J. Michael Bishop

John Michael Bishop (born February 22, 1936) is an American immunologist and microbiologist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Harold E. Varmus and was co-winner of 1984 Alfred P. Sloan Prize.[2] He serves as an active faculty member at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he also served as Chancellor from 1998 to 2009.[3][4][5][6][7]

J. Michael Bishop
Nci-vol-8172-300 j michael bishop
J. Michael Bishop
John Michael Bishop

February 22, 1936 (age 83)
Alma materHarvard University
Known forOncogene Virus
Scientific career

Education and early life

Bishop was born in Pennsylvania. He attended Gettysburg College as an undergraduate, where he was a brother of the Theta-Pi Zeta chapter of Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity. He later attended Harvard University where he earned an MD in 1962.


Bishop began his career working for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, a part of the National Institutes of Health. He then spent a year working for the Heinrich Pette Institute in Hamburg, Germany before joining the faculty of the University of California, San Francisco in 1968.[4] Bishop has remained on the school's faculty since 1968, and was chancellor of the university from 1998-2009.[6] He is Director of the Bishop Lab.[8]

He became the eighth Chancellor of UCSF in 1998. He oversaw one of UCSF's major transition and growth periods, including the expanding Mission Bay development and philanthropic support recruitment. During his tenure, he unveiled the first comprehensive, campus-wide, strategic plan to promote diversity and foster a supportive work environment. During this time, UCSF also adopted a new mission: advancing health worldwide™.[9]


Much of this work was conducted jointly with Harold Varmus in a notably long scientific partnership. Their best-known accomplishment[10] was the identification of a cellular gene (c-src) that gave rise to the v-src oncogene of Rous Sarcoma Virus, a cancer-causing virus first isolated from a chicken sarcoma by Peyton Rous in 1910. Their discovery triggered the identification of many other cellular proto-oncogenes—progenitors of viral oncogenes and targets for mutations that drive human cancers.

Awards and honors

Bishop is best known for his Nobel-winning work on retroviral oncogenes. Working with Harold E. Varmus in the 1980s, he discovered the first human oncogene, c-Src. Their findings allowed the understanding of how malignant tumors are formed from changes to the normal genes of a cell. These changes can be produced by viruses, by radiation, or by exposure to some chemicals.[5][11][12][13]

Bishop is also a recipient of National Medal of Science in 2003.[7] That same year, his book "How to win the Nobel Prize: An Unexpected Life in Science" was published. He was elected Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 2008.[1]

Archival Collections

The University of California, San Francisco Archives and Special Collections houses a collection of J. Michael Bishop papers, including his laboratory research notebooks, writings, photographs, and other material.[14]


  1. ^ a b "Professor J Michael Bishop ForMemRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-10-21.
  2. ^ NCI Visuals Online: Image Details. Visualsonline.cancer.gov. Retrieved on 2013-11-24.
  3. ^ Nobel autobiography
  4. ^ a b Autobiography on UCSF Website Archived August 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b Nobel Prize press release
  6. ^ a b Susan Desmond-Hellmann named UC San Francisco chancellor
  7. ^ a b National Medal of Science details
  8. ^ Bishop Lab. Hooper.ucsf.edu. Retrieved on 2013-11-24. Archived December 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "John Michael Bishop - Biography - A History of UCSF". history.library.ucsf.edu.
  10. ^ Stehelin, D.; Varmus, H. E.; Bishop, J. M.; Vogt, P. K. (1976-03-11). "DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA". Nature. 260 (5547): 170–173. doi:10.1038/260170a0.
  11. ^ Michael Bishop archival collection at UCSF
  12. ^ J. Michael Bishop at AccesExcellence.org Archived 2009-07-15 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ J. Michael Bishop's lecture: "Cancer: The rise of the genetic paradigm"
  14. ^ Calisphere J. Michael Bishop Collection: https://calisphere.org/collections/26395/
Preceded by
Ursula Goodenough
ASCB Presidents
Succeeded by
Mina Bissell
1989 in science

The year 1989 in science and technology involved many significant events, some listed below.

Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research

The Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research is one of the prizes awarded by the Lasker Foundation for the outstanding discovery, Contribution and achievement in the field of medicine and Human Physiology. The award frequently precedes a Nobel Prize in Medicine: almost 50% of the winners have gone on to win one.

Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank

The Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank (DSHB) is a non-profit, global hybridoma bank. The DSHB is a National Resource established by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to bank and distribute at cost hybridomas and cell products to the general scientific community.

Edison Liu

Edison T. Liu, M.D., is the president and CEO of The Jackson Laboratory, and was the president of Human Genome Organization, HUGO from 2007-2013.

Between 1997 and 2001, he was the scientific director of the National Cancer Institute's Division of Clinical Sciences in Bethesda, Md., where he was in charge of the intramural clinical translational science programs. From 1987 to 1996, Dr. Liu was a faculty member at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he was the director of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center's Specialized Program of Research Excellence in Breast Cancer; the director of the Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology at UNC's School of Public Health; chief of Medical Genetics; and the chair of the Correlative Science Committee of the national cooperative clinical trials group, CALGB.

Liu is an international expert in cancer biology, genomics, human genetics, molecular epidemiology and translational medicine. Dr. Liu's own scientific research has focused on the functional genomics of human cancers, particularly breast cancer, uncovering new oncogenes, and deciphering the dynamics of gene regulation on a genomic scale that modulate cancer biology. He has authored over 300 scientific papers and reviews, and co-authored two books.

In his spare time, Liu pursues jazz piano and composition, and writes for the lay public on science, medicine and society.

February 22

February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 312 days remaining until the end of the year (313 in leap years).

Gairdner Foundation International Award

The Canada Gairdner International Award is given annually at a special dinner to five individuals for outstanding discoveries or contributions to medical science. Receipt of the Gairdner is traditionally considered a precursor to winning the Nobel Prize in Medicine; as of 2018, 86 Nobel Prizes have been awarded to prior Gairdner recipients.

Canada Gairdner International Awards are given annually in the amount of $100,000 (each) payable in Canadian funds and can be awarded to residents of any country in the world. A joint award may be given for the same discovery or contribution to medical science, but in that case each awardee receives a full prize.

Harold E. Varmus

Harold Eliot Varmus (born December 18, 1939) is an American Nobel Prize-winning scientist who was director of the National Institutes of Health from 1993 to 1999 and the 14th Director of the National Cancer Institute from 2010 to 2015, a post to which he was appointed by President Barack Obama. He was a co-recipient (along with J. Michael Bishop) of the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. He is currently the Lewis Thomas University Professor of Medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine and a Senior Associate at the New York Genome Center.

Hidesaburo Hanafusa

Hidesaburo Hanafusa (花房 秀三郎, Hanafusa Hidesaburō, December 1, 1929 – March 15, 2009) was a Japanese virologist. He shared the 1982 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research with Harold E. Varmus and J. Michael Bishop for demonstrating how RNA tumor viruses cause cancer, and elucidating their role in combining, rescuing and maintaining oncogenes in the viral genome.

Jan Löwe

Jan Löwe (born 14 July 1967) is a German molecular and structural biologist who works at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) in Cambridge, UK. Löwe became Director of the MRC-LMB in April 2018 taking over from Hugh Pelham. Löwe is known for his contributions to the current understanding of bacterial cytoskeletons.

John Bishop (disambiguation)

John Bishop (born 1966) is an English comedian.

John Bishop may also refer to:

John Bishop (academic) (1903–1964), Australian academic and conductor

John Bishop (19th century), body snatcher, one of the London Burkers

John Melville Bishop (born 1946), American documentary filmmaker

John Peale Bishop (1892–1944), American poet

John Bishop, founder of US based motorsport sanctioning body, International Motor Sports Association

John Bishop, founder of Dreamland Bar-B-Que

John Bishop, American jazz drummer and founder of Origin Records

John Bishop (editor), head of Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1958–1974

John Bishop (screenwriter) (1929–2006), Broadway playwright and director and Hollywood screenwriter

J. Michael Bishop (born 1936), American immunologist and microbiologist

John Bishop (sportscaster), American play-by-play broadcaster

John Bishop (cricketer) (1891–1963), English cricketer

John Bishop (MP), Member of Parliament (MP) for Wycombe in 1430

John Bisshop, MP for Gloucestershire

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2008

Fellows, Foreign Members and Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2008.

List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.

