based upon the physical type of the population (physical anthropology), flexed burial under barrows, the presence of battle-axes and ceramics. There are similarities between Fatyanovo and Catacomb culture stone battle-axes. The Volosovo culture of indigenous forest foragers was different in its ceramics, economy, and mortuary practices. It dispersed when the Fatyanovo people pushed into the Upper and Middle Volga basin. Ceramic finds indicate Balanovo coexisted with the Volosovo people (mixed Balanovo-Volosovo sites), and also displaced them. Note that the ethnic and linguistic attribution of the Volosovo culture is uncertain; Häkkinen maintains that their language was neither Uralic nor Indo-European, but a substratum to Finno-Permic. The cultures of the Prikamsky subarea in the Late Bronze Age continued preceding traditions in pottery, house designs, and stable animal husbandry with the breeding of horse, cattle, and to a lesser extent, pigs and sheep. Scholars interpret some of these cultures with stages in the development of the proto-Permian language. Some have argued that this culture represents the acculturation of Pit-Comb Ware culture people of this area from contacts with Corded Ware agriculturists in the West. It does not seem to represent a northern extension of the Indo-European Yamna culture horizon further south.Historical sources mention a people inhabiting the region of the earlier Fatyanovo region. The Hypatian Codex of Chronicles mentions that in 1147 the Prince of Rostov-Suzdal defeated the Golyad' (Голядь) who lived by the River Porotva. The Protva is a tributary of the Oka river near Moscow, where there is a wealth of Baltic hydronyms.

Globular Amphora culture

The Globular Amphora Culture (GAC) (German: Kugelamphoren-Kultur (KAK); Russian: Культура шаровидных амфор, translit. Kultura sharovidnykh amfor), c. 3400–2800 BC, is an archaeological culture in central Europe.

Marija Gimbutas

assumed an Indo-European origin, though this is contradicted by newer genetic studies.The GAC preceded the Corded ware culture in its central area. Somewhat to the south and west, it was bordered by the Baden culture. To the northeast was the Narva culture. It occupied much of the same area as the earlier Funnelbeaker culture. The name was coined by Gustaf Kossinna because of the characteristic pottery, globular-shaped pots with two to four handles.

Indo-Aryan peoples

Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages. There are over one billion native speakers of Indo-Aryan languages, most of them native to the Indian subcontinent and presently found all across South Asia, where they form the majority.

Journal of Indo-European Studies

The Journal of Indo-European Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal of Indo-European studies, founded in 1973. It publishes papers in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, mythology and linguistics relating to the cultural history of the Indo-European speaking peoples. The journal is published every three months. The current editor-in-chief is J. P. Mallory (Queen's University Belfast).

In 2006, an online full-text archive was made available to institutional subscribers.

Maykop culture

The Maykop culture (scientific transliteration: Majkop, Russian: майкоп, [mai.kɔp]), c. 3700 BC–3000 BC, was a major Bronze Age archaeological culture in the western Caucasus region of southern Russia.

It extends along the area from the Taman Peninsula at the Kerch Strait to near the modern border of Dagestan and southwards to the Kura River. The culture takes its name from a royal burial found in Maykop kurgan in the Kuban River valley.

Nicholas Kazanas

Nicholas Kazanas (born 1939) is a Greek Indologist. He was born in 1939 in Chios, Greece.

He studied at University College, Economics and Philosophy at the School of Economic Science and Sanskrit at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, and did a post-graduate at SOAS and at Deccan College in Pune. He taught in London and Athens. Since 1980 he led the Omilos Meleton Cultural Institute. He is on the Editorial Board of Adyar Library Bulletin. Beginning in 1997 Kazanas accepted the Vedic Tradition and its place in the broader Indo-European culture.His work was criticized by M. Witzel, Richard Meadow, Martin Huld, Edwin Bryant, D. P. Agrawal, Asko Parpola, Stefan Zimmer, J. P. Mallory, Elena Kuzmina and others.He was one of the few contributors in a special volume of the Journal of Indo-European Studies on the Indo-Aryan migration theory who argued against the theory. Kazanas' paper was criticized by nine scholars, among them JP Mallory. In the latter issue of the Journal of Indo-European Studies, Kazanas responded to all his critics in the article ‘Final Reply’.

