J. M. Barrie

Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, OM (/ˈbæri/; 9 May 1860 – 19 June 1937) was a Scottish novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan. He was born and educated in Scotland and then moved to London, where he wrote a number of successful novels and plays. There he met the Llewelyn Davies boys, who inspired him to write about a baby boy who has magical adventures in Kensington Gardens (included in The Little White Bird), then to write Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, a "fairy play" about an ageless boy and an ordinary girl named Wendy who have adventures in the fantasy setting of Neverland.

Although he continued to write successfully, Peter Pan overshadowed his other work, and is credited with popularising the name Wendy.[1] Barrie unofficially adopted the Davies boys following the deaths of their parents. Barrie was made a baronet by George V on 14 June 1913,[2] and a member of the Order of Merit in the 1922 New Year Honours.[3] Before his death, he gave the rights to the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London, which continues to benefit from them.

Sir

J. M. Barrie

J.M. Barrie by Herbert Rose Barraud, 1892
J.M. Barrie by Herbert Rose Barraud, 1892
BornJames Matthew Barrie
9 May 1860
Kirriemuir, Angus, Scotland
Died19 June 1937 (aged 77)
London, England
Resting placeKirriemuir Cemetery, Angus, Scotland
OccupationNovelist, playwright
NationalityScottish
CitizenshipBritish
EducationGlasgow Academy
Forfar Academy
Dumfries Academy
Alma materUniversity of Edinburgh
PeriodVictorian, Edwardian
GenreChildren's literature, drama, fantasy
Literary movementKailyard school
Notable worksThe Little White Bird
Peter Pan
The Admirable Crichton
Spouse
Mary Ansell (m. 1894–1909)
ChildrenGuardian of the Llewelyn Davies boys

Signature
JM Barrie Signature
Website
jmbarrie.co.uk
J M Barrie by Sir William Nicholson 1903, SNPG
J M Barrie by Sir William Nicholson 1903

Childhood and adolescence

James Matthew Barrie was born in Kirriemuir, Angus, to a conservative Calvinist family. His father David Barrie was a modestly successful weaver. His mother Margaret Ogilvy assumed her deceased mother's household responsibilities at the age of eight. Barrie was the ninth child of ten (two of whom died before he was born), all of whom were schooled in at least the three Rs in preparation for possible professional careers. His siblings were: Alexander (1842 – 16 July 1914), Mary Ann (1845–1918), Jane (14 March 1847 – 31 August 1895), Elizabeth (12 March 1849 – 1 April 1851), Agnes (23 Dec 1850 – 1851), David Ogilvy (30 January 1853 – 29 January 1867), Sarah (3 June 1855 –1 November 1913), Isabella (4 January 1858 – 1902) and Margaret (9 July 1863 – 1936). He was a small child and drew attention to himself with storytelling.[4] He only grew to 5 ft 3​12 in. (161 cm) according to his 1934 passport.[5]

When he was 6 years old, Barrie's next-older brother David (his mother's favourite) died the day before his 14th birthday in an ice-skating accident.[6] This left his mother devastated, and Barrie tried to fill David's place in his mother's attentions, even wearing David's clothes and whistling in the manner that he did. One time, Barrie entered her room and heard her say, "Is that you?" "I thought it was the dead boy she was speaking to", wrote Barrie in his biographical account of his mother Margaret Ogilvy (1896) "and I said in a little lonely voice, 'No, it's no' him, it's just me.'" Barrie's mother found comfort in the fact that her dead son would remain a boy forever, never to grow up and leave her.[7] Eventually, Barrie and his mother entertained each other with stories of her brief childhood and books such as Robinson Crusoe, works by fellow Scotsman Walter Scott, and The Pilgrim's Progress.[8]

At the age of 8, Barrie was sent to the Glasgow Academy in the care of his eldest siblings Alexander and Mary Ann, who taught at the school. When he was 10, he returned home and continued his education at the Forfar Academy. At 14, he left home for Dumfries Academy, again under the watch of Alexander and Mary Ann. He became a voracious reader, and was fond of Penny Dreadfuls and the works of Robert Michael Ballantyne and James Fenimore Cooper. At Dumfries, he and his friends spent time in the garden of Moat Brae house, playing pirates "in a sort of Odyssey that was long afterwards to become the play of Peter Pan".[9][10] They formed a drama club, producing his first play Bandelero the Bandit, which provoked a minor controversy following a scathing moral denunciation from a clergyman on the school's governing board.[8]

Literary career

Barrie knew that he wished to follow a career as an author. However, his family attempted to persuade him to choose a profession such as the ministry. With advice from Alexander, he was able to work out a compromise: he would attend a university, but would study literature.[11] Barrie enrolled at the University of Edinburgh where he wrote drama reviews for the Edinburgh Evening Courant. He graduated and obtained an M.A. on 21 April 1882.[11]

Following a job advertisement found by his sister in The Scotsman, he worked for a year and a half as a staff journalist on the Nottingham Journal.[11] He then returned to Kirriemuir. He submitted a piece to the St. James's Gazette, a London newspaper, using his mother's stories about the town where she grew up (renamed "Thrums"). The editor "liked that Scotch thing" so well that Barrie ended up writing a series of these stories.[8] They served as the basis for his first novels: Auld Licht Idylls (1888), A Window in Thrums (1890),[12] and The Little Minister (1891).

