Ivan Kuskov

Ivan Aleksandrovich Kuskov (1765–1823) was the senior assistant to [Andreyevich Baranov|Aleksandr Baranov]], the Chief Administrator of the Russian-American Company (RAC).

He was a native of Totma, Russia, he served in the RAC for 31 years, attaining the rank of Commerce Counselor (12th rank) and being awarded the gold medal "for zealous service" from Emperor Aleksandr I. Between 1808 and 1812 he led five exploratory expeditions to California with the intent of founding an agricultural settlement to supply the northern colonies of Russian America (Alaska).

Kuskov, under guidance from Baranov, founded Fortress Ross (present day Fort Ross) in 1812.[1]:83-84

Kuskov served as Administrator at Fort Ross from 1812 until 1821. In 1819 he was recommended for the Order of St. Vladimir, 4th class, but had not received the award by the time of his death in 1823. After retiring from the RAC he returned to his home town of Totma, in the Vologda province on July 4, 1821, and died in 1823. His house is preserved to this day in Totma as the "Kuskov House Museum",[2] under the direction of the Totma Museum Association,[3] which preserves two original portraits, presumed to have been painted in California of Kuskov and his wife.

Ivan Kuskov
Ivan Alexandrovich Kuskov
A portrait of Ivan Kuskov from the Totma Regional Museum
Personal details
Ivan Aleksandrovich Kuskov

Totma, Russia
Died1823 (aged 57–58)
Totma, Russia


  1. ^ Khlebnikov, K.T., 1973, Baranov, Chief Manager of the Russian Colonies in America, Kingston: The Limestone Press, ISBN 0919642500
  2. ^ "I.A.Kuskov's house-museum". siberianway.ru. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  3. ^ "Totma museum association". cultinfo.ru. Retrieved 2017-05-28.
  • Scott Foresman History-Social Science for California, Unit 3, Lesson 1, Pearson Education, Inc., Glenview Illinois, 2006.
Alexander Andreyevich Baranov

Alexander Andreyevich Baranov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Андре́евич Бара́нов) (1747–16 April 1819), sometimes spelled Aleksandr or Alexandr and Baranof, was a Russian trader and merchant, who worked for some time in Siberia. He was recruited by the Shelikov Company for trading in Russian America, beginning in 1790 with a five-year contract as manager of the outpost. He continued to serve past the end date of his contract.

In 1799 Baranov was promoted, appointed by the recently chartered Russian-American Company as Chief Manager, effectively the first governor of Russian America. He served until 1818. This was the early colonial period of expansion of settlements. He founded Pavlovskaya (Kodiak) and later New Archangel (Sitka), Russian colonies that were bases of the company in present-day Alaska. In addition, he oversaw the expansion of the lucrative fur trade with Alaska Natives.

He continued to support his Russian wife and children, who had moved from Siberia back to live near St. Petersburg. In Pavlovskaya, Baranov took an Aleut woman as mistress and had three mixed-race children with her. After learning that his wife had died in 1807 in Russia, he married his mistress, legitimizing their children. In 1817 Irina, his oldest daughter born in Alaska, married Semyon Yanovksy, a Russian naval officer. Late in 1818, Yanovsky was appointed as Chief Manager and successor to Baranov. That year Baranov departed to sail back to Russia, but he died in April 1819 and was buried at sea.

Bodega Bay

Bodega Bay is a shallow, rocky inlet of the Pacific Ocean on the coast of northern California in the United States. It is approximately 5 mi (8 km) across and is located approximately 40 mi (60 km) northwest of San Francisco and 20 mi (32 km) west of Santa Rosa. The bay straddles the boundary between Sonoma County to the north and Marin County to the south. The bay is a marine habitat used for navigation, recreation, and commercial and sport fishing including shellfish harvesting.Bodega Bay is protected on its north end from the Pacific Ocean by Bodega Head, which shelters the small Bodega Harbor and is separated from the main bay by a jetty. The San Andreas Fault runs parallel to the coastline and bisects Bodega Head, which lies on the Pacific Plate; the town is on the North American Plate. The village of Bodega Bay sits on the east side of Bodega Harbor. The bay connects on its south end to the mouth of Tomales Bay.

