Ivory

Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that consists mainly of dentine, one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks. The chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is the same, regardless of the species of origin. The trade in certain teeth and tusks other than elephant is well established and widespread; therefore, "ivory" can correctly be used to describe any mammalian teeth or tusks of commercial interest which are large enough to be carved or scrimshawed.[1] It has been valued since ancient times in art or manufacturing for making a range of items from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, dominoes[2] and joint tubes.[3] Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal and wart hog are used as well.[4][5] Elk also have two ivory teeth, which are believed to be the remnants of tusks from their ancestors.[6]

The national and international trade in ivory of threatened species such as African and Asian elephants is illegal.[7] The word ivory ultimately derives from the ancient Egyptian âb, âbu ("elephant"), through the Latin ebor- or ebur.[8]

Our Lady of Manaoag 1
The solid ivory image of Our Lady of Manaoag in her imperial regalia. Genuine ivory is held more valuable than gold among Santero artisans. Pangasinan, Philippines.
Horn Louvre OA4069
11th-century Italian carved elephant tusk, Louvre

History and uses

Vierge a l'Enfant debout
A depiction of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus crafted in elephant ivory
Ivory tabernacle Louvre OA2587
An ivory tabernacle featuring the Madonna of Caress, France

Both the Greek and Roman civilizations practiced ivory carving to make large quantities of high value works of art, precious religious objects, and decorative boxes for costly objects. Ivory was often used to form the white of the eyes of statues.

There is some evidence of either whale or walrus ivory used by the ancient Irish. Solinus, a Roman writer in the 3rd century claimed that the Celtic peoples in Ireland would decorate their sword-hilts with the 'teeth of beasts that swim in the sea'. Adomnan of Iona wrote a story about St Columba giving a sword decorated with carved ivory as a gift that a penitent would bring to his master so he could redeem himself from slavery.[9]

The Syrian and North African elephant populations were reduced to extinction, probably due to the demand for ivory in the Classical world.[10]

The Chinese have long valued ivory for both art and utilitarian objects. Early reference to the Chinese export of ivory is recorded after the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian ventured to the west to form alliances to enable the eventual free movement of Chinese goods to the west; as early as the first century BC, ivory was moved along the Northern Silk Road for consumption by western nations.[11] Southeast Asian kingdoms included tusks of the Indian elephant in their annual tribute caravans to China. Chinese craftsmen carved ivory to make everything from images of deities to the pipe stems and end pieces of opium pipes.[12]

The Buddhist cultures of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, traditionally harvested ivory from their domesticated elephants. Ivory was prized for containers due to its ability to keep an airtight seal. It was also commonly carved into elaborate seals utilized by officials to "sign" documents and decrees by stamping them with their unique official seal.[13]

In Southeast Asian countries, where Muslim Malay peoples live, such as Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, ivory was the material of choice for making the handles of kris daggers. In the Philippines, ivory was also used to craft the faces and hands of Catholic icons and images of saints prevalent in the Santero culture.

Tooth and tusk ivory can be carved into a vast variety of shapes and objects. Examples of modern carved ivory objects are okimono, netsukes, jewelry, flatware handles, furniture inlays, and piano keys. Additionally, warthog tusks, and teeth from sperm whales, orcas and hippos can also be scrimshawed or superficially carved, thus retaining their morphologically recognizable shapes.

Ivory usage in the last thirty years has moved towards mass production of souvenirs and jewelry. In Japan, the increase in wealth sparked consumption of solid ivory hanko – name seals – which before this time had been made of wood. These hanko can be carved out in a matter of seconds using machinery and were partly responsible for massive African elephant decline in the 1980s, when the African elephant population went from 1.3 million to around 600,000 in ten years.[14][15]

Consumption before plastics

Decorated ivory
An elaborately carved ivory tusk in Sa'dabad Palace, Iran

Prior to the introduction of plastics, ivory had many ornamental and practical uses, mainly because of the white color it presents when processed. It was formerly used to make cutlery handles, billiard balls, piano keys, Scottish bagpipes, buttons and a wide range of ornamental items.

Synthetic substitutes for ivory in the use of most of these items have been developed since 1800: the billiard industry challenged inventors to come up with an alternative material that could be manufactured;[16]:17 the piano industry abandoned ivory as a key covering material in the 1970s.