The stories depicted the "Auld Lichts", a strict religious sect to which his grandfather had once belonged.[11] Modern literary criticism of these early works has been unfavourable, tending to disparage them as sentimental and nostalgic depictions of a parochial Scotland, far from the realities of the industrialised nineteenth century, seen as characteristic of what became known as the Kailyard School.[13] Despite, or perhaps because of, this, they were popular enough at the time to establish Barrie as a successful writer. Following that success, he published Better Dead (1888) privately and at his own expense, but it failed to sell.[11] His two "Tommy" novels, Sentimental Tommy (1896) and Tommy and Grizel (1900), were about a boy and young man who clings to childish fantasy, with an unhappy ending. The late nineteenth century English novelist George Gissing read the former in November 1896 and wrote that he "thoroughly dislike[d it]".[14]

Meanwhile, Barrie's attention turned increasingly to works for the theatre, beginning with a biography of Richard Savage, written by Barrie and H.B. Marriott Watson; unfortunately, it was performed only once and critically panned.[11] He immediately followed this with Ibsen's Ghost (or Toole Up-to-Date)(1891),[11] a parody of Henrik Ibsen's dramas Hedda Gabler and Ghosts. Ghosts had been unlicensed in the UK until 1914,[15] but had created a sensation at the time from a single "club" performance.

The production of Ibsen's Ghost at Toole's Theatre in London was seen by William Archer, the translator of Ibsen's works into English. Apparently comfortable with the parody, he enjoyed the humour of the play and recommended it to others. Barrie's third play Walker, London (1892) resulted in him being introduced to a young actress named Mary Ansell. He proposed to her and they were married on 9 July 1894. Barrie bought her a Saint Bernard puppy, who played a part in the novel The Little White Bird. He used Ansell's given name for many characters in his novels.[11] Barrie also authored Jane Annie, a comic opera for Richard D'Oyly Carte (1893), which failed; he begged his friend Arthur Conan Doyle to revise and finish it for him.

In 1901 and 1902, he had back-to-back successes; Quality Street was about a respectable, responsible old maid who poses as her own flirtatious niece to try to win the attention of a former suitor returned from the war. Following that, The Admirable Crichton was a critically acclaimed social commentary with elaborate staging, about an aristocratic family and their household servants whose social order is inverted after they are shipwrecked on a desert island.

The character of "Peter Pan" first appeared in The Little White Bird. The novel was published in the UK by Hodder & Stoughton in 1902, and serialised in the US in the same year in Scribner's Magazine.[16] Barrie's more famous and enduring work Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up had its first stage performance on 27 December 1904.[17] This play introduced audiences to the name Wendy; it was inspired by a young girl named Margaret Henley who called Barrie "Friendy", but could not pronounce her Rs very well. The Bloomsbury scenes show the societal constraints of late Victorian and Edwardian middle class domestic reality, contrasted with Neverland, a world where morality is ambivalent. George Bernard Shaw described the play as "ostensibly a holiday entertainment for children but really a play for grown-up people", suggesting deeper social metaphors at work in Peter Pan.

Barrie had a long string of successes on the stage after Peter Pan, many of which discuss social concerns, as Barrie continued to integrate his work and his beliefs. The Twelve Pound Look (1910) concerns a wife leaving her 'typical' husband once she can gain an independent income. Other plays, such as Mary Rose (1920) and Dear Brutus (1917), revisit the idea of the ageless child and parallel worlds.

Barrie was involved in the 1909 and 1911 attempts to challenge the censorship of the theatre by the Lord Chamberlain, along with a number of other playwrights.[18]

In 1911, Barrie developed the Peter Pan play into the novel Peter and Wendy. In April 1929, Barrie gave the copyright of the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital, a leading children's hospital in London. The current status of the copyright is somewhat complex.

His final play was The Boy David (1936), which dramatised the Biblical story of King Saul and the young David. Like the role of Peter Pan, that of David was played by a woman, Elisabeth Bergner, for whom Barrie wrote the play.[19]

Social connections

Sir James M. Barrie
Sir James Barrie, around 1895.

Barrie moved in literary circles and had many famous friends in addition to his professional collaborators. Novelist George Meredith was an early social patron. He had a long correspondence with fellow Scot Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa at the time, but the two never met in person. George Bernard Shaw was his neighbour in London for several years, and once participated in a Western that Barrie scripted and filmed. H. G. Wells was a friend of many years, and tried to intervene when Barrie's marriage fell apart. Barrie met Thomas Hardy through Hugh Clifford while he was staying in London.

After the First World War, Barrie sometimes stayed at Stanway House near the village of Stanway in Gloucestershire. He paid for the pavilion at Stanway cricket ground. Barrie also founded an amateur cricket team for his friends. The people who played on the team at various times included such luminaries as H. G. Wells, Rudyard Kipling, Arthur Conan Doyle, P. G. Wodehouse, Jerome K. Jerome, G. K. Chesterton, A. A. Milne, E. W. Hornung, A. E. W. Mason, Walter Raleigh, E. V. Lucas, Maurice Hewlett, Owen Seaman, Bernard Partridge, Augustine Birrell, Paul Du Chaillu, Henry Herbert La Thangue, George Cecil Ives, George Llewelyn Davies (see below) and the son of Alfred Tennyson. The team was called the Allahakbarries, under the mistaken belief that "Allah akbar" meant "Heaven help us" in Arabic (rather than "God is great").[8]

