Jōmon Sugi

Jōmon Sugi (縄文杉) is a large Cryptomeria tree (yakusugi) located on Yakushima, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, in Japan. It is the oldest and largest among the old-growth cryptomeria trees on the island, and is estimated to be between 2,170[2] and 7,200 years old.[3][4][5][6] Other estimates of the tree's age include "at least 5,000 years",[7] "more than 6,000 years",[8] and "up to 7,000 years old".[9] The tree's name is a reference to the Jōmon period of Japanese prehistory.[10]

Jomon Sugi Panorama
Jōmon Sugi stands 25.3 m (83 ft) tall and has a volume of approximately 10,000 cu ft (300 m3).

Jōmon Sugi is located on the north face of Miyanoura-dake, the highest peak on Yakushima, at an elevation of 1,934 m (6,300 ft).[11] Discovery of the tree in 1968 "sparked moves to protect the forests" of Yakushima and gave rise to the island's tourist industry, which today comprises more than half of its economy.[7]

Jōmon Sugi is accessible via the Kusugawa Hiking Path (east of Miyanoura) and the Arakawa Trail (starting at the Arakawa Dam),[7] but requires a "four-to-five hour mountain hike" from the nearest road to reach.[12] After the designation of Yakushima as a World Heritage Site in 1993, local officials restricted access to the tree to an observation deck built at a distance of 15 m (49 ft) from the tree.[2]

The tree has a height of 25.3 m (83 ft) and a trunk circumference of 16.4 m (54 ft).[13] It has a volume of approximately 300 m3 (11,000 cu ft), making it the largest conifer in Japan.[1] Tree-ring dating conducted by Japanese scientists on the tree's branches indicated that Jōmon Sugi is at least 2,000 years old.[1] In Remarkable Trees of the World (2002), arborist Thomas Pakenham describes Jōmon Sugi as "a grim titan of a tree, rising from the spongy ground more like rock than timber, his vast muscular arms extended above the tangle of young cedars and camphor trees".[1]

In 2005, vandals stripped from the tree a piece of bark measuring about 10 cm (4 in) on each side.[2]

In April 2009, Jōmon Sugi was partnered with Tāne Mahuta in New Zealand's Waipoua Forest.[14]

Coordinates: 30°21′40″N 130°31′55″E / 30.3610°N 130.5319°E

Jomon Sugi 07
Jōmon Sugi, located on the island of Yakushima, is the oldest and largest specimen of Cryptomeria japonica.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Pakenham, Thomas (2003). Remarkable Trees of the World. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-393-32529-4.
  2. ^ a b c "Vandals damage Japan's World Heritage tree". UPI NewsTrack. 2005-05-25. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
  3. ^ English, Andrew (2006-04-15). "Hydrogen island". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
  4. ^ Yamaguchi, H.; Nishio, S. (1995). "Water surrounding Jomon-sugi, a mysterious cedar tree growing in Yakushima Island for 7200 years". Journal of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (in Japanese). 80: 86–89. ISSN 0021-468X.
  5. ^ Elsey, Teresa, ed. (December 2003). Let's Go Japan (1st ed.). Macmillan. p. 634. ISBN 978-0-312-32007-2.
  6. ^ Kanagy, Ruth (2004). Living Abroad in Japan. Avalon Travel Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-56691-672-1.
  7. ^ a b c Dodd, Jan; Simon Richmond (2001). The Rough Guide to Japan (2nd ed.). Rough Guides. p. 767. ISBN 978-1-85828-699-0.
  8. ^ Arnold, Wayne (2005-06-02). "A wet climb through a green wonderland". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-09-26.
  9. ^ Walder, Rebecca; Brown, Jackum; Brown, David (2006). "Asia". 501 Must-Visit Destinations. Octopus Publishing. ISBN 978-0-75372-214-5.
  10. ^ Hobson, Jake (2007). Niwaki: Pruning, Training and Shaping Trees the Japanese Way. Timber Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-88192-835-8.
  11. ^ National Geographic atlas of the world, National Geographic Society, 2011, ISBN 9781426206344, OCLC 841668376
  12. ^ Thompson, Chuck (2002). The 25 Best World War II Sites, Pacific Theater: The Ultimate Traveler's Guide to the Battlefields, Monuments & Museums. Greenline Historic Travel Series. Greenline Publications. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-9666352-6-3.
  13. ^ Tsumura, Yoshihiko (2011). "Cryptomeria". In Kole, Chittaranjan (ed.). Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources: Forest Trees. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 53. ISBN 978-3-642-21250-5.
  14. ^ "Iconic trees in world-first partnership". Stuff.co.nz. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 2011-10-08.

External links

1000 yen coin

The 1000 yen coin is a denomination of the Japanese yen. This denomination is only used for the issue of commemorative silver coins struck by the Japan Mint.

100 Landscapes of Japan (Heisei era)

In 2009, in celebration of its 135th anniversary, the Yomiuri Shimbun formed a selection committee and, together with its readers, selected the 100 Landscapes of Heisei (平成百景). Three hundred sites were nominated and more than 640,000 votes were collected during the selection process. Sponsored by a number of leading companies and organisations, the initiative was supported by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.

