Isotopes of lutetium

Naturally occurring lutetium (71Lu) is composed of 1 stable isotope 175Lu (97.41% natural abundance) and one long-lived radioisotope, 176Lu with a half-life of 3.78 × 1010 years (2.59% natural abundance). Thirty-four radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable, besides 176Lu, being 174Lu with a half-life of 3.31 years, and 173Lu with a half-life of 1.37 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 9 days, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than half an hour. This element also has 18 meta states, with the most stable being 177mLu (t1/2 160.4 days), 174mLu (t1/2 142 days) and 178mLu (t1/2 23.1 minutes).

The isotopes of lutetium range in atomic weight from 149.973 (150Lu) to 183.961 (184Lu). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 175Lu, is electron capture (with some alpha and positron emission), and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay products before 175Lu are isotopes of ytterbium and the primary products after are isotopes of hafnium.

Main isotopes of lutetium (71Lu)
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
173Lu syn 1.37 y ε 173Yb
174Lu syn 3.31 y ε 174Yb
175Lu 97.401% stable
176Lu 2.599% 3.78×1010 y β 176Hf
Standard atomic weight Ar, standard(Lu)

List of isotopes

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life[n 1] decay
mode(s)[2][n 2]
daughter
isotope(s)[n 3]
nuclear
spin and
parity
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
150Lu 71 79 149.97323(54)# 43(5) ms p (80%) 149Yb (2+)
β+ (20%) 150Yb
150mLu 34(15) keV 80(60) µs
[30(+95−15) µs]
p 149Yb (1,2)
151Lu 71 80 150.96757682 80.6(5) ms p (63.4%) 150Yb (11/2−)
β+ (36.6%) 151Yb
151mLu 77(5) keV 16(1) µs p 150Yb (3/2+)
152Lu 71 81 151.96412(21)# 650(70) ms β+ (85%) 152Yb (5−,6−)
β+, p (15%) 151Tm
153Lu 71 82 152.95877(22) 0.9(2) s α (70%) 149Tm 11/2−
β+ (30%) 153Yb
153m1Lu 80(5) keV 1# s IT 153Lu 1/2+
153m2Lu 2502.5(4) keV >0.1 µs IT 153Lu 23/2−
153m3Lu 2632.9(5) keV 15(3) µs IT 153m2Lu 27/2−
154Lu 71 83 153.95752(22)# 1# s β+ 154Yb (2−)
154m1Lu 58(13) keV 1.12(8) s (9+)
154m2Lu >2562 keV 35(3) µs (17+)
155Lu 71 84 154.954316(22) 68.6(16) ms α (76%) 151Tm (11/2−)
β+ (24%) 155Yb
155m1Lu 20(6) keV 138(8) ms α (88%) 151Tm (1/2+)
β+ (12%) 155Yb
155m2Lu 1781.0(20) keV 2.70(3) ms (25/2−)
156Lu 71 85 155.95303(8) 494(12) ms α (95%) 152Tm (2)−
β+ (5%) 156Yb
156mLu 220(80)# keV 198(2) ms α (94%) 152Tm (9)+
β+ (6%) 156Yb
157Lu 71 86 156.950098(20) 6.8(18) s β+ 157Yb (1/2+,3/2+)
α 153Tm
157mLu 21.0(20) keV 4.79(12) s β+ (94%) 157Yb (11/2−)
α (6%) 153Tm
158Lu 71 87 157.949313(16) 10.6(3) s β+ (99.09%) 158Yb 2−
α (.91%) 154Tm
159Lu 71 88 158.94663(4) 12.1(10) s β+ (99.96%) 159Yb 1/2+#
α (.04%) 155Tm
159mLu 100(80)# keV 10# s 11/2−#
160Lu 71 89 159.94603(6) 36.1(3) s β+ 160Yb 2−#
α (10−4%) 156Tm
160mLu 0(100)# keV 40(1) s
161Lu 71 90 160.94357(3) 77(2) s β+ 161Yb 1/2+
161mLu 166(18) keV 7.3(4) ms IT 161Lu (9/2−)
162Lu 71 91 161.94328(8) 1.37(2) min β+ 162Yb (1−)
162m1Lu 120(200)# keV 1.5 min β+ 162Yb 4−#
IT (rare) 162Lu
162m2Lu 300(200)# keV 1.9 min
163Lu 71 92 162.94118(3) 3.97(13) min β+ 163Yb 1/2(+)
164Lu 71 93 163.94134(3) 3.14(3) min β+ 164Yb 1(−)
165Lu 71 94 164.939407(28) 10.74(10) min β+ 165Yb 1/2+
166Lu 71 95 165.93986(3) 2.65(10) min β+ 166Yb (6−)
166m1Lu 34.37(5) keV 1.41(10) min EC (58%) 166Yb 3(−)
IT (42%) 166Lu
166m2Lu 42.9(5) keV 2.12(10) min 0(−)
167Lu 71 96 166.93827(3) 51.5(10) min β+ 167Yb 7/2+
167mLu 0(30)# keV >1 min 1/2(−#)
168Lu 71 97 167.93874(5) 5.5(1) min β+ 168Yb (6−)
168mLu 180(110) keV 6.7(4) min β+ (95%) 168Yb 3+
IT (5%) 168Lu
169Lu 71 98 168.937651(6) 34.06(5) h β+ 169Yb 7/2+
169mLu 29.0(5) keV 160(10) s IT 169Lu 1/2−
170Lu 71 99 169.938475(18) 2.012(20) d β+ 170Yb 0+
170mLu 92.91(9) keV 670(100) ms IT 170Lu (4)−
171Lu 71 100 170.9379131(30) 8.24(3) d β+ 171Yb 7/2+
171mLu 71.13(8) keV 79(2) s IT 171Lu 1/2−
172Lu 71 101 171.939086(3) 6.70(3) d β+ 172Yb 4−
172m1Lu 41.86(4) keV 3.7(5) min IT 172Lu 1−
172m2Lu 65.79(4) keV 0.332(20) µs (1)+
172m3Lu 109.41(10) keV 440(12) µs (1)+
172m4Lu 213.57(17) keV 150 ns (6−)
173Lu 71 102 172.9389306(26) 1.37(1) y EC 173Yb 7/2+
173mLu 123.672(13) keV 74.2(10) µs 5/2−
174Lu 71 103 173.9403375(26) 3.31(5) y β+ 174Yb (1)−
174m1Lu 170.83(5) keV 142(2) d IT (99.38%) 174Lu 6−
EC (.62%) 174Yb
174m2Lu 240.818(4) keV 395(15) ns (3+)
174m3Lu 365.183(6) keV 145(3) ns (4−)
175Lu 71 104 174.9407718(23) Observationally Stable[n 4] 7/2+ 0.9741(2)
175m1Lu 1392.2(6) keV 984(30) µs (19/2+)
175m2Lu 353.48(13) keV 1.49(7) µs 5/2−
176Lu[n 5][n 6] 71 105 175.9426863(23) 38.5(7)×109 y β 176Hf 7− 0.0259(2)
176mLu 122.855(6) keV 3.664(19) h β (99.9%) 176Hf 1−
EC (.095%) 176Yb
177Lu 71 106 176.9437581(23) 6.6475(20) d β 177Hf 7/2+
177m1Lu 150.3967(10) keV 130(3) ns 9/2−
177m2Lu 569.7068(16) keV 155(7) µs 1/2+
177m3Lu 970.1750(24) keV 160.44(6) d β (78.3%) 177Hf 23/2−
IT (21.7%) 177Lu
177m4Lu 3900(10) keV 7(2) min
[6(+3−2) min]
39/2−
178Lu 71 107 177.945955(3) 28.4(2) min β 178Hf 1(+)
178mLu 123.8(26) keV 23.1(3) min β 178Hf 9(−)
179Lu 71 108 178.947327(6) 4.59(6) h β 179Hf 7/2(+)
179mLu 592.4(4) keV 3.1(9) ms IT 179Lu 1/2(+)
180Lu 71 109 179.94988(8) 5.7(1) min β 180Hf 5+
180m1Lu 13.9(3) keV ~1 s IT 180Lu 3−
180m2Lu 624.0(5) keV >=1 ms (9−)
181Lu 71 110 180.95197(32)# 3.5(3) min β 181Hf (7/2+)
182Lu 71 111 181.95504(21)# 2.0(2) min β 182Hf (0,1,2)
183Lu 71 112 182.95757(32)# 58(4) s β 183Hf (7/2+)
184Lu 71 113 183.96091(43)# 20(3) s β 184Hf (3+)
  1. ^ Bold for isotopes with half-lives longer than the age of the universe (nearly stable)
  2. ^ Abbreviations:
    EC: Electron capture
    IT: Isomeric transition
  3. ^ Bold for stable isotopes
  4. ^ Believed to undergo α decay to 171Tm
  5. ^ primordial radionuclide
  6. ^ Used in lutetium-hafnium dating