Barrie befriended Africa explorer Joseph Thomson and Antarctica explorer Robert Falcon Scott.[20] He was godfather to Scott's son Peter,[8] and was one of the seven people to whom Scott wrote letters in the final hours of his life during his expedition to the South Pole, asking Barrie to take care of his wife Kathleen and son Peter. Barrie was so proud of the letter that he carried it around for the rest of his life.[11]

In 1896, his agent Addison Bright persuaded him to meet with Broadway producer Charles Frohman, who became his financial backer and a close friend, as well.[11] Frohman was responsible for producing the debut of Peter Pan in both England and the US, as well as other productions of Barrie's plays. He famously declined a lifeboat seat when the RMS Lusitania was sunk by a German U-boat in the North Atlantic. Actress Rita Jolivet stood with Frohman, George Vernon and Captain Alick Scott at the end of Lusitania's sinking, but she survived the sinking and recalled Frohman paraphrasing Peter Pan: 'Why fear death? It is the most beautiful adventure that life gives us.'[21]

His secretary from 1917, Cynthia Asquith, was the daughter-in-law of H. H. Asquith, British Prime Minister from 1908 to 1916.[22] In the 1930s, Barrie met and told stories to the young daughters of the Duke of York, the future Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret.[22]

Marriage

Barrie became acquainted with actress Mary Ansell in 1891, when he asked his friend Jerome K. Jerome for a pretty actress to play a role in his play Walker, London. The two became friends, and she helped his family to care for him when he fell very ill in 1893 and 1894.[8] They married in Kirriemuir on 9 July 1894,[23] shortly after Barrie recovered, and Mary retired from the stage. The wedding was a small ceremony in his parents' home, in the Scottish tradition. The relationship was reportedly unconsummated,[24] and the couple had no children.

In 1895, the Barries bought a house on Gloucester Road, in South Kensington.[25] Barrie would take long walks in nearby Kensington Gardens, and in 1900 the couple moved into a house directly overlooking the gardens at 100 Bayswater Road. Mary had a flair for interior design and set about transforming the downstairs, creating two large reception rooms with painted panelling and adding fashionable features, such as a conservatory.[26] In the same year, Mary found Black Lake Cottage, at Farnham, Surrey, which became the couple's "bolt hole" where Barrie could entertain his cricketing friends and the Llewelyn Davies family.[27]

Beginning in mid-1908, Mary had an affair with Gilbert Cannan (who was twenty years younger than she[28] and an associate of Barrie's in his anti-censorship activities), including a visit together to Black Lake Cottage, known only to the house staff. When Barrie learned of the affair in July 1909, he demanded that she end it, but she refused. To avoid the scandal of divorce, he offered a legal separation if she would agree not to see Cannan any more, but she still refused. Barrie sued for divorce on the grounds of infidelity; the divorce was granted in October 1909.[7][29] Knowing how painful the divorce was for him, some of Barrie's friends wrote to a number of newspaper editors asking them not to publish the story. In the event, only three newspapers did.[11] Barrie continued to support Mary financially even after she married Cannan, by giving her an annual allowance, which was handed over at a private dinner held on her and Barrie's wedding anniversary.[28]

Llewelyn Davies family

J. M. Barrie in 1902
J. M. Barrie by George Charles Beresford, 1902

The Llewelyn Davies family played an important part in Barrie's literary and personal life, consisting of Arthur (1863–1907), Sylvia (1866–1910) (daughter of George du Maurier),[30] and their five sons: George (1893–1915), John (Jack) (1894–1959), Peter (1897–1960), Michael (1900–1921) and Nicholas (Nico) (1903–1980).

Barrie became acquainted with the family in 1897, meeting George and Jack (and baby Peter) with their nurse (nanny) Mary Hodgson in London's Kensington Gardens. He lived nearby and often walked his Saint Bernard dog Porthos[31] in the park. He entertained the boys regularly with his ability to wiggle his ears and eyebrows, and with his stories. He did not meet Sylvia until a chance encounter at a dinner party in December. She told Barrie that Peter had been named after the title character in her father's novel, Peter Ibbetson.[11]

Barrie became a regular visitor at the Davies household and a common companion to Sylvia and her boys, despite the fact that both he and she were married to other people.[7] In 1901, he invited the Davies family to Black Lake Cottage, where he produced an album of captioned photographs of the boys acting out a pirate adventure, entitled The Boy Castaways of Black Lake Island. Barrie had two copies made, one of which he gave to Arthur, who misplaced it on a train.[32] The only surviving copy is held at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.[33]

The character of Peter Pan was invented to entertain George and Jack. Barrie would say, to amuse them, that their little brother Peter could fly. He claimed that babies were birds before they were born; parents put bars on nursery windows to keep the little ones from flying away. This grew into a tale of a baby boy who did fly away.[11]