Cryptomeria

Cryptomeria (literally "hidden parts") is a monotypic genus of conifer in the cypress family Cupressaceae, formerly belonging to the family Taxodiaceae. It includes only one species, Cryptomeria japonica (syn. Cupressus japonica L.f.). It is endemic to Japan, where it is known as sugi (Japanese: 杉). The tree is called Japanese cedar or Japanese redwood in English.

Great sugi of Kayano

The great sugi of Kayano (栢野大杉, Kayano Ōsugi) is a Cryptomeria (Sugi) tree at Yamanaka Onsen in Kaga, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. One of the four trees believed to be sacred in the precincts of the Sugawara Shrine, it has received the distinction of designation as a Special Natural Monument from the Agency for Cultural Affairs of Japan.

The tree stands 54.8 m tall. At the base, it measures 11.5 m in circumference and 3.41 m across. At chest height, it is 9.6 m around and 3.0 m across. The tree splits into two trunks 4.9 m above ground level. In 1928, Professor Manabu Miyoshi of Tokyo Imperial University estimated the age of the tree to be 2,300 years.The other three are 8.8 m, 6.65 m and 7.8 m at chest height and natural monument of Ishikawa Prefecture.

Jōmon period artifacts unearthed near the shrine establish that human habitation predates recorded history. Warriors including members of the Taira, Minamoto, Asakura, and the Togashi (富樫氏) clan are said to have come to the shrine. In 1947, on the occasion of the second National Sports Festival of Japan (held in Ishikawa Prefecture), Emperor Shōwa (then known as Hirohito) visited the great sugi.

Houkisugi at Nakagawa

Houkisugi or Hōkisugi at Nakagawa (箒スギ) is a 2000-year-old Japanese cedar (cryptomeria) at Nakagawa Settlement, Yamakita town, Ashigarakami District, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

Kagoshima Prefecture

Kagoshima Prefecture (鹿児島県, Kagoshima-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Kagoshima.

List of individual trees

The following is a list of notable trees from around the world. Trees listed here are regarded as important or specific by their historical, national, locational, natural or mythological context. The list includes actual trees located throughout the world, as well as trees from myths and trees from fiction.

List of longest-living organisms

This is a list of the longest-living organisms; that is, the individual member(s) (or in some instances, clones) of a species. This may be, for a given species:

Oldest known individuals that are currently alive, with verified ages

Verified Record holders, such as the longest-lived human, Jeanne Calment, or the longest-lived domestic cat, Creme Puff (1967-2005).Ordinarily, this does not consider the age of the species itself, comparing species by the range of age-span of their individuals, or the time between first appearance (speciation) and extinction of the species.

List of oldest trees

This is a list of the oldest-known trees, as reported in reliable sources. Definitions of what constitutes an individual tree vary. In addition, tree ages are derived from a variety of sources, including documented "tree-ring" count core samples, and from estimates. For these reasons, this article presents three lists of "oldest trees," each using varying criteria.

There are three tables of trees, which are listed by age and species. The first table includes trees for which a minimum age has been directly determined, either through counting or cross-referencing tree rings or through radiocarbon dating. Many of these trees may be even older than their listed ages, but the oldest wood in the tree has rotted away. For some old trees, so much of the centre is missing that their age cannot be directly determined. Instead, estimates are made based on the tree's size and presumed growth rate. The second table includes trees with these estimated ages. The last table lists clonal colonies in which no individual tree trunks may be remarkably old but in which the organism as a whole is thought to be very old.

The current record-holders for individual, non-clonal trees are the Great Basin bristlecone pine trees from California and Nevada, in the United States. Through tree-ring cross-referencing, they have been shown to be almost five millennia old.

A clonal colony can survive for much longer than an individual tree. A colony of 47,000 quaking aspen trees (nicknamed Pando), covering 106 acres (43 ha) in the Fishlake National Forest of Utah, is considered one of the oldest and largest organisms in the world. The colony has been estimated to be 80,000 years old, although tree ring samples date individual, above-ground, trees at only an average of about 130 years. A colony of Huon pine trees covering 2.5 acres (1.0 ha) on Mount Read (Tasmania) is estimated to be around 10,000 years old, as determined by DNA samples taken from pollen collected from the sediment of a nearby lake. Individual trees in this group date to no more than 4,000 years old, as determined by tree ring samples.

List of records of Japan

List of records of Japan is an annotated list of Japanese records organised by category.

Park Yong-woo

Park Yong-woo (born March 16, 1971) is a South Korean actor.

Sugi no Osugi

Sugi no Osugi (杉の大スギ) also known as "Osugi-san" by locals is the world's tallest Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and is said to be over 3000 years old. It is located in Ōtoyo, Kōchi, Japan within the grounds of Yasaka Jinja.

Temperate rainforest

Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.

