Italian protectorate of Albania (1939–1943)

The Italian protectorate of Albania, also known as Greater Albania,[1][2] existed as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy. It was practically a union between Italy and Albania, officially led by Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III and its government: Albania was led by Italian governors, after being militarily occupied by Italy, from 1939 until 1943. During this time, Albania ceased to exist as an independent country and remained as an autonomous part of the Italian Empire led by Italian government officials, who intended to make Albania part of a Greater Italy by assimilating Albanians as Italians and colonizing Albania with Italian settlers from the Italian Peninsula to transform it gradually into an Italian land.[3]

In the Treaty of London during World War I, the Triple Entente had promised to Italy, central and southern Albania as a possession; as a reward for fighting alongside the Entente.[4] In June 1917, after Italian soldiers seized control of substantial areas of Albania, Italy formally declared a protectorate over central and southern Albania; however this was overturned in September 1920 when Italy was pressured to remove its army from Albania.[4] Italy was enraged with the minimal gains that it received from peace negotiations, which it regarded as having violated the Treaty of London. Italian Fascists claimed that Albanians were ethnically linked to Italians through links with the prehistoric Italiotes, Illyrian and Roman populations, and that the major influence exerted by the Roman and Venetian empires over Albania justified Italy's right to possess it.[5] Italy also justified the annexation of Albania on the basis that because several hundred thousand people of Albanian descent had been absorbed into society in southern Italy already, that the incorporation of Albania was a reasonable measure that would unite people of Albanian descent into one state.[6] Italy supported Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo in Yugoslavia and Epirus in Greece, particularly the border area of Chameria, inhabited by the Cham Albanian minority.[7]

Italian protectorate of Albania

Motto: "FERT"
Himni i Flamurit
Hymn to the Flag
Royal anthem
Marcia Reale d'Ordinanza
Royal March of Ordinance
The Italian protectorate of Albania in 1942
The Italian protectorate of Albania in 1942
StatusProtectorate and dependency of Italy
Common languagesAlbanian
Sunni Islam
Roman Catholicism
Albanian Orthodoxy
GovernmentFascist one-party totalitarian state under a constitutional monarchy
• 1939–1943
Victor Emmanuel III
• 1939–1943
Francesco Jacomoni
• 1943
Alberto Pariani
Prime Minister 
• 1939–1941
Shefqet Vërlaci
• 1941–1943
Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
• 1943
Eqrem Libohova
• 1943
Maliq Bushati
Historical eraInterbellum · World War II
12 April 1939
8 September 1943
52,667 km2 (20,335 sq mi)
CurrencyFranga (1939–1941)
Italian lira (1941–1943)
ISO 3166 codeAL
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Albania
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
German occupation of Albania


Pre-invasion: Italy's influence and aims in Albania

Vlora zur Zeit der italienischen Besatzung 1916-1920
Italian soldiers in Vlorë, Albania during World War I. The tricolour flag of Italy bearing the Savoy royal shield is shown hanging alongside an Albanian flag from the balcony of the Italian headquarters.

Prior to direct intervention in World War I, Italy occupied the port of Vlorë in Albania in December 1914.[4] Upon entering the war, Italy spread its occupation to region of southern Albania beginning in the autumn 1916.[4] Italian forces in 1916 recruited Albanian irregulars to serve alongside them.[4] Italy with permission of the Allied command, occupied Northern Epirus on 23 August 1916, forcing the Greek Army to withdraw its occupation forces from there.[4] In June 1917, Italy proclaimed central and southern Albania as a protectorate of Italy while Northern Albania was allocated to the states of Serbia and Montenegro.[4] By 31 October 1918, French and Italian forces expelled the Austro-Hungarian Army from Albania.[4] After World War I ended, Italy withdraw its military forces on 2 September 1920 from Albania as a result of foreign pressure and defeat in the Vlora War.[4]

The Italian Fascist regime had politically and economically penetrated and dominated Albania during Zog's rule and was planning for annexation of Albania years prior to the event.[8] Albania became a de facto protectorate of Italy after the signing of the Treaties of Tirana of 1926 and 1927.[9][10][11] Under Zog, Albania's economy was dependent on multiple financial loans given from Italy since 1931.[12]