Arthur Llewelyn Davies died in 1907, and "Uncle Jim" became even more involved with the Davies family, providing financial support to them. (His income from Peter Pan and other works was easily adequate to provide for their living expenses and education.) Following Sylvia's death in 1910, Barrie claimed that they had recently been engaged to be married.[7] Her will indicated nothing to that effect, but specified her wish for "J. M. B." to be trustee and guardian to the boys, along with her mother Emma, her brother Guy du Maurier and Arthur's brother Compton. It expressed her confidence in Barrie as the boys' caretaker and her wish for "the boys to treat him (& their uncles) with absolute confidence & straightforwardness & to talk to him about everything." When copying the will informally for Sylvia's family a few months later, Barrie inserted himself elsewhere: Sylvia had written that she would like Mary Hodgson, the boys' nurse, to continue taking care of them, and for "Jenny" (referring to Hodgson's sister) to come and help her; Barrie instead wrote "Jimmy" (Sylvia's nickname for him). Barrie and Hodgson did not get along well, but served together as surrogate parents until the boys were grown.[7]

Barrie also had friendships with other children, both before he met the Davies boys and after they had grown up, and there has since been speculation that Barrie was a paedophile.[34][35] One source for the speculation is a scene in the novel The Little White Bird, in which the protagonist helps a small boy undress for bed, and at the boy's request they sleep in the same bed.[11] However, there is no evidence that Barrie had sexual contact with children, nor that he was suspected of it at the time. Nico, the youngest of the brothers, denied as an adult that Barrie ever behaved inappropriately.[7] "I don't believe that Uncle Jim ever experienced what one might call 'a stirring in the undergrowth' for anyone—man, woman, or child", he stated. "He was an innocent—which is why he could write Peter Pan."[36] His relationships with the surviving Davies boys continued well beyond their childhood and adolescence.

The Peter Pan statue in Kensington Gardens, erected secretly overnight for May Morning in 1912, was supposed to be modelled upon old photographs of Michael dressed as the character. However, the sculptor, Sir George Frampton, used a different child as a model, leaving Barrie disappointed with the result. "It doesn't show the devil in Peter", he said.[7]

Barrie suffered bereavements with the boys, losing the two to whom he was closest in their early twenties. George was killed in action in 1915, in the First World War.[37] Michael, with whom Barrie corresponded daily while at boarding school and university, drowned in 1921, with his friend, Rupert Buxton,[38][39] at a known danger spot at Sandford Lock near Oxford, one month short of his 21st birthday. Some years after Barrie's death, Peter compiled his Morgue from family letters and papers, interpolated with his own informed comments on his family and their relationship with Barrie. Peter died by throwing himself in front of a train shortly after completing the work.

Death

Barrie died of pneumonia at a nursing home in the West End of London on 19 June 1937.[40] He was buried at Kirriemuir next to his parents and two of his siblings.[41] His birthplace at 4 Brechin Road is maintained as a museum by the National Trust for Scotland.

He left the bulk of his estate to his secretary Cynthia Asquith, but excluding the rights to all Peter Pan works (which included The Little White Bird, Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, the play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Would Not Grow Up and the novel Peter and Wendy), whose copyright he had previously given to Great Ormond Street Hospital in London. The surviving Llewelyn Davies boys received legacies, and he made provisions for his former wife Mary Ansell to receive an annuity during her lifetime. [42]

His will also left £500 to the Bower Free Church in Caithness to mark the memory of Rev James Winter who was to have married his sister in June 1892 but was killed in a fall from his horse in May 1892. Barrie had several connections to the Free Church of Scotland, including his maternal uncle Rev David Ogilvy (1822-1904), who was minister of Dalziel Church in Motherwell.[43] James and his brother William Winter (also a Free Church minister) were both born in Cortachy the sons of Rev William Winter. Cortachy is just west of Kirriemuir and the Winters seem closely connected to the Ogilvy family.[44]

Biographies

Books

  • Hammerton, J. A. (1929). Barrie: the Story of a Genius. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.
  • Darlington, W. A. (1938). J. M. Barrie. London and Glasgow: Blackie & Son. ISBN 0-8383-1768-5.
  • Chalmers, Patrick (1938). The Barrie Inspiration. Peter Davies. ISBN 978-1-4733-1220-3.
  • Mackail, Denis (1941). Barrie: The Story of J. M. B. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-8369-6734-8.
  • Dunbar, Janet (1970). J. M. Barrie: The Man Behind the Image. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-211384-8.
  • Birkin, Andrew (2003). J. M. Barrie and the Lost Boys: The Real Story Behind Peter Pan. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09822-8.
  • Chaney, Lisa (2006). Hide-and-Seek with Angels: A Life of J. M. Barrie. Arrow. ISBN 978-0-09-945323-9.
  • Dudgeon, Piers (2009). Captivated: J. M. Barrie, the du Mauriers & the Dark Side of Neverland. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-09-952045-0.
  • Telfer, Kevin (2010). Peter Pan's First XI: The Extraordinary Story of J. M. Barrie's Cricket Team. Sceptre. ISBN 978-0-340-91945-3.
  • Ridley, Rosalind (2016). Peter Pan and the Mind of J. M. Barrie: An Exploration of Cognition and Consciousness. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-9107-3.
  • Dudgeon, Piers (2016). J. M. Barrie and the Boy Who Inspired Him. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-1-250-08779-9.

Journal

  • Stokes, Sewell (November 1941). "James M Barrie". New York Theatre Arts Inc. 25 (11): 845–848.

Film, television and stage

Honours

Barrie was appointed a baronet by King George V in 1913. He was made a member of the Order of Merit in 1922.