Ivory can be taken from dead animals – however, most ivory came from elephants that were killed for their tusks. For example, in 1930 to acquire 40 tons of ivory required the killing of approximately 700 elephants.[17] Other animals which are now endangered were also preyed upon, for example, hippos, which have very hard white ivory prized for making artificial teeth.[18] In the first half of the 20th century, Kenyan elephant herds were devastated because of demand for ivory, to be used for piano keys.[19]

During the Art Deco era from 1912 to 1940, dozens (if not hundreds) of European artists used ivory in the production of chryselephantine statues. Two of the most frequent users of ivory in their sculptured artworks were Ferdinand Preiss and Claire Colinet.[20]

Availability

Ivory trade
Men with ivory tusks, Dar es Salaam, c. 1900

Owing to the rapid decline in the populations of the animals that produce it, the importation and sale of ivory in many countries is banned or severely restricted. In the ten years preceding a decision in 1989 by CITES to ban international trade in African elephant ivory, the population of African elephants declined from 1.3 million to around 600,000. It was found by investigators from the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) that CITES sales of stockpiles from Singapore and Burundi (270 tonnes and 89.5 tonnes respectively) had created a system that increased the value of ivory on the international market, thus rewarding international smugglers and giving them the ability to control the trade and continue smuggling new ivory.[14][15]

Since the ivory ban, some Southern African countries have claimed their elephant populations are stable or increasing, and argued that ivory sales would support their conservation efforts. Other African countries oppose this position, stating that renewed ivory trading puts their own elephant populations under greater threat from poachers reacting to demand. CITES allowed the sale of 49 tonnes of ivory from Zimbabwe, Namibia and Botswana in 1997 to Japan.[21][22]

In 2007, under pressure from the International Fund for Animal Welfare, eBay banned all international sales of elephant-ivory products. The decision came after several mass slaughters of African elephants, most notably the 2006 Zakouma elephant slaughter in Chad. The IFAW found that up to 90% of the elephant-ivory transactions on eBay violated their own wildlife policies and could potentially be illegal. In October 2008, eBay expanded the ban, disallowing any sales of ivory on eBay.

A more recent sale in 2008 of 108 tonnes from the three countries and South Africa took place to Japan and China.[23][24] The inclusion of China as an "approved" importing country created enormous controversy, despite being supported by CITES, the World Wide Fund for Nature and Traffic.[25] They argued that China had controls in place and the sale might depress prices. However, the price of ivory in China has skyrocketed.[26] Some believe this may be due to deliberate price fixing by those who bought the stockpile, echoing the warnings from the Japan Wildlife Conservation Society on price-fixing after sales to Japan in 1997,[27] and monopoly given to traders who bought stockpiles from Burundi and Singapore in the 1980s.

Despite arguments prevailing on the ivory trade for the last thirty years through CITES, there is one fact upon which virtually all informed parties now agree – poaching of African elephants for ivory is now seriously on the increase.[28][29][30]

The debate surrounding ivory trade has often been depicted as Africa vs the West. However, in reality the southern Africans have always been in a minority within the African elephant range states. To reiterate this point, 19 African countries signed the "Accra Declaration" in 2006 calling for a total ivory trade ban, and 20 range states attended a meeting in Kenya calling for a 20-year moratorium in 2007.[31]

Controversy and conservation issues

The use and trade of elephant ivory have become controversial because they have contributed to seriously declining elephant populations in many countries. It is estimated that consumption in Great Britain alone in 1831 amounted to the deaths of nearly 4,000 elephants. In 1975, the Asian elephant was placed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which prevents international trade between member states of species that are threatened by trade. The African elephant was placed on Appendix I in January 1990. Since then, some southern African countries have had their populations of elephants "downlisted" to Appendix II, allowing the domestic trade of non-ivory items; there have also been two "one off" sales of ivory stockpiles.[14][32][33][34][35]