In August 1933, Mussolini placed stringent demands on Zog in exchange for Italy's continued support of Albania, including demands that all new appointments to leading positions in the Albanian government had to have received an "Italian education"; that an Italian expert was in the future to be in all Albanian government ministries; that Italy would take control of Albania's military – including its fortifications; that British officers that were training Albania's gendarmee be replaced by Italian officers; and that Albania must annul all of its existing commercial treaties with other countries and make no new agreements without the approval of the Italian government; and that Albania sign a commercial convention that would make Italy Albania's "most favoured country" in trade.[13] In 1934 when Albania did not deliver its scheduled payment of one loan to Italy, Italian warships arrived off the coast of Albania to intimidate Albania to submit to Italian goals in the region. However, the British opposed Italy's actions and under pressure, Italy backed down and claimed that the naval exercise was merely a "friendly visit".[12]

On 25 August 1937, Italian foreign minister Count Ciano wrote in his diary of Italy's relations with Albania in the following: "We must create stable centres of Italian influence there. Who knows what the future may have in store? We must be ready to seize opportunities which will present themselves. We are not going to withdraw this time, as we did in 1920. In the south [of Italy] we have absorbed several hundred thousand Albanians. Why shouldn’t the same thing happen on the other side of the entrance to the Adriatic.".[6] On 26 March 1938, Ciano wrote in his diary of annexing Albania like Germany did with Austria shortly prior: "A report from Jacomoni on the situation in Albania. Our penetration is becoming steadily more intense and more organic. The programme which I traced after my visit is being carried out without a hitch. I am wondering whether the general situation – particularly the Anschluss [with Austria] – does not permit us to take a step forward towards the more complete domination of this country, which will be ours." and days later on 4 April of that year wrote "We must gradually underline the protectorate element of our relations with Albania".[14]

Invasion and the establishment of the Italian regime

Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, King of Albania from 1939 to 1943.
Shefqet Verlaci
Shefqet Vërlaci, Prime Minister of Albania from 1939 to 1941.

In spite of Albania's long-standing protection and alliance with Italy, on 7 April 1939 Italian troops invaded Albania,[16] five months before the start of the Second World War. The Albanian armed resistance proved ineffective against the Italians and, after a short defense, the country was occupied. On 9 April 1939 the Albanian king, Zog I fled to Greece.[17] Although Albania had been a de facto Italian protectorate since 1927,[11][18][19] Italy's political leader, Benito Mussolini wanted direct control over the country to increase his and Italy's prestige, provide a response to Germany's annexation of Austria and occupation of Czechoslovakia, and to have firm control over Albania to station large forces of the Italian military for future operations involving Yugoslavia and Greece.

Albania was an Italian protectorate subordinated to Italian interests, along the lines of the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia: the Albanian crown was declared in personal union with the Italian crown, Albania was to be governed by an Italian vicegerent representing King Victor Emmanuel III, a customs union was enacted, and Albanian foreign policy was to be handled by Rome. The Albanian armed forces were subsumed in the Italian military, Italian advisors were placed inside all levels of the Albanian administration, and the country fascisticized with the establishment of an Albanian Fascist Party and its attendant organizations, modelled after the Italian prototype. The Albanian Fascist Party was a branch of the National Fascist Party of Italy, members of the Albanian Fascist Party took an oath to obey the orders of the Duce of Fascism, Mussolini.[20] Italian citizens began to settle in Albania as colonists and to own land so that they could gradually transform it into Italian soil.[3]

While Victor Emmanuel ruled as king, Shefqet Vërlaci served as the Prime Minister. Vërlaci controlled the day-to-day activities of the Italian protectorate. On 3 December 1941, Shefqet Vërlaci was replaced as Prime Minister and Head of Government by Mustafa Merlika-Kruja.[21] The country's natural resources too came under direct control of Italy. All petroleum resources in Albania went through Agip, Italy's state petroleum company.[22]

Albania was important culturally and historically to the nationalist aims of the Italian Fascists, as the territory of Albania had long been part of the Roman Empire, even prior to the annexation of northern Italy by the Romans. Later, during the High Middle Ages some coastal areas (like Durazzo) had been influenced and owned by Italian powers, chiefly the Kingdom of Naples and the Republic of Venice for many years (cf. Albania Veneta). The Italian Fascist regime legitimized its claim to Albania through studies proclaiming the racial affinity of Albanians and Italians, especially as opposed to the Slavic Yugoslavs.[23] Italian Fascists claimed that Albanians were linked through ethnic heritage to Italians due to links with the prehistoric Italiotes, Illyrian and Roman populations, and that the major influence exhibited by the Roman and Venetian empires over Albania justified Italy's right to possess it.[5]