In 1919 he was elected Rector of the University of St Andrews for a three-year term. In 1922 he delivered his celebrated Rectorial Address on Courage at St Andrews, and visited University College Dundee with Earl Haig to open its new playing fields, with Barrie bowling a few balls to Haig.[45] He served as Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh from 1930 to 1937.[46]

Barrie was the only person to receive the Freedom of Kirriemuir in a ceremony on 7 June 1930 in Kirriemuir Town Hall where he was presented with a silver casket containing the freedom scroll. The casket was made by silversmiths Brook & Son in Edinburgh in 1929 and is decorated with images of sites in Kirriemuir which held significant memories for Barrie: Kirriemuir Townhouse, Strathview, Window in Thrums, the statue of Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and the Barrie Cricket Pavilion. The casket is on display in the Gateway to the Glens Museum, Kirriemuir.[47]

Other

Works by year

  • Better Dead (1887)
  • Auld Licht Idylls (1888)
  • When a Man's Single (1888)
  • A Window in Thrums (1889)
  • My Lady Nicotine (1890), republished in 1926 with the subtitle A Study in Smoke
  • The Little Minister (1891)
  • Richard Savage (1891)
  • Ibsen's Ghost (Toole Up-to-Date) (1891)
  • Walker, London (1892)
  • Jane Annie (opera), music by Ernest Ford, libretto by Barrie and Arthur Conan Doyle (1893)
  • A Powerful Drug and Other Stories (1893)
  • A Tillyloss Scandal (1893)
  • Two of Them (1893)
  • A Lady's Shoe (1893) (two short stories: A Lady's Shoe, The Inconsiderate Waiter)
  • Life in a Country Manse (1894)
  • Scotland's Lament: A Poem on the Death of Robert Louis Stevenson (1895)
  • Sentimental Tommy, The Story of His Boyhood (1896)
  • Margaret Ogilvy (1896)
  • Jess (1898)
  • Tommy and Grizel (1900)
  • The Wedding Guest (1900)
  • The Boy Castaways of Black Lake Island (1901)
  • Quality Street (play) (1901)
  • The Admirable Crichton (play) (1902)
  • The Little White Bird, or Adventures in Kensington Gardens (1902)
  • Little Mary (1903)
  • Peter Pan (staged 1904)
  • Alice Sit-by-the-Fire (play) (1905)
  • Pantaloon (1905)
  • Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens (1906)
  • What Every Woman Knows (play) (1908)
  • When Wendy Grew Up – An Afterthought (1908)
  • Peter and Wendy (novel) (1911)
  • Half an Hour (play) (1913)
  • Half Hours (1914) includes:
    • Pantaloon
    • The Twelve-Pound Look
    • Rosalind
    • The Will
  • The Legend of Leonora (1914)
  • Der Tag (The Tragic Man) (Short play) (1914)
  • Charles Frohman: A Tribute (1915)
  • A Kiss for Cinderella (1916)
  • Shakespeare's Legacy (1916)
  • Dear Brutus (1917) (play)
  • Echoes of the War (1918) Four plays, includes:
  • A Kiss for Cinderella (play) (1920)
  • Mary Rose (1920)
  • The Twelve Pound Look J.M. Barrie Shimer College 1952
    Production of The Twelve Pound Look at Shimer College
    The Twelve-Pound Look (1921)
  • The Author (1925)
  • Cricket (1926)
  • Shall We Join the Ladies? (1928) includes:
    • Shall We Join the Ladies?
    • Half an Hour
    • Seven Women
    • Old Friends
  • Peter Pan (stage play published) (1928)
  • The Greenwood Hat (1930)
  • Farewell Miss Julie Logan (1932)
  • The Boy David (1936)
  • M'Connachie and J. M. B. (1938)
  • When Wendy Grew Up: An Afterthought (1957)
  • story treatment for film As You Like It (1936)
  • The Reconstruction of the Crime (play), co-written with E.V. Lucas (undated, first published 2017)
  • Stories by English Authors: London (selected by Scribners, as contributor)
  • Stories by English Authors: Scotland (selected by Scribners, as contributor)
  • preface to The Young Visiters or, Mr. Salteena's Plan by Daisy Ashford
  • The Earliest Plays of J. M. Barrie: Bandelero the Bandit, Bohemia and Caught Napping, edited by R.D.S. Jack (2014)
The Twelve Pound Look J.M. Barrie Shimer College 1952
Production of The Twelve Pound Look at Shimer College