Temperate rain forests occur in oceanic moist regions around the world: the Pacific temperate rain forests of North American Pacific Northwest as well as the Appalachian temperate rainforest of the Eastern U.S. Sun Belt; the Valdivian temperate rain forests of southwestern South America; the rain forests of New Zealand, Tasmania and southeastern Australia; northwest Europe (small pockets in the British Isles, Iceland, and larger areas in southern Norway and northern Iberia); southern Japan; and the eastern Black Sea-Caspian Sea region of Turkey, Georgia and northern Iran.

The moist conditions of temperate rain forests generally support an understory of mosses, ferns and some shrubs. Temperate rain forests can be temperate coniferous forests or temperate broadleaf and mixed forests.

Tāne Mahuta

Tāne Mahuta, also called Lord of the Forest, is a giant kauri tree (Agathis australis) in the Waipoua Forest of Northland Region, New Zealand. Its age is unknown but is estimated to be between 1,250 and 2,500 years. It is the largest kauri known to stand today. It is named for the Māori god of forests and of birds (see Tāne).The tree is a remnant of the ancient subtropical rainforest that once grew on the North Auckland Peninsula. Other giant kauri are found nearby, notably Te Matua Ngahere.

Tāne Mahuta is the most famous tree in New Zealand, along with Te Matua Ngahere. It was discovered and identified in early January 1924 when contractors surveyed the present State Highway 12 route through the forest. In 1928 Nicholas Yakas and other bushmen, who were building the road, also identified the tree.

In April 2009, Tāne Mahuta was partnered with the tree Jōmon Sugi on Yakushima Island, Japan.During the New Zealand drought of 2013, 10,000 litres of water from a nearby stream was diverted to Tāne Mahuta, which was showing signs of dehydration.In 2018, the tree was considered threatened by kauri dieback, a generally fatal disease which has already infected nearby kauri trees.

New Zealand's Department of Conservation initiated a plan to protect and save the tree from kauri dieback.

Wildlife of Japan

The wildlife of Japan includes its flora, fauna and natural habitats. The islands of Japan stretch a long distance from north to south and cover a wide range of climatic zones. This results in a high diversity of wildlife despite Japan's isolation from the mainland of Asia. In the north of the country, north of Blakiston's Line, there are many subarctic species which have colonized Japan from the north. In the south there are south-east Asian species, typical of tropical regions. Between these areas lies the temperate zone which shares many species with China and Korea. Japan also has many endemic species that are found nowhere else in the world.

Yaku, Kagoshima

Yaku (屋久町, Yaku-chō) was a town located on the southern half of Yakushima (Yaku Island) in Kumage District, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.

As of 2003, the town had an estimated population of 7,008 and a population density of 28.96 persons per km². The total area was 242.03 km².

On October 1, 2007, Yaku, along with the town of Kamiyaku (also from Kumage District), was merged to create the town of Yakushima.

Yakushima

Yakushima (屋久島) is one of the Ōsumi Islands in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The island, 504.88 km2 (194.94 sq mi) in area, has a population of 13,178. Access to the island is by hydrofoil ferry (7 or 8 times a day from Kagoshima, depending on the season), slow car ferry (once or twice a day from Kagoshima), or by air to Yakushima Airport (3 to 5 times daily from Kagoshima, once daily from Fukuoka and once daily from Osaka).

Administratively, the whole island is the town of Yakushima. The town also serves neighbouring Kuchinoerabujima. The majority of the island is within the borders of the Kirishima-Yaku National Park.Yakushima's electricity is more than 50% hydroelectric, and surplus power has been used to produce hydrogen gas in an experiment by Kagoshima University. The island has been a test site for Honda's hydrogen fuel cell vehicle research. (There are no hydrogen cars stationed on the island but electric cars are run by the municipality.)

Yakushima National Park

Yakushima National Park (屋久島国立公園, Yakushima Kokuritsu Kōen) is a protected area located in Kagoshima Prefecture, Kyushu. It includes parts of the Ōsumi Islands with Yakushima, the entire island Kuchinoerabu-jima and some surrounding marine areas. The total size is 325.53 square kilometres (125.69 sq mi).The national park was established on March 16, 1964 and assigned to the Kirishima National Park, which became Kirishima-Yaku National Park. On March 16, 2012 Yakushima was split of as the separate Yakushima National Park. Kirishima-Yaku National Park was renamed to Kirishima-Kinkōwan National Park with an area of 365.86 km².

Yakusugi

Yakusugi (屋久杉) refers to "Japanese cedar" (sugi, or Cryptomeria) on the island of Yakushima, typically growing at altitudes 500 meters and higher. The term also extends to the lumber taken from the logging of these coniferous trees.

In the strict sense, the term Yakusugi is reserved for trees aged 1,000 years or more, and younger trees are referred to as kosugi ("small cedars"). Replanted cedars are called jisugi ("local cedars") by the Yakushima islanders, although jisugi also refers to trees less than a century old.

In general, the Japanese cedar lives for about 500 years, but yakusugi trees live much longer. They grow on less nutritious granite soil slowly and have a very tight grain. The wood contains a lot of resin due to Yakushima's high rainfall and high humidity, making it resistant to rotting. As a result, these trees tend to have longer lives, and many larger trees have survived for more than 2,000 years. Famous examples include the Jōmon Sugi, Kigen-sugi and Wilson stump.

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