In June 2015, more than a ton of confiscated ivory was crushed in New York's Times Square by the Wildlife Conservation Society to send a message that the illegal trade will not be tolerated. The ivory, confiscated in New York and Philadelphia, was sent up a conveyor belt into a rock crusher. The Wildlife Conservation Society has pointed out that the global ivory trade leads to the slaughter of up to 35,000 elephants a year in Africa. In June 2018, Conservative MEPs’ Deputy Leader Jacqueline Foster MEP urged the EU to follow the UK's lead and introduce a tougher ivory ban across Europe.[36]

China was the biggest market for poached ivory but announced they would phase out the legal domestic manufacture and sale of ivory products in May 2015, months later in September of the same year, China and the U.S. "said they would enact a nearly complete ban on the import and export of ivory."[37] The Chinese market has a high degree of influence on the elephant population.[38][39]

Alternative sources

Trade in the ivory from the tusks of dead woolly mammoths frozen in the tundra has occurred for 300 years and continues to be legal. Mammoth ivory is used today to make handcrafted knives and similar implements. Mammoth ivory is rare and costly because mammoths have been extinct for millennia, and scientists are hesitant to sell museum-worthy specimens in pieces.[40] Some estimates suggest that 10 million mammoths are still buried in Siberia.[41]

A species of hard nut is gaining popularity as a replacement for ivory, although its size limits its usability. It is sometimes called vegetable ivory, or tagua, and is the seed endosperm of the ivory nut palm commonly found in coastal rainforests of Ecuador, Peru and Colombia.[42]

Fossil walrus ivory from animals that died before 1972 is legal to buy and sell or possess in the United States, unlike many other types of ivory.[43]

Gallery

The Bull Leaper Knossos 1500BC

The Bull Leaper, an ivory figurine from the palace of Knossos, Crete, 15th century BC

AGMA Ivory Pyxis with Griffins Attacking Stags

Ancient Greek ivory pyxis with griffins attacking stags. Late 15th century BC.

Porphyrogenetus

Ivory has always been a highly valuable material for carving.

BigUnTusks6184w

Pig tusks

Elhafen Battle of Hannibal and Scipio

Battle of Hannibal and Scipio (Alexander's victory over Poros), by Ignaz Elhafen, ca. 1700, Warsaw Royal Castle