References

  1. ^ "History of the name Wendy". Wendy.com. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  2. ^ "No. 28733". The London Gazette. 1 July 1913. p. 4638.
  3. ^ "No. 32563". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 1921. p. 10713.
  4. ^ Alistair Moffat (2012). "Britain's Last Frontier: A Journey Along the Highland Line". Chapter 9. p. 1. Birlinn
  5. ^ Birkin, Andrew: J. M. Barrie & the Lost Boys Constable, 1979; revised edition, Yale University Press, 2003
  6. ^ Birkin, Andrew: J. M. Barrie & the Lost Boys (Constable, 1979; revised edition, Yale University Press, 2003)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Birkin, Andrew: J. M. Barrie & the Lost Boys Constable, 1979; revised edition, Yale University Press, 2003
  8. ^ a b c d e f Chaney, Lisa. Hide-and-Seek with Angels – A Life of J. M. Barrie, London: Arrow Books, 2005
  9. ^ McConnachie and J. M. B.: Speeches of J. M. Barrie, Peter Davies, 1938
  10. ^ "Peter Pan project off the ground". BBC News Scotland. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n White, Donna R.S. (1994). British Children's Writers, 1880–1914. Detroit, Michigan: Gale. ISBN 978-0810355552.
  12. ^ J. M. Barrie. "A Window in Thrums". Project Gutenberg.
  13. ^ Kailyard School (1886–1896)
  14. ^ Coustillas, Pierre ed. London and the Life of Literature in Late Victorian England: the Diary of George Gissing, Novelist. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1978, p.427.
  15. ^ Dominic Shellard, et al. The Lord Chamberlain Regrets, 2004, British Library, pp. 77–79.
  16. ^ Cox, Michael (2005). The Concise Oxford Chronology of English Literature. Oxford University Press. p. 428. ISBN 978-0198610540.
  17. ^ "Mr Barrie's New Play. A Christmas Fairy Tale". The Glasgow Herald. 28 December 1904. p. 7. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  18. ^ Postlewait, Thomas (2004). "The London Stage, 1895–1918". The Cambridge History of British Theatre. p. 38. ISBN 978-0521651325.
  19. ^ Jonathan Law, ed. (2013). The Methuen Drama Dictionary of the Theatre. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1408131480.
  20. ^ Smith, Mark (2 September 2010). "Two friends who took the world by storm". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  21. ^ Ellis, Frederick D., The Tragedy of the Lusitania (National Publishing Company, 1915), pp. 38–39; Preston, Diana, Lusitania, An Epic Tragedy (Walker & Company, 2002), p. 204; New York Tribune, "Frohman Calm; Not Concerned About Death, Welcomed It as Beautiful Adventure, He Told Friends at End", 11 May 1915, p. 3; Marcosson, Isaac Frederick, & Daniel Frohman, Charles Frohman: Manager and Man (John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1916), p. 387; Frohman, Charles, The Lusitania Resource
  22. ^ a b "Captain Scott and J M Barrie: an unlikely friendship". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  23. ^ "Hall of Fame A–Z: J M Barrie (1860–1937)". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  24. ^ Birkin, Andrew: J. M. Barrie & the Lost Boys Constable, 1979; revised edition, Yale University Press, 2003
  25. ^ Stogdon, Catalina (17 May 2006). "Round the houses: Peter Pan". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  26. ^ Law, Cally (10 May 2015). "Return to Neverland". The Sunday Times. Times Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 14 May 2015. (Subscription required (help)).
  27. ^ "JM Barrie". Surrey Monocle. 10 January 2007. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009. Retrieved from Internet Archive 27 December 2013.
  28. ^ a b Michael Holroyd, Lytton Strachey, p. 287
  29. ^ "J.M. Barrie Seeks Divorce from Wife". New York Times. 7 October 1909. Retrieved 17 April 2010. The name of James M. Barrie, the playwright, figures as a petitioner in the list of divorce cases set down for trial at the next session of the law courts here.
  30. ^ married the 3Q of 1892 in Hampstead, London: GROMI: vol. 1a, p. 1331
  31. ^ Neverpedia article about Porthos
  32. ^ "Andrew Birkin on J. M. Barrie". Jmbarrie.co.uk. 5 April 1960. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2010. Retrieved from Internet Archive 27 December 2013.
  33. ^ J. M. Barrie's Boy Castaways at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University
  34. ^ Justine Picardie Published: 12:01 am BST 13 July 2008 (13 July 2008). "How bad was J. M. Barrie?". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  35. ^ Parker, James (22 February 2004). "The real Peter Pan – The Boston Globe". Boston.com. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  36. ^ "J. M. Barrie and Peter Pan – Winter 2005 Issue – Endicott Studio: Peter Pan 2". Endicott-studio.com. Archived from the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  37. ^ "Casualty Details: Davies, George Llewelyn". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  38. ^ "Audio". Jmbarrie.co.uk. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  39. ^ "Rupert Buxton". Neverpedia.com. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
  40. ^ "Death of Sir J. M. Barrie. King Grieved at Loss of an Old Friend. Funeral on Thursday at Kirriemuil. "The End Was Peaceful"". The Glasgow Herald. 21 June 1937. p. 13. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  41. ^ "Funeral of Sir J. M. Barrie. Thousands Assemble at Graveside "Thrums" pays its Last Respects. Distinguished Mourners and Many Tributes". The Glasgow Herald. 25 June 1937. p. 14. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  42. ^ Birkin, Andrew: J. M. Barrie & the Lost Boys (Constable, 1979; revised edition, Yale University Press, 2004)
  43. ^ Ewings Annals of the Free Church: James Winter
  44. ^ Ewings Annals of the Free Church: William Winter
  45. ^ Baxter, Kenneth. "J M Barrie and Rudyard Kipling". Archives Records and Artefacts at the University of Dundee. University of Dundee. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  46. ^ "New Chancellor. Installation of James Barrie". The Glasgow Herald. 24 October 1930. p. 13. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  47. ^ https://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/culture/books/jm-barrie-silver-casket-on-show-in-kirriemuir-1-3090030
  48. ^ Carnival PR and Design. "The Barrie School". Barrie.org. Retrieved 22 July 2009.