List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Cellular and developmental biology)

This list is a subsection of the List of members of the National Academy of Sciences, which includes approximately 2,000 members and 350 foreign associates of the United States National Academy of Sciences, each of whom is affiliated with one of 31 disciplinary sections. Each person's name, primary institution, and election year are given.

List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Medical genetics, hematology, and oncology)

This list is a subsection of the List of members of the National Academy of Sciences, which includes approximately 2,000 members and 350 foreign associates of the United States National Academy of Sciences, each of whom is affiliated with one of 31 disciplinary sections. Each person's name, primary institution, and election year are given.

Massachusetts General Hospital

Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. It is the third oldest general hospital in the United States. With Brigham and Women's Hospital, it is one of the two founding members of Partners HealthCare, the largest healthcare provider in Massachusetts. Massachusetts General Hospital conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the world, with an annual research budget of more than $900 million. It is currently ranked as the #4 hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report.In November 2017, The Boston Globe ranked MGH 5th place of top workplaces, of Massachusetts companies with over 1,000 employees, this was up from 6th place in 2016.


An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumor cells, they are often mutated or expressed at high levels.Most normal cells will undergo a programmed form of rapid cell death (apoptosis) when critical functions are altered and malfunctioning. Activated oncogenes can cause those cells designated for apoptosis to survive and proliferate instead. Most oncogenes began as proto-oncogenes, normal genes involved in cell growth and proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis. If normal genes promoting cellular growth, through mutation, are up-regulated, (gain of function mutation) they will predispose the cell to cancer and are thus termed oncogenes. Usually multiple oncogenes, along with mutated apoptotic or tumor suppressor genes will all act in concert to cause cancer. Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. Many cancer drugs target the proteins encoded by oncogenes.

Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src

Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src or simply c-Src , is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the SRC gene. This protein phosphorylates specific tyrosine residues in other proteins.

c-Src stands for "cellular Src kinase" and should not be confused with "C-terminal Src kinase" (CSK) which is an enzyme which phosphorylates c-Src at its C-terminus and provides negative regulation of Src's enzymatic activity. Similarly, c-Src should not be mistaken for v-Src, a viral (hence the prefix v-) gene that shares similarity with c-Src and is also an oncogene, which can be found in Rous sarcoma virus.

An elevated level of activity of c-Src tyrosine kinase is suggested to be linked to cancer progression by promoting other signals. Mutations in this gene could be involved in the malignant progression of colon cancer.

This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth.

c-Src includes an SH2 domain, an SH3 domain, and a tyrosine kinase domain.

Src (pronounced "sarc" as it is short for sarcoma) was originally discovered by J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus, for which they were awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. It belongs to a family of Src family kinases.This gene is similar to the v-Src gene of Rous sarcoma virus.

Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.

University of California, San Francisco

The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is a public research university in San Francisco, California. It is part of the University of California system and it is dedicated entirely to health science. It is a major center of medical and biological research and teaching.UCSF was founded as Toland Medical College in 1864, and in 1873 it affiliated itself with the University of California, becoming its Medical Department. In the same it incorporated the California College of Pharmacy and in 1881 it established a dentistry school. In 1964 it gained full administrative independence as a campus of the UC system headed by a chancellor, and in 1970 it gained its current name. Historically based at Parnassus Heights and several other locations throughout the city, in the early 2000s it developed a second major campus in the newly redeveloped Mission Bay. As of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates have been affiliated with UCSF as faculty members or researchers, and the University has been the site of many scientific breakthroughs.The UCSF School of Medicine, the oldest medical school in the Western United States, is the top recipient of NIH funding as of 2017. U.S. News & World Report ranks it #5 on their "Best Medical Schools: Research" and #2 on their " "Best Medical Schools: Primary Care." The UCSF Schools of Dentistry, Nursing, and Pharmacy have the highest NIH funding in their respective fields. The UCSF Graduate Division offers 19 PhD programs, 11 MS programs, two certificates and a physical therapy program.

The UCSF Medical Center is the nation's 6th-ranked hospital and California's highest-ranked hospital according to U.S. News & World Report. With 25,398 employees, UCSF is the second largest public agency employer in the San Francisco Bay Area. UCSF faculty have treated patients and trained residents since 1873 at the San Francisco General Hospital and for over 50 years at the San Francisco VA Medical Center.


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