Isolated Power

In baseball, Isolated Power or ISO is a sabermetric computation used to measure a batter's raw power. One formula is slugging percentage minus batting average.

The final result measures how many extra bases a player averages per at bat. A player who hits only singles would thus have an ISO of 0. The maximum ISO is 3.000, and can only be attained by hitting a home run in every at-bat.

The term "Isolated Power" was coined by Bill James, but the concept dates back to Branch Rickey and his statistician Allan Roth.[1]

See also


  1. ^ McCue, Andy. "Allan Roth". Society for American Baseball Research. Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
1933 Chesapeake–Potomac hurricane

The 1933 Chesapeake–Potomac hurricane was among the most damaging hurricanes in the Mid-Atlantic states in the eastern United States. The sixth storm and third hurricane of the very active 1933 Atlantic hurricane season, it formed in the eastern Atlantic, where it moved west-northwestward and eventually became a Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. A strong ridge over New England allowed a continued northwest course, bringing the storm south of Bermuda and later toward the middle coast of the eastern United States. Advance warning allowed hundreds of people to evacuate ahead of the hurricane making landfall. It did so in northeastern North Carolina on August 23 with winds of about 90 mph (150 km/h). Soon after, the eye crossed over Norfolk, Virginia, the first time that happened since 1821. The hurricane weakened into a tropical storm over northern Virginia shortly before passing near Washington, D.C., becoming the worst tropical cyclone there since 1896. Curving northward, the storm moved through Pennsylvania and New York before losing tropical characteristics on August 25. Now extratropical, the former hurricane moved across Atlantic Canada, dissipating on August 28.

Across the eastern United States, the hurricane left widespread damage amounting to over $40 million (equivalent to about $0.6 billion in 2018) and causing 47 deaths. Although the storm struck North Carolina, damage in the state totaled only about $250,000, largely to crops and transport. Along the Chesapeake Bay, the storm produced 100-year flooding from its storm surge, setting records that remained for over 80 years. In Virginia, flooding covered downtown portions of Norfolk in the southeast and Alexandria in the north. Damage in the state was estimated at $17.5 million. Similarly heavy damage occurred in Maryland, including over $7 million to crops. High waves along the coast eroded beaches and created a new inlet at Ocean City. The highest rainfall associated with the hurricane was 13.28 in (337 mm) at York, Pennsylvania. In the state, the rains flooded several rivers which forced thousands to evacuate. In neighboring New Jersey, high waves wrecked boats and destroyed a fishing pier, while in New York, flooding caused traffic jams. In Atlantic Canada, heavy rainfall assisted firefighters in combating wildfires, and the associated winds caused isolated power outages.

Albert Pujols

José Alberto Pujols Alcántara (born January 16, 1980) is a Dominican-American professional baseball first baseman and designated hitter for the Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball (MLB). He previously played 11 seasons for the St. Louis Cardinals, with whom he was a three-time National League (NL) Most Valuable Player (MVP) (2005, 2008, 2009) and nine-time All-Star (2001, 2003–2010). He then was a one-time All-Star additionally with the Angels in 2015. A right-handed batter and thrower, Pujols stands 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) tall and weighs 235 pounds (107 kg).

Pujols was born in the Dominican Republic and moved to the United States in 1996. After one season of college baseball, he was selected by the Cardinals in the 13th round of the 1999 MLB draft. As a rookie for the Cardinals in 2001, he was unanimously voted the NL Rookie of the Year. Pujols played for the Cardinals, contributing to two World Series championships in 2006 and 2011. After the 2011 season, Pujols became a free agent and signed a 10-year contract with the Angels.

Pujols was, at the height of his career, a highly regarded hitter who showed a "combination of contact hitting ability, patience and raw power." He is a six-time Silver Slugger who has twice led the NL in home runs, and he has also led the NL once each in batting average, doubles and RBI. He is significantly above-average in career regular season batting average (.301), walk rate (10.9 percent) and Isolated Power (.251). He holds the MLB all-time record for most times grounded into a double play (376). With 14 seasons of 100 or more RBI produced, he is tied with Alex Rodriguez for the most in MLB history. Pujols got his 3,000th career hit in 2018, becoming the 32nd player in MLB history to do so. Pujols also became the fourth member of the 3,000-hit club to also hit 600 home runs, joining Willie Mays, Hank Aaron, and Rodriguez in this exclusive club. Pujols is considered a strong future candidate for the Hall of Fame.

Alcides Escobar

Alcides Escobar [al-see'-des / es-co-bar'] (born December 16, 1986) is a Venezuelan professional baseball shortstop in the Chicago White Sox organization. He has played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Milwaukee Brewers and Kansas City Royals.

Baseball statistics

Baseball statistics play an important role in evaluating the progress of a player or team.