External links

Academic offices
Preceded by
The Earl Haig
Rector of the University of St Andrews
1919–1922
Succeeded by
Rudyard Kipling
Preceded by
The Earl of Balfour
Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh
1930–1937
Succeeded by
The Lord Tweedsmuir
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New title Baronet
(of Adelphi Terrace)
1st creation
1913–1937
Extinct
A Kiss for Cinderella

A Kiss for Cinderella is a play by J. M. Barrie. It was first produced in London at Wyndham's Theatre on March 16, 1916, starring Gerald du Maurier and Hilda Trevelyan, enjoying great success over 156 performances, and with several annual Christmastime revivals.

It was later seen on Broadway, starring Maude Adams, opening at the Empire Theatre on 25 December 1916, and running for 152 performances. In 1925 it was made into a silent feature film, A Kiss for Cinderella, by Paramount, directed by Herbert Brenon and starring Betty Bronson.Hilda Trevelyan created the role of Miss Thing, a poor London girl who takes care of a group of refugee children from various countries during the First World War. She adores the story of Cinderella and dreams, in an impoverished state, of being at the ball.

A Kiss for Cinderella (film)

A Kiss for Cinderella is a 1925 silent fantasy taken from the stage play by James M. Barrie. The film stars Betty Bronson and Tom Moore and was made at Paramount's Astoria Studios in Astoria, Queens. The film is based on the 1916 play which starred stage actress Maude Adams in the Bronson role. Herbert Brenon directed as he had directed the 1924 film version of Barrie's Peter Pan which also starred Bronson. Tom Moore had previously costarred in The Cinderella Man for Goldwyn in 1917 alongside Mae Marsh.

Surviving print of this film is preserved at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, George Eastman House and UCLA Film and TV as well as a foreign archive Cinematheque Royale de Belgique(Brussels).

Finding Neverland (film)

Finding Neverland is a 2004 historical fantasy drama film directed by Marc Forster and written by David Magee, based on the play The Man Who Was Peter Pan by Allan Knee. The film is about playwright J. M. Barrie and his relationship with a family who inspired him to create Peter Pan. The film earned four nominations at the 77th Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Actor for Johnny Depp, and won for Best Original Score. The film was the inspiration for the stage musical of the same name in 2012.

Finding Neverland (musical)

Finding Neverland is an original musical with music and lyrics by Scott Frankel and Michael Korie and a book by James Graham. Inspired by the 1998 play The Man Who Was Peter Pan by Allan Knee and his 2004 adaptation Finding Neverland, the musical made its world premiere at the Curve Theatre in Leicester in 2012, with the reworked version making its world premiere in 2014 at the American Repertory Theater in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Following completion of its Cambridge run, the production transferred to Broadway in March 2015.

After 17 months on Broadway, the production of Finding Neverland closed on August 21, 2016, and began a US national tour in October 2016.

Male and Female

Male and Female is a 1919 American silent adventure/drama film directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starring Gloria Swanson and Thomas Meighan. Its main themes are gender relations and social class. The film is based on the J. M. Barrie play The Admirable Crichton.A previous version was filmed the year before in England as The Admirable Crichton.

Peter Pan

Peter Pan is a fictional character created by Scottish novelist and playwright J. M. Barrie. A free-spirited and mischievous young boy who can fly and never grows up, Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood having adventures on the mythical island of Neverland as the leader of the Lost Boys, interacting with fairies, pirates, mermaids, Native Americans, and occasionally ordinary children from the world outside Neverland.

Peter Pan has become a cultural icon symbolizing youthful innocence and escapism. In addition to two distinct works by Barrie, the character has been featured in a variety of media and merchandise, both adapting and expanding on Barrie's works. These include the 1953 Disney animated film, a 2003 dramatic/live-action film, a television series and many other works.

Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens

Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens is a novel by J. M. Barrie, illustrated by Arthur Rackham, and published by Hodder & Stoughton in late November or early December 1906; it is one of four major literary works by Barrie featuring the widely known literary character he created, Peter Pan.

Peter and Wendy

Peter Pan; or, the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up or Peter and Wendy is J. M. Barrie's most famous work, in the form of a 1904 play and a 1911 novel. Both versions tell the story of Peter Pan, a mischievous yet innocent little boy who can fly, and has many adventures on the island of Neverland that is inhabited by mermaids, fairies, Native Americans and pirates. The Peter Pan stories also involve the characters Wendy Darling and her two brothers, Peter's fairy Tinker Bell, the Lost Boys, and the pirate Captain Hook. The play and novel were inspired by Barrie's friendship with the Llewelyn Davies family. Barrie continued to revise the play for years after its debut until publication of the play script in 1928.

The play debuted in London on 27 December 1904 with Nina Boucicault, daughter of playwright Dion Boucicault, in the title role. A Broadway production was mounted in 1905 starring Maude Adams. It was later revived with such actresses as Marilyn Miller and Eva Le Gallienne. The play has since been adapted as a pantomime, stage musical, a television special, and several films, including a 1924 silent film, Walt Disney's 1953 animated full-length feature film, and a 2003 live action production. The play is now rarely performed in its original form on stage in the United Kingdom, whereas pantomime adaptations are frequently staged around Christmas. In the U.S., the original version has also been supplanted in popularity by the 1954 musical version, which became popular on television.

The novel was first published in 1911 by Hodder & Stoughton in the United Kingdom and Charles Scribner's Sons in the United States. The original book contains a frontispiece and 11 half-tone plates by artist F. D. Bedford (whose illustrations are still under copyright in the EU). The novel was first abridged by May Byron in 1915, with Barrie's permission, and published under the title Peter Pan and Wendy, the first time this form was used. This version was later illustrated by Mabel Lucie Attwell in 1921. In 1929, Barrie gave the copyright of the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital, a children's hospital in London.