Italy also attempted to legitimize and win public support for its rule over Albania by supporting Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Epirus in Greece, particularly the border area of Chameria, inhabited by the Cham Albanian minority.[7] Thus a Fascist Italian publication named Geopolitica claimed that the population of the Epirus-Acarnania region of Greece belonged to Albania due to it being racially Dinaric, and formed a 'single geographic system' with the Adriatic zone.[5] Despite the efforts of the Italian vicegerent, Francesco Jacomoni, to stir up insurrections and create a fifth column, and the favourable reports he sent to the Italian foreign minister Count Ciano, events proved that there was little enthusiasm among the Albanians themselves: after the Italian invasion of Greece, most Albanians either deserted or defected.[24]

Albania at war

Albania, April 1939, Italian soldiers disembarking from ships
Invading Italian troops
Durazzo, Albania, April 1939, Italian soldiers entering the city
Invading Italian troops
Greek Offensive 1940 41 in Northern Epirus
The Greek counteroffensive (13 November 1940-7 April 1941) during the Greco-Italian War.

Strategically, control of Albania gave Italy an important beachhead in the Balkans: not only did it complete Italian control of the Strait of Otranto and the entrance to the Adriatic Sea, it could be used to invade either Yugoslavia (in tandem with another thrust via Venezia Giulia) or Greece.[18]

In 1939, Count Ciano spoke of Albanian irredentist claims to Kosovo as valuable to Italy's objectives, saying:

The Kosovars [are] 850,000 Albanians, strong of body, firm in spirit, and enthusiastic about the idea of a Union with their Homeland. Apparently, the Serbians are terrified of them. Today one must…chloroform the Yugoslavians. But later on one must adopt a politics of deep interest in Kosovo. This will help to keep alive in the Balkans an irredentist problem which will polarize the attention of the Albanians themselves and be a knife at the back of Yugoslavia.[25]

— Galeazzo Ciano, 1939

The Corporative Council of the Albanian Fascist Party, a quasi-statal organization, issued a directive on 16 June 1940, shortly after Italy's declarations of war against Britain and France, that stated that "The Kingdom of Albania considers itself at war with all nations against which Italy is at war—at present or in the future."[26]

In October 1940, during the Greco-Italian War, Albania served as a staging-area for Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's unsuccessful invasion of Greece. Mussolini planned to invade Greece and other countries like Yugoslavia in the area to give Italy territorial control of most of the Mediterranean Sea coastline, as part of the Fascists' objective of creating the objective of Mare Nostrum ("Our Sea") in which Italy would dominate the Mediterranean. But the Albanian army under the command of colonel (later general) Prenk Pervizi[27] abandoned the Italians in combat, causing a major unraveling of their lines. The Albanian army believed to be the cause of the betrayal was removed from the front. The Colonel Pervizi and his staff of officials was isolated in the mountains of Puka and Shkodra to the North.[28] This was the first action of revolt against the Italian occupation.

1940 Albanian Kingdom Laissez Passer issued for traveling to Fascist Italy after the invasion of 1939
1940 Albanian Kingdom Laissez Passer issued for traveling to Fascist Italy after the invasion of 1939.

But, soon after the Italian invasion, the Greeks counter-attacked and a sizable portion of Albania was in Greek hands (including the cities of Gjirokastër and Korçë). In April 1941, Greece capitulated after an overwhelming German invasion. All of Albania returned to Italian control, which was also extended to most of Greece, which was jointly occupied by Italy, Germany and Bulgaria. Italian plans however to annex Chameria to Albania were shelved due strong opposition and ethnic conflict between Albanians and Greeks, as well as opposition by Aromanians to the region being Albanianized.[29]

After the fall of Yugoslavia and Greece in April 1941, the Italian government began negotiations with Germany, Bulgaria, and the newly established client state, the Independent State of Croatia, on defining their borders. In April Mussolini called for the borders of Albania to be expanded – including annexing Montenegro into Albania that would have an autonomous government within Albania, and expanding Albania's border eastwards, though not as far as the Vardar river as some had proposed – citing that Ohrid should be left to the Slavic Macedonians, regardless of whether Vardar Macedonia would become an independent state or be annexed by Bulgaria.[30] However the Italian government changed its positions on the border throughout April, later supporting the annexation of Ohrid while giving the territory lying directly outside of Ohrid (including the sacred birthplace of Saint Clement) to the Slavic Macedonians.[30] After a period of negotiations Italy's new Balkan borders – including Albania's new borders, were declared by royal decree on 7 June 1941.[30]

After the Italian capitulation in September 1943, the country was occupied by the Germans until the end of the war.