Streams flowing into Bodega Bay include the Estero de San Antonio and the Americano Creek.

Accessible beaches on Bodega Bay include Doran Regional Park (on the jetty) and Pinnacle Gulch.

Apart from the harbor, all of Bodega Bay lies within the boundaries of the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary.

California Fur Rush

Before the 1849 California Gold Rush, American, English and Russian fur hunters were drawn to Spanish (and then Mexican) California in a California Fur Rush, to exploit its enormous fur resources. Before 1825, these Europeans were drawn to the northern and central California coast to harvest prodigious quantities of southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) and fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), and then to the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento – San Joaquin River Delta to harvest beaver (Castor canadensis), river otter (Lontra canadensis), marten, fisher, mink, gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), weasel, and harbor seal. It was California's early fur trade, more than any other single factor, that opened up the West, and the San Francisco Bay Area in particular, to world trade.

Fort Ross, California

Fort Ross (Russian: Форт-Росс), originally Fortress Ross (Russian: Крѣпость Россъ, tr. Krepostʹ Ross), is a former Russian establishment on the west coast of North America in what is now Sonoma County, California. It was the hub of the southernmost Russian settlements in North America from 1812 to 1842. It has been the subject of archaeological investigation and is a California Historical Landmark, a National Historic Landmark, and on the National Register of Historic Places. It is part of California's Fort Ross State Historic Park.


Kuskov (Russian: Кусков) is a Russian masculine surname, its feminine counterpart is Kuskova. It may refer to

Dmitry Kuskov (1876–1956), Russian sports shooter

Ivan Kuskov (1765–1823), Russian explorer

Sergey Kuskov (1957–2008), Russian curator

Yekaterina Kuskova (1869–1958), Russian economist, journalist and politician

List of National Historic Landmarks in California

This is a complete List of National Historic Landmarks in California. The United States National Historic Landmark (NHL) program is operated under the auspices of the National Park Service, and recognizes structures, districts, objects, and similar resources nationwide according to a list of criteria of national significance. The listings in the state of California express the diversity of California's heritage, including pre-Columbian peoples, the Spanish and Mexican periods, maritime activity, space exploration, and many other themes.

The table below lists all 146 sites, along with added detail and description. The sites are distributed across 36 of California's 58 counties.

List of people on the postage stamps of the Soviet Union

This article lists people who have been featured on postage stamps of the Soviet Union.

Palo Cedro, California

Palo Cedro (Cedarwood) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Shasta County, California, United States. The population was 1,269 at the 2010 census, up from 1,247 at the 2000 census. It is 8 miles (13 km) east of Redding, California. The communities of Bella Vista (pop. 2,781), Millville (pop. 727), Shingletown (pop. 2,283), Oak Run (pop. 880), Whitmore (pop. 999), and Round Mountain (pop. 155) lie within a 15-mile (24 km) radius.

Originally, indigenous Native Americans lived in Northern California, including what is now Shasta County, prior to European American settlement. European American exploration of inland California started in 1769 and continued on into the 19th Century. Cow Creek, a Sacramento River tributary, that runs south through Palo Cedro, was a conduit for entrance into the Sacramento Valley by Hudson Bay Fur Company trappers including Alexander McLeod (1829) and John Work (1832). The town is named after cedarwood trees originally indigenous to the area in the 19th Century.

As of the 2010 census, Palo Cedro has a population density of 338.1 people per square mile (130.5/km2). Award winning country musician Merle Haggard lived in Palo Cedro for decades until his death on April 6, 2016.

Rotchev House

The Rotchev House is a historic house at Fort Ross State Historic Park in the U.S. state of California. Built in 1812, it is the fort's only building to survive from the period of the Russian-American Company's California settlement. It is one of a very small number of Russian-built structures in the United States, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970 as the Commander's House, Fort Ross. (Fort Ross as a whole is also a National Historic Landmark.