Since the flow of a baseball game has natural breaks to it, and normally players act individually rather than performing in clusters, the sport lends itself to easy record-keeping and statistics. Statistics have been kept for professional baseball since the creation of the National League and American League, now part of Major League Baseball.

Many statistics are also available from outside Major League Baseball, from leagues such as the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players and the Negro Leagues, although the consistency of whether these records were kept, of the standards with respect to which they were calculated, and of their accuracy has varied.

February 2019 North American winter storm

The February 2019 North American winter storm, also known as Winter Storm Maya in the United States, was one of three powerful winter storms that affected the continent early February. This storm, in particular, paralyzed travel in parts of the Midwest, Northeast as well as Eastern Canada.

Frank Williams (baseball)

Frank Lee Williams (February 13, 1958 – January 9, 2009), born in Seattle, Washington, was a major league baseball player from 1984 through 1989.

Williams and his twin brother, of Tseshaht First Nation heritage, were given up for adoption at birth, and after some years in foster homes were raised in suburban Kirkland, Washington by Boeing engineer Dick McCullough. Williams attended Shoreline Community College in Seattle, then Lewis-Clark State College in Idaho, where he attracted the attention of scouts (and engaged in amateur tough man boxing in the offseason).Williams was drafted by the San Francisco Giants in the 11th round of the 1979 amateur draft, and, after pitching for Great Falls, Fresno, Shreveport, and Phoenix, made his major league debut in 1984. A middle reliever, he pitched a shutout in his rookie season but started no other games and was credited with only eight saves over his six-season, 333-game career.His best season was 1986, when he had a 1.20 earned run average, and, with 34 singles and one double given up in 52.1 innings, a defensive isolated power percentage (slugging percentage allowed minus batting average allowed, a measure of extra bases allowed on hits) of .006 – as of 2014, the lowest such percentage of anyone pitching 50 or more innings in records going back to 1957. He was traded in the offseason to the Cincinnati Reds and finished with the Detroit Tigers in 1989.After baseball, Williams suffered various misfortunes including a serious car accident, the breakup of his marriage, and the death of his twin brother, and experienced alcoholism. He died in Victoria, British Columbia in January 2009 after suffering complications from pneumonia. He is remembered by a son, Tyler Lee Williams, and a daughter, Lyndsay Kae Williams, both of Kendrick, Idaho.

Hanley Ramírez

Hanley Ramírez (born December 23, 1983) is a Dominican-American professional baseball infielder and designated hitter who is currently a free agent. He has played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Boston Red Sox, Florida / Miami Marlins, Los Angeles Dodgers, and Cleveland Indians. Ramírez is a three-time MLB All-Star, and received the 2006 National League Rookie of the Year Award.

Ramírez established himself as an elite threat at the plate over his prime years, with a high career batting average (.290) and a high isolated power (.198). However, he was rated a poor defensive shortstop, which is why when he returned to the Red Sox the team played him in left field for the first time in his career, with even poorer results. For the 2016 season, he was switched to the first base position, a move that yielded good results both offensively and defensively. His hitting declined in 2017 and 2018, as he had the lowest batting average and the lowest OPS of his MLB career.

Home runs per hit

In baseball statistics, home run per hit (HR/H) is the percentage of hits that are home runs. It is loosely related to isolated power, which is the ability to hit for extra-base hits, including home runs. Power hitters, players who readily hit many home runs tend to have higher HR/H than contact hitters. A player hitting 30 home runs and have 150 hits in a season would have HR/H of .200, while a player who hit 8 home runs and have 200 hits in a season would have H/HR of .040.

HR/H ratio has gotten higher over time. From 1959 to 2007, HR/H for leading power hitters in MLB was .3312, with the ratio being the highest from 1995 to 2001. The highest HR/H ratio of any player was Mark McGwire at .3585 or 2.8 hits per home run.

Hurricane Carol (1953)

Hurricane Carol in 1953 was the strongest storm of the 1953 Atlantic hurricane season and the first Category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic basin since the 1938 New England hurricane. Carol is also the first named storm to attain Category 5 status. Carol developed on August 28 off the west coast of Africa, although the Weather Bureau did not initiate advisories until five days later. On September 2, Carol attained hurricane status, based on a ship report. It moved northwestward, attaining peak winds of 160 mph (260 km/h), based on reports from the Hurricane Hunters. After weakening, it brushed Bermuda and turned northeastward near New England, passing west of Nova Scotia before making landfall near Saint John, New Brunswick on September 7. While crossing Atlantic Canada, Carol became an extratropical cyclone, which dissipated on September 9 southwest of Greenland.