Mammoth ivory hg

Section through the ivory tusk of a mammoth

Casket ivory Louvre UCAD4417

Casket, ivory and silver, Muslim Spain, 966

Morgan Casket MET DP100742

The Morgan Casket, an 11th-century ivory casket attributed to Southern Italy. Currently in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Identification Guide for Ivory and Ivory Substitutes" (PDF). Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  2. ^ "George Washington's false teeth not wooden". Associated Press. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  3. ^ "Joint Tubes". Google Image Search.
  4. ^ Espinoza, E. O.; M. J. Mann (1991). Identification guide for ivory and ivory substitutes. Baltimore: World Wildlife Fund and Conservation Foundation.
  5. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Lab. "Ivory Identification Guide – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory". fws.gov. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  6. ^ "Elk Facts". coloradoelkbreeders.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-29. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  7. ^ Singh, R. R., Goyal, S. P., Khanna, P. P., Mukherjee, P. K., & Sukumar, R. (2006). Using morphometric and analytical techniques to characterize elephant ivory. Forensic Science International 162 (1): 144–151.
  8. ^ The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford 1993), entry for "ivory."
  9. ^ Adomnan of Iona. Life of St Columba. Penguin books, 1995
  10. ^ Revello, Manuela, “Orientalising ivories from Italy”, in BAR, British Archaeological Reports, Proceedings of International Symposium of Mediterranean Archaeology, February 24–26, 2005, Università degli Studi di Chieti, 111–118.
  11. ^ Hogan, C. M. (2007). "Silk Road, North China". Megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  12. ^ Martin, S. (2007). The Art of Opium Antiques. Silkworm Books, Chiang Mai
  13. ^ Daniel Stiles. "Ivory Carving in Thailand". Asianart.com. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  14. ^ a b c "To Save An Elephant" by Allan Thornton & Dave Currey, Doubleday 1991 ISBN 0-385-40111-6
  15. ^ a b EIA (1989). "A System of Extinction – the African Elephant Disaster". Environmental Investigation Agency, London.
  16. ^ Shamos, Mike (1999). The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards. New York: Lyons Press. ISBN 1-55821-797-5.
  17. ^ "Ivory Tusks by the Ton". Popular Science: 45. November 1930.
  18. ^ Tomlinson, C., ed. (1866). Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts. London: Virtue & Co.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Vol I, pages 929–930.
  19. ^ "Piano Keys From Elephant Tusk". Popular Science. January 1937.
  20. ^ Catley, Bryan (1978). Art Deco and Other Figures (1st ed.). Woodbridge, England: Antique Collectors' Club Ltd. pp. 112–123. ISBN 978-1-85149-382-1.
  21. ^ "HSI Ivory trade timeline" (PDF). Hsi.org. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  22. ^ "Living Proof", Dave Currey & Helen Moore, A report by Environmental Investigation Agency Sept 1994
  23. ^ "Campaigners fear for elephants and their own credibility". The Economist. July 2008.
  24. ^ CITES summary record of Standing Committee 57 2008
  25. ^ "Ivory sales". Traffic. 2008-10-28. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  26. ^ Strazjuso, Jason; Caesy, Michael; Foreman, William (2010-05-15). "Ivory Trade threatens African Elephant". MSNBC. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  27. ^ "Elephant poaching? None of our business' Influence of Japanese ivory market on illegal transboundary ivory trade" (PDF). Japan Tiger and Elephant Fund (JTEF). March 2010.
  28. ^ Damian Robin (2010-03-30). "China fuels East African Poaching". Epoch Times. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  29. ^ "Elephant Ivory Sales Denied to Halt Worldwide Poaching Crisis". Ens-newswire.com. 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  30. ^ "Massive surge in elephant poaching". Biglifeafrica.org. 2010-03-23. Archived from the original on 2010-12-17. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  31. ^ "African countries set to lock horns over ivory". Bt.com.bn. 2007-05-31. Archived from the original on 2016-08-21. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  32. ^ "Asian Elephant". Cites.org. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  33. ^ Kaufman, Marc (2007-02-27). "Increased Demand for Ivory Threatens Elephant Survival". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  34. ^ "Lifting the Ivory Ban Called Premature". NPR. 2002-10-31. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  35. ^ "WWF Wildlife Trade – elephant ivory FAQs". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  36. ^ Jacqueline Foster, Emma McClarkin, John Flack (18 July 2018). "Foster, McClarkin, Flack: "4 things we've done to improve animal welfare"". Conservatives in the European Parliament.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  37. ^ Ryan, F. (26 September 2015). "China and US agree on ivory ban in bid to end illegal trade globally". Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  38. ^ "事实上,大象已经濒临灭绝" [Elephants on the Path of Extinction: The facts]. TheGuardian.com (in Chinese). 8 September 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  39. ^ Isabel Hilton (9 September 2016). "Why the Guardian is publishing its elephant reporting in Chinese". TheGuardian.com. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  40. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (2008-03-25). "Trade in mammoth ivory, helped by global thaw, flourishes in Russia". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  41. ^ Lister, Adrian; Bahn, Paul G. (2007). Mammoths: giants of the ice age. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25319-3.
  42. ^ Lara Farrar (2005-04-26). "Could plant ivory save elephants?". CNN. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  43. ^ Walrus ivory dos and don'ts (PDF) (pamphlet), US Fish and Wildlife Service

External links

Africa Cup of Nations

The CAF Africa Cup of Nations, officially CAN (French: Coupe d'Afrique des Nations), also referred to as AFCON, or Total Africa Cup of Nations for sponsorship reasons, is the main international association football competition in Africa. It is sanctioned by the Confederation of African Football (CAF) and was first held in 1957. Since 1968, it has been held every two years. The title holders at the time of a FIFA Confederations Cup qualify for that competition.

In 1957 there were only three participating nations: Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia. South Africa was originally scheduled to compete, but were disqualified due to the apartheid policies of the government then in power. Since then, the tournament has grown greatly, making it necessary to hold a qualifying tournament. The number of participants in the final tournament reached 16 in 1998 (16 teams were to compete in 1996 but Nigeria withdrew, reducing the field to 15, and the same happened with Togo's withdrawal in 2010), and until 2017, the format had been unchanged, with the sixteen teams being drawn into four groups of four teams each, with the top two teams of each group advancing to a "knock-out" stage.