Russian Americans

Russian Americans are Americans who trace their ancestry to Russia, the former Russian Empire, or the former Soviet Union. The definition can be applied to recent Russian immigrants to the United States, as well as to settlers of 19th-century Russian settlements in northwestern America.

After Russian America (now territory part of present-day Alaska) was sold to the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, waves of Russian immigrants fleeing religious persecution settled in the United States, including Russian Jews and

Spiritual Christians. These groups mainly settled in coastal cities, including Brooklyn (New York City) on the East coast, and Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Portland, Oregon, on the West coast.

Emigration was prohibited in Russia during the Soviet era, though after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, immigration to the U.S. increased exponentially.

Some Belarusian Americans, Russian Jewish Americans, Russian German Americans and Rusyn Americans identify as Russian Americans.

Russian Mexicans

There is a small Russian diaspora population in Mexico. According to the 2000 Mexican census, 1,293 Russian citizens were resident in Mexico.

Russian River (California)

The Russian River is a southward-flowing river that drains 1,485 sq mi (3,850 km2) of Sonoma and Mendocino counties in Northern California. With an annual average discharge of approximately 1,600,000 acre feet (2.0 km3), it is the second-largest river (after the Sacramento River) flowing through the nine-county Greater San Francisco Bay Area, with a mainstem 110 mi (180 km) long.

Salmon Creek (Sonoma County, California)

Salmon Creek is an 18.3-mile-long (29.5 km) stream in western Sonoma County, California that springs from coastal hills west of the town of Occidental and empties into the Pacific Ocean north of Bodega Head.

Sea otter

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Adult sea otters typically weigh between 14 and 45 kg (31 and 99 lb), making them the heaviest members of the weasel family, but among the smallest marine mammals. Unlike most marine mammals, the sea otter's primary form of insulation is an exceptionally thick coat of fur, the densest in the animal kingdom. Although it can walk on land, the sea otter is capable of living exclusively in the ocean.

The sea otter inhabits nearshore environments, where it dives to the sea floor to forage. It preys mostly on marine invertebrates such as sea urchins, various molluscs and crustaceans, and some species of fish. Its foraging and eating habits are noteworthy in several respects. First, its use of rocks to dislodge prey and to open shells makes it one of the few mammal species to use tools. In most of its range, it is a keystone species, controlling sea urchin populations which would otherwise inflict extensive damage to kelp forest ecosystems. Its diet includes prey species that are also valued by humans as food, leading to conflicts between sea otters and fisheries.

Sea otters, whose numbers were once estimated at 150,000–300,000, were hunted extensively for their fur between 1741 and 1911, and the world population fell to 1,000–2,000 individuals living in a fraction of their historic range. A subsequent international ban on hunting, conservation efforts, and reintroduction programs into previously populated areas have contributed to numbers rebounding, and the species occupies about two-thirds of its former range. The recovery of the sea otter is considered an important success in marine conservation, although populations in the Aleutian Islands and California have recently declined or have plateaued at depressed levels. For these reasons, the sea otter remains classified as an endangered species.

Sergey Kuskov

Sergey Ivanovich Kuskov (June 6, 1957 in Moscow, USSR – June 22, 2008 in Krasnodar, Russia) was a renowned Russian curator.

Totemsky District

Totemsky District (Russian: То́темский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast and borders with Verkhovazhsky and Tarnogsky Districts in the north, Nyuksensky District in the northeast, Babushkinsky District in the east, Chukhlomsky and Soligalichsky Districts of Kostroma Oblast in the south, Mezhdurechensky and Sokolsky Districts in the southwest, and with Syamzhensky District in the west. The area of the district is 8,200 square kilometers (3,200 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Totma. Population: 23,315 (2010 Census); 26,392 (2002 Census); 27,907 (1989 Census). The population of Totma accounts for 42.0% of the district's total population.


Totma (Russian: То́тьма) is a town and the administrative center of Totemsky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Sukhona River at its confluence with the Pesya Denga, 217 kilometers (135 mi) northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 9,785 (2010 Census); 10,531 (2002 Census); 10,622 (1989 Census).

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