When Carol initially threatened to strike Bermuda, several planes were evacuated from the island. Later, the hurricane produced high waves along the New England coastline which, in combination with foggy conditions, caused several boating accidents. At least 40 people required rescue, and four people were killed. Although winds in the region were minor, fishing damage totaled about $1 million (1953 USD, $9.36 million 2019 USD). In Nova Scotia, hurricane-force wind gusts downed trees and power lines, as well as heavy damage to the apple crop totaling $1 million (1950 CAD, $9.68 million 2019 USD). High waves washed several boats ashore, and also killed one person. Ferry travel was halted across Atlantic Canada, although impact was less severe outside of Nova Scotia. In Prince Edward Island, gusty winds caused isolated power outages, and minor flooding occurred in New Brunswick.

Hurricane King

Hurricane King was the most severe hurricane to strike the city of Miami, Florida since the 1926 Miami hurricane. It was the eleventh tropical storm and the last of six major hurricanes in the 1950 Atlantic hurricane season. The cyclone formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 13, and initially moved northeastward, slowly strengthening. Hurricane King crossed Cuba on October 17, causing seven deaths and $2 million in damage (1950 USD). It reached its peak intensity of 130 mph (210 km/h) and subsequently made landfall on downtown Miami. The hurricane damaged 20,861 houses in southern Florida, 580 of them severely, and destroyed a further 248. Further inland, King caused heavy crop damage, particularly to the citrus industry. After weakening to a tropical storm, King moved across Georgia, where it caused isolated power outages and minor damage. Across the United States, the hurricane left four fatalities and $30 million in damage ($316,000,000 in 2014 USD).

Isolation amplifier

Isolation amplifiers are a form of differential amplifier that allow measurement of small signals in the presence of a high common mode voltage by providing electrical isolation and an electrical safety barrier. They protect data acquisition components from common mode voltages, which are potential differences between instrument ground and signal ground. Instruments that are applied in the presence of a common mode voltage without an isolation barrier allow ground currents to circulate, leading in the best case to a noisy representation of the signal under investigation. In the worst case, assuming that the magnitude of common mode voltage or current is sufficient, instrument destruction is likely. Isolation amplifiers are used in medical instruments to ensure isolation of a patient from power supply leakage current.Amplifiers with an isolation barrier allow the front-end of the amplifier to float with respect to common mode voltage to the limit of the barrier's breakdown voltage, which is often 1,000 volts or more. This action protects the amplifier and the instrument connected to it, while still allowing a reasonably accurate measurement.

These amplifiers are also used for amplifying low-level signals in multi-channel applications. They can also eliminate measurement errors caused by ground loops. Amplifiers with internal transformers eliminate external isolated power supply. They are usually used as analogue interfaces between systems with separated grounds.

Isolation amplifiers may include isolated power supplies for both the input and output stages, or may use external power supplies on each isolated portion.


Lockout-tagout (LOTO) or lock and tag is a safety procedure used in industry and research settings to ensure that dangerous machines are properly shut off and not able to be started up again prior to the completion of maintenance or repair work. It requires that hazardous energy sources be "isolated and rendered inoperative" before work is started on the equipment in question. The isolated power sources are then locked and a tag is placed on the lock identifying the worker who placed it. The worker then holds the key for the lock, ensuring that only he or she can remove the lock and start the machine. This prevents accidental startup of a machine while it is in a hazardous state or while a worker is in direct contact with it.Lockout-tagout is used across industries as a safe method of working on hazardous equipment and is mandated by law in some countries.


A magneto is an electrical generator that uses permanent magnets to produce periodic pulses of alternating current. Unlike a dynamo, a magneto does not contain a commutator to produce direct current. It is categorized as a form of alternator, although it is usually considered distinct from most other alternators, which use field coils rather than permanent magnets.

Hand-cranked magneto generators were used to provide ringing current in telephone systems. Magnetos were also adapted to produce pulses of high voltage in the ignition systems of some gasoline-powered internal combustion engines to provide power to the spark plugs. Use of such ignition magnetos for ignition is now limited mainly to engines without a low-voltage electrical system, such as lawnmowers and chainsaws, and to aircraft engines, in which keeping the ignition independent of the rest of the electrical system ensures that the engine continues running in the event of alternator or battery failure. For redundancy, virtually all piston engine aircraft are fitted with two magneto systems, each supplying power to one of two spark plugs in each cylinder.

Magnetos were used for specialized isolated power systems such as arc lamp systems or lighthouses, for which their simplicity was an advantage. They have never been widely applied for the purposes of bulk electricity generation, for the same purposes or to the same extent as either dynamos or alternators. Only in a few specialised cases, as described here, have they been used for power generation.