On 20 July 2017, the Africa Cup of Nations was moved from January to June and expanded from 16 to 24 teams.Egypt is the most successful nation in the cup's history, winning the tournament a record of seven times (including when Egypt was known as the United Arab Republic between 1958 and 1961). Three different trophies have been awarded during the tournament's history, with Ghana and Cameroon winning the first two versions to keep after each of them won a tournament three times. The current trophy was first awarded in 2002 and with Egypt winning it indefinitely after winning their unprecedented third consecutive title in 2010.

As of 2013, the tournament was switched to being held in odd-numbered years so as not to clash with the FIFA World Cup.

Communes of Ivory Coast

The communes of Ivory Coast are a fifth-level administrative unit of administration in Ivory Coast. The sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast contain villages, and in select instances more than one village is combined into a commune. There are currently 197 communes in the 510 sub-prefectures.

Prior to 2011, communes were the third-level administrative units of the country. Under the administration of Laurent Gbagbo, the number of communes grew to more than 1300. In 2011, a reorganisation of the country's subdivisions was undertaken, with a goal of decentralising the state. As part of the reorganisation, communes were converted from third-level divisions into fifth-level divisions.

In March 2012, the government abolished 1126 communes on the grounds that under the new jurisdiction of districts, regions, departments, and sub-prefectures, these particular communes were not viable governmental units economically. As a result of the reorganisation, there are now 197 communes in Ivory Coast. In many parts of the country, responsibilities previously carried out by the communes have been transferred to other levels of government. In most cases, the town that is the seat of the commune is also the seat of a sub-prefecture.

Departments of Ivory Coast

Departments of Ivory Coast (French: départements de Côte d'Ivoire, also known as collectivités territoriale) are currently the third-level administrative subdivision of the country. Each of the 31 second-level regions of Ivory Coast is divided into two or more departments. (The autonomous districts contain no regions, but they do contain departments.) Each department is divided into two or more sub-prefectures, which are the fourth-level subdivisions in Ivory Coast. As of 2016, there are 108 departments of Ivory Coast.

There is one area of Ivory Coast that is not governed by departments: the portion of Comoé National Park that is within Zanzan District is not assigned to any department.

Departments were first created in 1961. During their existence, they have been first-, second-, and third-level administrative subdivisions.

Didier Drogba

Didier Yves Drogba Tébily (French pronunciation: ​[didje dʁɔɡba]; born 11 March 1978) is an Ivorian retired professional footballer who played as a striker. He is the all-time top scorer and former captain of the Ivory Coast national team. He is best known for his career at Chelsea, for whom he has scored more goals than any other foreign player and is currently the club's fourth highest goal scorer of all time. He was named African Footballer of the Year twice, winning the accolade in 2006 and 2009.

After playing in youth teams, Drogba made his professional debut aged 18 for Ligue 2 club Le Mans, and signed his first professional contract aged 21. After finishing the 2002–03 season with 17 goals in 34 appearances for Ligue 1 side Guingamp, he moved to Olympique de Marseille, where he finished as the third highest scorer in the 2003–04 season with 19 goals and helped the club reach the 2004 UEFA Cup Final.

In July 2004, Drogba moved to Premier League club Chelsea for a club record £24 million fee, making him the most expensive Ivorian player in history. In his debut season he helped the club win their first league title in 50 years, and a year later he won another Premier League title. His displays saw him named in the FIFA World XI for 2007. In March 2012, he became the first African player to score 100 Premier League goals. Just two months later, he scored in Chelsea's 2012 FA Cup Final win over Liverpool to become the first (and as of 2017, the only) player to score in four separate FA Cup finals. He also played in the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final, in which he scored an 88th-minute equaliser and the winning penalty in the deciding shoot-out against Bayern Munich. After spending 6 months with Shanghai Shenhua in China, and one and a half seasons with Turkish club Galatasaray where he scored the winning goal in the final of the 2013 Turkish Super Cup, Drogba returned to Chelsea in July 2014. With a career record of scoring 10 goals in 10 finals winning 10 trophies at club level, Drogba has been referred to as the "ultimate big game player." He joined Canadian club Montreal Impact in 2015 as a Designated Player and played 41 matches over two seasons, scoring 23 goals. Drogba became a player–owner for Phoenix Rising of the United Soccer League in 2017, and retired a year later at the age of 40.