Map of Albania during WWII
Albania during World War II

Upon the occupation of Albania and installation of a new government, the economies of Albania and Italy were connected through a customs union that resulted in the removal of most trade restrictions.[20] Through a tariff union, the Italian tariff system was put in place in Albania.[20] Due to the expected economic losses in Albania from the alteration in tariff policy, the Italian government provided Albania 15 million Albanian leks each year in compensation.[20] Italian customs laws were to apply in Albania and only Italy alone could conclude treaties with third parties.[20] Italian capital was allowed to dominate the Albanian economy.[20] As a result, Italian companies were allowed to hold monopolies in the exploitation of Albanian natural resources.[20]

In 1944, the number of companies and industrial enterprises reached 430, from just 244 in 1938 and only 71 such in 1922. The degree of concentration of workers in industrial production in 1938 doubled compared with 1928. At this time, Albania's economy had trade relations with 21 countries, but most developed were first to Italy and then to Yugoslavia, France, Germany, Greece, etc.

The country entered capitalist economic development much later than other European countries. Despite the presence of some foreign (mainly Italian) investment, Albania had made little move towards industrial development at the onset of World War II. Agriculture, which employed over 87% of the workforce, was the main sector of the economy and contributed 92.4% of the national income, with main outputs being wheat, maize and rye. Agriculture used primitive tools such as wood ploughs, whilst fertilisers were hardly known at all, and drainage poor. The level of productivity and level of organization and mechanization of agriculture in this period were very low.

Administrative division

The Italians adopted the existing Albanian system of prefectures (Italian: prefetture). In line with the administrative structure of the rest of Italy these were also called provinces (Italian: provincia). However, unlike Italy the Albanian sub-prefecture (Italian: sotto prefetture) was retained. There were initially 10 prefectures.[31][32] Under this was 30 sub-prefectures and 23 municipalities (Italian: municipalità).[33] Each Prefecture was run by a Prefect located in the city of the same name. In 1941, following the dismemberment of Yugoslavia, three new Prefectures were added. Kossovo, Metohija and Debar, with 5 sub-prefectures [34]

Administrative divisions in 1941
Prefecture Sub-Prefectures Municipalities
Berat Fieri
Peshkopi Burreli e Mat
Durazzo Kavaja
Elbasan Librazhd
Argirocastro Ciamuria
Santi Quaranta
Porto Edda
Coritza Bilishti
Kukesi Lumë
Malësi e Gjakovës
Scutari Alessio
Malësi e Madhe
Valona Himara Valona
Tirana None Tirana
Debar Rostuse
Metohija Gjakovës Peja
Kossovo Rahovec
Suva Reka