Quality Street (play)

Quality Street is a comedy in four acts by J. M. Barrie, written before his more famous work Peter Pan. The story is about two sisters who start a school "for genteel children".

The original Broadway production opened in 1901 and ran for only 64 performances. The show was then produced in London, where it was a hit, running for 459 performances. It was frequently revived until World War II.

Seven Days Leave (1930 film)

Seven Days Leave is a 1930 American Pre-Code drama film produced and directed by Richard Wallace and starring Gary Cooper, Beryl Mercer, and Daisy Belmore.

Based on the play The Old Lady Shows Her Medals by J.M. Barrie, the film is about a young Canadian soldier (Gary Cooper) wounded while fighting in World War I. While recovering from his wounds in London, a YMCA worker tells him that a Scottish widow (Beryl Mercer) without a son believes that he is in fact her son. To comfort the widow, the soldier agrees to pretend to be her Scottish son. After fighting with British sailors who make fun of his kilts, he wants to desert, but moved by his mother's patriotism he returns to the war front and is killed in battle. Later the proud Scottish widow receives the medals that her "son" was awarded for bravery. Produced by Louis D. Lighton and Richard Wallace for Paramount Pictures, the film was released on January 25, 1930 in the United States.

Strathtay

For the bus company, see Stagecoach Strathtay.Strathtay is a small rural village on the River Tay in Perthshire, Scotland. It is part of the Grandtully and Strathtay Conservation Area. Neighbouring Grandtully is situated on the other side of the Tay, across Grandtully Bridge.Strathtay is a particularly attractive village in Highland Perthshire, very much shaped by the Scottish feu system, which has led to a prevalence of Victorian architecture and landscaping. The village has many stone houses with large, mature gardens containing oak, beech, and monkey-puzzle trees and rhododendrons. J. M. Barrie is known to have spent summer holidays at Beechwood in Strathtay.

The Admirable Crichton

The Admirable Crichton is a comic stage play written in 1902 by J. M. Barrie.

The Doctor's Secret

The Doctor's Secret is a 1929 American drama film directed by William C. deMille and written by William C. deMille. The film stars Ruth Chatterton, H. B. Warner, John Loder, Robert Edeson, Wilfred Noy and Ethel Wales. It is based on a play by J. M. Barrie. The film was released on January 26, 1929, by Paramount Pictures.

The Little Minister (1934 film)

The Little Minister is a 1934 American drama film starring Katharine Hepburn and directed by Richard Wallace. The screenplay by Jane Murfin, Sarah Y. Mason, and Victor Heerman is based on the 1891 novel and subsequent 1897 play of the same title by J. M. Barrie. The picture was the fifth feature film adaptation of the works, following four silent film versions. The original novel was the third of the three "Thrums" novels (a town based on his home of Kirriemuir), which first brought Barrie to fame.

The Little White Bird

The Little White Bird is a British novel by J. M. Barrie, ranging in tone from fantasy and whimsy to social comedy with dark, aggressive undertones. It was published in November 1902, by Hodder & Stoughton in the UK and Scribner's in the US, although the latter had released it serially in the monthly Scribner's Magazine from August to November. The book attained prominence and longevity thanks to several chapters written in a softer tone than the rest of the book, which introduced the character and mythology of Peter Pan. In 1906, those chapters were published separately as a children's book, Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens.The Peter Pan story began as one chapter and grew to an "elaborate book-within-a-book" of more than one hundred pages during the four years Barrie worked on The Little White Bird.The complete book has also been published under the title The Little White Bird, or Adventures in Kensington Gardens.

The Lost Boys (TV series)

The Lost Boys is a 1978 docudrama mini-series produced by the BBC, written by Andrew Birkin, and directed by Rodney Bennett. It is about the relationship between Peter Pan creator J. M. Barrie and the Llewelyn Davies boys.

The Penny Friend

The Penny Friend is a musical with music, lyrics, and book by William Roy based on a play by J. M. Barrie, A Kiss for Cinderella. It featured Bernadette Peters in her first Off-Broadway role. William Roy later worked with Peters as a writer, arranger and conductor for her nightclub act.

We're Not Dressing

We're Not Dressing is a 1934 pre-Code screwball musical comedy film directed by Norman Taurog. Based on the 1902 J. M. Barrie play The Admirable Crichton, the film is about a beautiful yacht owner (Carole Lombard) who becomes stranded on an island with her socialite friends, a wacky husband-and-wife research team (George Burns and Gracie Allen), and a singing sailor (Bing Crosby). The supporting cast includes Ethel Merman and Ray Milland.

What Every Woman Knows (1934 film)

What Every Woman Knows is a 1934 American romantic comedy film directed by Gregory La Cava and starring Helen Hayes, Brian Aherne and Madge Evans. The film was produced and distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and is based on the play What Every Woman Knows (1908) by J. M. Barrie. It was filmed by Paramount back in the silent era in 1921 and stars Lois Wilson. An even earlier British silent version was filmed in 1917. Hayes was familiar with the material as she had starred in a 1926 Broadway revival opposite Kenneth MacKenna.

J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan
J. M. Barrie's The Admirable Crichton
Film adaptations
TV adaptations

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