Novotitorovka culture

Novotitorovka culture, 3300–2700 BC, a Bronze Age archaeological culture of the North Caucasus immediately to the north of and largely overlapping portions of the Maykop culture facing the Sea of Azov, running from the Kerch Strait eastwards, almost to the Caspian, roughly coterminous with the modern Krasnodar Krai region of Russia.

It is distinguished by its burials, particularly by the presence of wagons in them and its own distinct pottery, as well as a richer collection of metal objects than those found in adjacent cultures, as is to be expected considering its relationship to the Maykop culture.

It is grouped with the larger Indo-European Yamna culture complex, and in common with it, the economy was semi-nomadic pastoralism mixed with some agriculture.

Nuristani languages

The Nuristani languages (Pashto: نورستاني‎) are one of the three groups within the Indo-Iranian language family, alongside the much larger Indo-Aryan and Iranian groups. They have approximately 130,000 speakers primarily in eastern Afghanistan and a few adjacent valleys in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Chitral District, Pakistan. The region inhabited by the Nuristanis is located in the southern Hindukush mountains, and is drained by Alingar River in the west, Pech River in the center, and Landai Sin and Kunar River in the east. The languages were previously often grouped with Indo-Aryan or Iranian until they were finally classified as forming a third branch in Indo-Iranian.

Poltavka culture

Poltavka culture, 2700—2100 BCE, an early to middle Bronze Age archaeological culture of the middle Volga from about where the Don-Volga canal begins up to the Samara Bend in Russia, with an easterly extension north of present Kazakhstan along the Samara River valley to somewhat west of Orenburg.

It is like the Catacomb culture preceded by the Yamnaya culture, while succeeded by the Sintashta culture. It seems to be an early manifestation of the Srubna culture. There is evidence of influence from the Maykop culture to its south.

The only real things that distinguish it from the Yamnaya culture are changes in pottery and an increase in metal objects. Tumulus inhumations continue, but with less use of ochre.

It was preceded by the Yamnaya culture and succeeded by the Srubna and Sintashta culture. It is presumptively early Indo-Iranian (Proto-Indo-Iranian), possibly representing a late satem dialect of Proto-Indo-European.

Proto-Armenian language

Proto-Armenian is the earlier, unattested stage of the Armenian language which has been reconstructed by linguists. As Armenian is the only known language of its branch of the Indo-European languages, the comparative method cannot be used to reconstruct its earlier stages. Instead, a combination of internal and external reconstruction, by reconstructions of Proto-Indo-European and other branches, has allowed linguists to piece together the earlier history of Armenian.

Przeworsk culture

The Przeworsk culture is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD.It was located in what is now central and southern Poland - the upper Oder to the Vistula basin, later spreading to parts of eastern Slovakia and Subcarpathia ranging between the Oder and the middle and upper Vistula Rivers and extending south towards the middle Danube into the headwaters of the Dniester and Tisza Rivers. It takes its name from the village near the town Przeworsk where the first artifacts were found.


Shanshan (Chinese: 鄯善; pinyin: Shànshàn; Uyghur: پىچان‎, ULY: Pichan, UYY: Piqan?) was a kingdom located at the north-eastern end of the Taklamakan Desert near the great, but now mostly dry, salt lake known as Lop Nur.

The kingdom was originally an independent city-state, known in the almost undocumented language of its inhabitants as Kröran or Kroraina – which is commonly rendered in Chinese as Loulan. Chinese dynasties took direct control of the kingdom some time after 77 BCE, and it was later known in Chinese as Shanshan. The archaeologist J. P. Mallory has suggested that the name Shanshan may be derived from the name of another city in the area, Cherchen (later known in Chinese as Qiemo).

Sredny Stog culture

The Sredny Stog culture (Russian: Среднестоговская культура) is a pre-kurgan archaeological culture from the 5th millennium BC. It is named after the Russian term for the Dnieper river islet of today's Seredny Stih, Ukraine, where it was first located. It was situated across the Dnieper river on both its shores, with sporadic settlements to the west and east. One of the best known sites associated with this culture is Dereivka, located on the right bank of the Omelnik, a tributary of the Dnieper, and is the most impressive site within the Sredny Stog culture complex, being about 2,000 square meters in area.

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