See also


  1. ^ Micheletta, Luca (2007), Questioni storiche: Italy, Greater Albania and Kosovo 1939–1943, Universita degli studi di Roma La Sapienza, pp. 521–542
  2. ^ Papa Pandelejmoni, Enriketa (2012), Doing politics in Albania doing World War II: The case of Mustafa Merlika Kruja fascist collaboration, Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU, pp. 67–83
  3. ^ a b Lemkin, Raphael; Power, Samantha (2008), Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., pp. 99–107, ISBN 978-1-58477-901-8
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nigel Thomas. Armies in the Balkans 1914–18. Osprey Publishing, 2001. Pp. 17.
  5. ^ a b c Rodogno., Davide (2006). Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-521-84515-7.
  6. ^ a b Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 389.
  7. ^ a b Fischer, Bernd Jürgen (1999), Albania at War, 1939–1945, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, pp. 70–73, ISBN 978-1-85065-531-2
  8. ^ Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 378, 389.
  9. ^ Aristotle A. Kallis. Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922–1945. London, England, UK: Routledge, 2000. Pp. 132.
  10. ^ Zara S. Steiner. The lights that failed: European international history, 1919–1933. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005. Pp. 499.
  11. ^ a b Roy Palmer Domenico. Remaking Italy in the twentieth century. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002. Pp. 74.
  12. ^ a b Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 378.
  13. ^ Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 351.
  14. ^ Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 396.
  15. ^ Zolo, Danilo. Invoking humanity: war, law, and global order. London, UK/New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group (2002), p. 24.
  16. ^ Keegan, John; Churchill, Winston (1986). The Second World War (Six Volume Boxed Set). Boston: Mariner Books. p. 314. ISBN 0-395-41685-X.
  17. ^ Zabecki, David T. (1999). World War II in Europe: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland Pub. p. 1353. ISBN 0-8240-7029-1.
  18. ^ a b Kallis, Aristotle A. (2000), Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922–1945, Routledge, p. 132
  19. ^ Steiner, Zara S. (2005), The lights that failed: European international history, 1919–1933, Oxford University Press, p. 499
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Raphaël Lemkin. Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Slark, New Jersey, USA: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2005. Pp. 102.
  21. ^ Owen Pearson (2006). Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History : Volume II: Albania in Occupation and War, 1939–45. London: I. B. Tauris. p. 167. ISBN 1-84511-104-4.
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ Kallis, Aristotle A. (2000), Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922–1945, Routledge, pp. 132–133
  24. ^ Fischer, Bernd Jürgen (1999), Albania at War, 1939–1945, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, pp. 73–79, ISBN 978-1-85065-531-2
  25. ^ Danilo Zolo. Invoking humanity: war, law, and global order. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002. Pp. 24.
  26. ^ Angelo Piero Sereni, "The Legal Status of Albania", The American Political Science Review 35 2 (1941): 317.
  27. ^ Pieter Hidri, General Prenk Pervizi, Tirana, Toena, 2002.
  28. ^ Julian Amery, The sons of the Eagle, London, 1946, s. 302–306
  29. ^ Rodogno., Davide (2006). Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0-521-84515-7.
  30. ^ a b c Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European empire. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006 Pp. 79.
  31. ^ Great Britain, War Office; Italy OR 5301 (1943)
  32. ^ Great Britain, War Office; Albania OR 5824 (1943)
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European empire. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006 Pp. 293.

Other bibliography

  • Reginald Hibbert, The Bitter Victory, London, New York, 1993

External links

Coordinates: 41°32′06″N 19°49′12″E / 41.5350°N 19.8200°E

Albanian Fascist Party

The Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian: Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë, or PFSh) was a Fascist organization active during World War II which held nominal power in Albania from 1939, when the country was conquered by Italy, until 1943, when Italy capitulated to the Allies. Afterwards, Albania fell under German occupation, and the PFSh was replaced by the Guard of Greater Albania.

Alberto Pariani

Alberto Pariani (27 November 1876, Milan – 1 March 1955) was an Italian general.He fought during World War I, and ended the war as a commander of the 6th Alpini Regiment. From 1925 to 1926 he was Operations Chief of the Army General Staff. From 1927 to 1933 he served as a military attaché to Albania and simultaneously as head of the Italian Military Mission in the country.

He was promoted to full General in 1933 and named commander of the 11th Division Brennero until 1934. From 1934 to 1936 he was Deputy Chief of the General Staff, and from 1936 to 1939 he was Chief of the General Staff and Under-Secretary of War.

In 1939 he retired, but in 1943 he was recalled as a general commander of the Italian forces operating in Albania and as a General Governor of Albania (replacing Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino). In Albania, he resided with his family in the Presidential Palace of Tirana.

In September 1943, at the moment of the Italian armistice he was captured by the German Army and arrested. He was also arrested at the end of World War II for crimes alleged to have been committed during service in the Fascist regime, from which he was acquitted in 1947.

Alfredo Guzzoni

Alfredo Guzzoni (12 April 1877 – 15 April 1965) was an Italian military officer who served in both World War I and World War II.

Balli Kombëtar

The Balli Kombëtar (literally National Front), known as Balli, was an Albanian nationalist anti-communist resistance movement and a political organization established in November 1942. It was led by Ali Këlcyra and Midhat Frashëri and was formed by members from the landowning elite, liberal nationalists opposed to communism and other sectors of society in Albania. The motto of the Balli Kombëtar was: "Shqipëria Shqiptarëve, Vdekje Tradhëtarëve" (Albania for the Albanians, Death to the Traitors). Eventually the Balli Kombëtar joined the Nazi established puppet government and fought as an ally against anti-fascist guerrilla groups.