An Ivory Coast international between 2002 and 2014, Drogba captained the national team from 2006 until his retirement from the Ivory Coast team and is the nation's all-time top goalscorer with 65 goals from 105 appearances. He led the Ivory Coast to the 2006 FIFA World Cup, their first appearance in the tournament, and also scored their first goal. He later captained the Ivory Coast at the 2010 and 2014 FIFA World Cups. He was part of the Ivory Coast teams that reached the final of the Africa Cup of Nations in 2006 and 2012, but were beaten on penalties on both occasions. On 8 August 2014, he announced his retirement from international football. In 2018, Drogba retired from professional football at the age of 40. Afterwards, on 11 December, he became Vice President of the international organization Peace and Sport.

Districts of Ivory Coast

The districts of Ivory Coast (French: districts de Côte d’Ivoire) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of the country. The districts were created in 2011 in an effort to further decentralise the state, but in practice most of them have not yet begun to function as governmental entities.There are 14 districts, including two autonomous districts around the cities of Yamoussoukro and Abidjan. The remaining 12 districts are further subdivided into 31 regions, which are further subdivided into 108 third-level subdivisions, the departments (French: départements). Departments are subdivided into 510 sub-prefectures (French: sous-préfectures). The lowest level of administrative organisation, which exist in limited numbers, is the commune. Although they are not divided into regions, the autonomous regions do contain departments, sub-prefectures, and communes.

Ivory (wrestler)

Lisa Mary Moretti (born November 26, 1961) is an American former professional wrestler. She is best known for her time with World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE, previously the World Wrestling Federation) between 1999 and 2005 under the ring name Ivory. Moretti began her career and first found national exposure in the independent promotion Gorgeous Ladies of Wrestling (GLOW), where she performed as Tina Ferrari from the mid-to-late-1980s. Moretti debuted in the World Wrestling Federation in 1999 as the manager for D'Lo Brown & Mark Henry. She won the WWE Women's Championship twice, before becoming a part of the villainous Right to Censor, a storyline stable of characters with harshly conservative sociopolitical views. This led to her third Women's Championship victory. Overall Ivory is a three time champion in WWE.

In her later years with WWE, she wrestled only sporadically. Moretti did, however, co-host WWE Experience, and served as one of the trainers on WWE Tough Enough. After Moretti left WWE in 2005, she wrestled for Women Superstars Uncensored, winning two other titles, and was also inducted into the WSU Hall of Fame. Moretti also began volunteering at her local animal shelter. In addition, Moretti opened an animal care and grooming facility named Downtown Dog, in her hometown in 2007.

On April 6, 2018, Ivory was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame.

Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. It borders Guinea and Liberia to the west, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, Ghana to the east, and the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) to the south.

Before its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. The area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Relatively stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West, especially France. Ivory Coast experienced a coup d'état in 1999 and two religiously-grounded civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007 and again during 2010–2011. In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution.Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Only around 2014 has GDP per capita in the country again reached the level of its peak in the 1970s. In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.The official language is French, with local indigenous languages also widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin, and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. There are large populations of Muslims, Christians (primarily Roman Catholics) and various indigenous religions.

Ivory Coast national football team

The Ivory Coast national football team (French: Équipe de Côte d'Ivoire de football), nicknamed Les Éléphants (The Elephants), represents Ivory Coast in international football and is controlled by the Ivorian Football Federation (FIF). Until 2005, their greatest accomplishment was winning the 1992 African Cup of Nations against Ghana on penalties at the Stade Leopold Senghor in Dakar, Senegal. Their second success came in the 2015 edition, again defeating Ghana on penalties at the Estadio de Bata in Bata, Equatorial Guinea.

The team qualified for three consecutive FIFA World Cups between 2006 and 2014, but has never advanced beyond the group stage.