Notes

  • Geologically exceptional samples are known in which the isotopic composition lies outside the reported range. The uncertainty in the atomic mass may exceed the stated value for such specimens.
  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC, which use expanded uncertainties.

References

  1. ^ Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. ^ "Universal Nuclide Chart". nucleonica.
Isotopes of ytterbium

Naturally occurring Ytterbium (70Yb) is composed of 7 stable isotopes, 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, and 176Yb, with 174Yb being the most abundant (31.83% natural abundance). Twenty-seven radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 169Yb with a half-life of 32.026 days, 175Yb with a half-life of 4.185 days, and 166Yb with a half-life of 56.7 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 2 hours, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 20 minutes. This element also has 12 meta states, with the most stable being 169mYb (t1/2 46 seconds).

The isotopes of ytterbium range in atomic weight from 147.967 u (148Yb) to 180.9562 u (181Yb). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 174Yb is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay products before 174Yb are isotopes of thulium, and the primary products after are isotopes of lutetium. Of interest to modern quantum optics, the different ytterbium isotopes follow either Bose–Einstein statistics or Fermi–Dirac statistics, leading to interesting behavior in optical lattices.

Lutetium

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earths. Lutetium is sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals, although lanthanum is more often considered as such.

Lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain, Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, and American chemist Charles James. All of these researchers found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia, which was previously thought to consist entirely of ytterbium. The dispute on the priority of the discovery occurred shortly after, with Urbain and Welsbach accusing each other of publishing results influenced by the published research of the other; the naming honor went to Urbain, as he had published his results earlier. He chose the name lutecium for the new element, but in 1949 the spelling of element 71 was changed to lutetium. In 1909, the priority was finally granted to Urbain and his names were adopted as official ones; however, the name cassiopeium (or later cassiopium) for element 71 proposed by Welsbach was used by many German scientists until the 1950s.

Lutetium is not a particularly abundant element, although it is significantly more common than silver in the earth's crust. It has few specific uses. Lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant (2.5%) radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, used to determine the age of minerals and meteorites. Lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for radionuclide therapy (see Nuclear medicine) on neuroendocrine tumours. Lutetium has the highest Brinell hardness of any lanthanide, at 890–1300 MPa.

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