Francesco Jacomoni

Viceré Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino (31 August 1893 – 17 February 1973) was an Italian diplomat and governor of Albania before and during World War II.

Italian colonists in Albania

The Italian colonists in Albania were Italians who, between the two world wars, moved to Albania to colonize the Balkan country for the Kingdom of Italy.

Italian invasion of Albania

The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Kingdom of Albania. The conflict was a result of the imperialist policies of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Albania was rapidly overrun, its ruler, King Zog I, forced into exile, and the country made part of the Italian Empire as a protectorate in personal union with the Italian crown.

Kingdom of Romania

The Kingdom of Romania (Romanian: Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy that existed in Romania from 26 March 1881 with the crowning of prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen as King Carol I, until 1947 with the abdication of King Michael I of Romania, and the Romanian parliament proclaiming Romania a socialist republic.

From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to an autonomous principality with a Hohenzollern monarchy. The country gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire during the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War (known locally as the Romanian War of Independence), when it also received Northern Dobruja in exchange for the southern part of Bessarabia. The kingdom's territory during the reign of King Carol I, between 14 March (O.S.) (27 March (N.S.)) 1881 and 27 September (O.S.) (10 October (N.S.)) 1914 is sometimes referred as the Romanian Old Kingdom, to distinguish it from "Greater Romania", which included the provinces that became part of the state after World War I (Bessarabia, Banat, Bukovina, and Transylvania).

With the exception of the southern halves of Bukovina and Transylvania, these territories were ceded to neighboring countries in 1940, under the pressure of Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union. Following a disastrous World War II campaign on the side of the Axis powers and name change (Legionary Romania), Romania joined the Allies in 1944, recovering Northern Transylvania. The influence of the neighboring Soviet Union and the policies followed by Communist-dominated coalition governments ultimately led to the abolition of the monarchy, with Romania becoming a People's Republic on the last day of 1947.

Prenk Pervizi

Prenk Pervizi (4 May 1897–6 September 1977) was an Albanian military figure, General of the Albanian army, who also served as Minister of Defence for a short period during World War II.

Pervizi attended the Military Academy in Vienna, Austria, from 1914–1918, and later in Torino, 1930–1933. As a military figure, he was a protagonist in the foreground of Albanian history in the years between 1918–1944. Friend and right-hand man of King Zog, he remained loyal from the beginning to the end to him and the Albanian Kingdom, 1928-1939. During World War II he was involved in military operations. Recruited by the Italians and sent to the first line of combat, he came into conflict with them, withdrawing the Albanian troops from the Greco-Italian War. He also opposed the German SS troops recruitment process in Albania. Bitter opponent of the communists, after failed attempts to engage some serious support from the British emissaries, he was forced to exile, first in Greece and later in Belgium as a political refugee. He spent the rest of his life in Belgium, where he died at age 80, on September 6, 1977.


The Vulnetari ("volunteers") were a volunteer militia of Albanians from Kosovo set up in 1941 by Italian forces after the successful invasion of Yugoslavia. They served as an auxiliary force for civilian control and protection of villages.Some of the militia served as frontier guards under both Italian and German rule. The Vulnetari fought only in their own local areas, so they fought against both Partisans and Chetniks, "against whom they showed themselves skilled and determined fighters". The Vulnetari of the region of Đakovica went to Plav and Gusinje to support the Italian counteroffensive during the Uprising in Montenegro.Independently, Vulnetari units often attacked ethnic Serbs and carried out raids against civilian targets. According to Serbian scholars, the Vulnetari burned down hundreds of Serbian and Montenegrin villages, killed many people, and carried out plundering campaigns both in Kosovo and Metohija and in neighboring regions.At the end of World War II, the militia was used to protect retreating German forces. After German forces retreated through Kosovo, members of the Vulnetari militia hid themselves in their villages.

World War II in Albania

In Albania, World War II began with its invasion by Italy in April 1939. Fascist Italy set up Albania as its protectorate or puppet state. The resistance was largely carried out by Communist groups against the Italian (until 1943) and then German occupation in Albania. At first independent, the Communist groups united in the beginning of 1942, which ultimately led to the successful liberation of the country in 1944.

The Center for Relief to Civilian Populations (Geneva) reported that Albania was one of the most devastated countries in Europe. 60,000 houses were destroyed and about 10% of the population was left homeless.

Countries and territories occupied by the Italian Empire during World War II
Occupied Territory
Colonial Empire

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