Ivory Coast has produced several notable players who have played in Europe, including Didier Drogba, Yaya Touré, Emmanuel Eboué, Wilfried Bony, Seydou Doumbia, Gervinho, Eric Bailly, Serge Aurier, Nicolas Pépé, Maxwel Cornet, Wilfried Zaha, Ibrahim Sangaré, Salomon Kalou and Kolo Touré. Having become a fixed presence in the World Cup (since 2006) and having won the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations, the team is generally considered to be one of the best African teams of the last decade. This is also confirmed by FIFA Ranking in the reference period, never having been so high for Les Éléphants.

Ivory trade

The ivory trade is the commercial, often illegal trade in the ivory tusks of the hippopotamus, walrus, narwhal, mammoth, and most commonly, African and Asian elephants.

Ivory has been traded for hundreds of years by people in regions such as Greenland, Alaska, and Siberia. The trade, in more recent times, has led to endangerment of species, resulting in restrictions and bans. Ivory was formerly used to make piano keys and other decorative items because of the white color it presents when processed but the piano industry abandoned ivory as a key covering material in the 1980s.

James Ivory

James Francis Ivory (born June 7, 1928) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. For many years he worked extensively with Indian-born film producer Ismail Merchant, his domestic as well as professional partner, and with screenwriter Ruth Prawer Jhabvala. All three were principals in Merchant Ivory Productions, whose films have won six Academy Awards; Ivory himself has been nominated for four Oscars, winning one.

For his work on Call Me by Your Name (2017), which he wrote and produced, Ivory won awards for Best Adapted Screenplay from the Academy Awards, British Academy of Film and Television Arts, Writers Guild of America, the Critics' Choice Awards, and the Scripter Awards, among others. Upon winning the Oscar and BAFTA at the age of 89, Ivory became the oldest-ever winner in any category for both awards.

Kolo Touré

Kolo Abib Touré (born 19 March 1981) is an Ivorian football coach and former footballer. He played as a defender for Arsenal, Manchester City, Liverpool, Celtic and the Ivory Coast national team. He is currently a first team coach at Leicester City as well as a member of the coaching staff for the Ivory Coast.

Beginning his career at ASEC Mimosas, Touré moved to Arsenal in 2002, where he made 326 appearances for the club and was a member of the 03–04 'invincibles' side. In 2009, he moved to Manchester City, where he was joined a year later by his younger brother Yaya Touré, helping City earn its first league title in 44 years. In 2013 Touré transferred to Liverpool. He is one of the eight players who have won the Premier League with two clubs, having won it with Manchester City and Arsenal. He also won the Scottish Premiership with Celtic.

Touré is the second-most capped player for the Ivory Coast, with 120 appearances from 2000 to 2015. He represented the team at the 2006, 2010 and 2014 FIFA World Cup tournaments. Touré also represented the Ivory Coast at seven Africa Cup of Nations tournaments between 2002 and 2015, helping them finish runner-up in 2006 and 2012, while winning in 2015.

List of heads of state of Ivory Coast

The following is a list of heads of state of Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, since the country gained independence from France in 1960.

Regions of Ivory Coast

The regions of Ivory Coast (French: régions de Côte d'Ivoire) are the second-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast. There are 31 regions, and each region is subdivided into two or more departments, the third-level division in Ivory Coast. Two to four regions are combined to make up a district, the first-level subdivision. The two autonomous districts of Ivory Coast are not divided into regions.

Statue of Zeus at Olympia

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant seated figure, about 13 m (43 ft) tall, made by the Greek sculptor Phidias around 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia, Greece, and erected in the Temple of Zeus there.

A chryselephantine sculpture of ivory plates and gold panels on a wooden framework, it represented the god Zeus on a cedarwood throne ornamented with ebony, ivory, gold and precious stones.

One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the statue was lost and destroyed during the 5th century AD; details of its form are known only from ancient Greek descriptions and representations on coins.

Sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast

Sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast (French: sous-préfectures de Côte d'Ivoire) are the fourth-level administrative subdivisions of the country. There are currently 510 sub-prefectures. They were created in 2011, when the administrative subdivisions of Ivory Coast were reorganised.

In Ivory Coast, there are 14 first-level districts (including two autonomous districts) sub-divided into 31 regions, which are sub-divided into 108 departments (French: départements), which are further sub-divided into 510 sub-prefectures. The sub-prefectures contain more than 8000 villages nationwide. Where needed, multiple villages have been combined into 197 communes. The two autonomous districts are not divided into regions, but they do contain one or more departments as well as sub-prefectures and communes.

Two areas of the country are not subdivided into sub-prefectures. First, the urban portion the Autonomous District of Abidjan—constituting Abidjan City proper—contains no sub-prefectures, only communes, although the more rural areas of the Autonomous District of Abidjan are divided into sub-prefectures. Second, the portion of the Comoé National Park that is located in Zanzan District is not divided into sub-prefectures.

West Africa

West Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, the Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, as well as the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The population of West Africa is estimated at about 362 million people as of 2016, and at 381,981,000 as of 2017, to which 189,672,000 are female, and 192,309,000 male.

Wilfried Bony

Wilfried Guemiand Bony (born 10 December 1988) is an Ivorian professional footballer who plays as a striker for club Swansea City.

Having begun his career at Issia Wazi, Bony moved to Sparta Prague in 2007, helping them to the Czech First League title in 2009–10. In January 2011, he was signed by Dutch club Vitesse, where he was the top scorer in the Eredivisie in 2012–13, leading to a £12 million transfer to Premier League club Swansea City. Bony scored 35 goals in 70 appearances for the Swans and in January 2015, joined Manchester City in a £28 million deal. However, Bony struggled for match-time at Manchester City, and following the arrival of Pep Guardiola in mid-2016, he joined Stoke City on loan for the 2016–17 season. Bony returned to Swansea on 31 August 2017. After his loan spell with Al-Arabi, he was released by Swansea in May 2019 to leave on 30 June.A full international since 2010, Bony was selected in the Ivory Coast squads for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and three Africa Cup of Nations tournaments, helping them to victory in the 2015 edition.

Wilfried Zaha

Dazet Wilfried Armel Zaha (born 10 November 1992) is a professional footballer who plays as a forward for Premier League club Crystal Palace and the Ivorian national team.

Zaha advanced into the Crystal Palace first team from their academy, in 2010. In January 2013, he transferred to Manchester United for an initial fee of £10 million, Alex Ferguson's last transfer before his retirement at the end of the season. Zaha remained on loan at Palace until the end of the season, helping them return to the Premier League. After an unsuccessful 2013–14 season with Manchester United (partly spent on loan at Cardiff City), Zaha returned to Palace in August 2014 on a season-long loan, before rejoining the club on a permanent basis in February 2015.

Born in the Ivory Coast, Zaha grew up in England from the age of four. He made his debut for the England national team in 2012. He made two non-competitive appearances for England, the latter of which came in 2013, before switching his allegiances to the Ivory Coast ahead of the 2017 Africa Cup of Nations.

Yaya Touré

Gnégnéri Yaya Touré (born 13 May 1983) is an Ivorian former professional footballer who played as a midfielder. He played for and captained the Ivory Coast national team.

Touré aspired to be a striker during his youth and has played centre back, including for Barcelona in the 2009 UEFA Champions League Final. However, he has spent the majority of his career as a box-to-box midfielder for club and country, where he has been regarded as one of the world's best players in his position. One of the greatest African players of all time, Touré was voted African Footballer of the Year for 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014.Touré began his playing career at Ivorian club ASEC Mimosas, where he made his debut at age 18. His performances attracted attention from Europe. He had stints with Beveren, Metalurh Donetsk, Olympiacos and Monaco before moving to Barcelona in 2007. He played over 70 matches for the club and was part of the historic 2009 Barcelona side that won six trophies in a calendar year. In 2010, Touré moved to Premier League club Manchester City, where he scored a number of key goals, most notably the only goals in the 2011 FA Cup semi-final and final. He also helped City earn their first league title in 44 years.

Touré earned 100 caps for the Ivory Coast from 2004 to 2015, representing the nation at the 2006, 2010 and 2014 FIFA World Cup tournaments. He also represented them in six Africa Cup of Nations in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2015, helping them finish runner-up in 2006 and 2012, while captaining them to victory in 2015. He is the younger brother of fellow footballer Kolo Touré, who was his teammate at Manchester City and on the national team.

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