Mike Trout

Michael Nelson Trout (born August 7, 1991) is an American professional baseball center fielder for the Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball (MLB). Trout is a eight-time MLB All-Star, received the American League (AL) Most Valuable Player (MVP) award in 2014 and 2016 (finishing second in the 2012, 2013, 2015, and 2018 votes), and is a six-time winner of the Silver Slugger Award. He is nicknamed "The Millville Meteor."

The Angels selected Trout in the first round of the 2009 MLB draft. He made a brief major league appearance in 2011 before becoming a regular player for the Angels the subsequent season, and won the 2012 AL Rookie of the Year Award unanimously.

Trout's athleticism on the field has received praise from both the mainstream media and sabermetricians. He is regarded as one of the most outstanding young players in the history of baseball, as well as one of the best current players in all of MLB. Trout led the American League in wins above replacement (WAR) in each of his first five full seasons (according to Fangraphs and has led the American League in runs (2012–14, 2016) and times on base (2013, 2015–16, 2018) four times. As of 2018, he led all active major league ballplayers in career slugging percentage (.573), on base plus slugging (.990), and stolen base percentage (84.75%), and was second in career on base percentage (.416). In 2019, he signed a 12-year, $426 million contract with the Angels, the richest contract in the history of North American sports.

Operating reserve

In electricity networks, the operating reserve is the generating capacity available to the system operator within a short interval of time to meet demand in case a generator goes down or there is another disruption to the supply. Most power systems are designed so that, under normal conditions, the operating reserve is always at least the capacity of the largest generator plus a fraction of the peak load.The operating reserve is made up of the spinning reserve as well as the non-spinning or supplemental reserve:

The spinning reserve is the extra generating capacity that is available by increasing the power output of generators that are already connected to the power system. For most generators, this increase in power output is achieved by increasing the torque applied to the turbine's rotor.

The non-spinning reserve or supplemental reserve is the extra generating capacity that is not currently connected to the system but can be brought online after a short delay. In isolated power systems, this typically equates to the power available from fast-start generators. However, in interconnected power systems, this may include the power available on short notice by importing power from other systems or retracting power that is currently being exported to other systems.Generators that intend to provide either spinning and non-spinning reserve should be able to reach their promised capacity within roughly ten minutes. Most power system guidelines require a significant fraction of their operating reserve to come from spinning reserve. This is because the spinning reserve is slightly more reliable (it doesn't suffer from start-up issues) and can respond immediately whereas with non-spinning reserve generators there is a delay as the generator starts-up offline.In addition, there are two other kinds of reserve power that are often discussed in combination with the operating reserve: the frequency-response reserve and the replacement reserve.

The frequency-response reserve (also known as regulating reserve) is provided as an automatic reaction to a loss in supply. It occurs because immediately following a loss of supply, the generators slow down due to the increased load. To combat this slowing, many generators have a governor. By helping the generators to speed up, these governors provide a small boost to both the output frequency and the power of each generator. However, because the frequency-response reserve is often small and not at the discretion of the system operator it is not considered part of the operating reserve.

The replacement reserve (also known as contingency reserve) is reserve power provided by generators that require a longer start-up time (typically thirty to sixty minutes). It is used to relieve the generators providing the spinning or non-spinning reserve and thus restore the operating reserve (confusingly the replacement reserve is sometimes known as the 30 or 60-minute operating reserve).Operating reserve is a crucial concept for ensuring that the day-ahead planning of generators' schedule can withstand the uncertainty due to unforeseen variations in the load profile or equipment (generators, transformers, transmission links) faults.

The California System Operator has an operating reserve at 6% of the metered load. Included in that is a spinning reserve at 3% of the metered load.

Power hitter

Power hitter is a term used in baseball for a skilled player that has a higher than average ability in terms of his batting, featuring a combination of dexterity and personal strength that likely leads to a high number of home-runs as well as doubles and triples.

In terms of detailed analysis, looking at a player's ability as a power hitter often involves using statistics such as someone's 'slugging percentage' (a function that's calculated by evaluating someone's number of moments at bat in relation to the nature of their hits and strikes). 'Isolated Power' (ISO), a measure showing the number of extra bases earned per time at bat that's calculated by subtracting someone's batting average from his slugging percentage, is another statistic used.The concept generally is analogous to that of a power pitcher, a player who relies on the velocity of his pitches (perhaps at the expense of accuracy) and a high record of strikeout associated with them (statistics such as strikeouts per nine innings pitched are common measures).

Public Power Corporation

The Public Power Corporation S.A. (Greek: Δημόσια Επιχείρηση Ηλεκτρισμού, romanized: Dimosia Epicheirisi Ilektrismou; ΔΕΗ) is the biggest electric power company in Greece. It is controlled by the Greek government, which owns a majority of the issued shares(51,12%).

Run batted in

A run batted in (RBI), plural runs batted in (RBI or RBIs), is a statistic in baseball and softball that credits a batter for making a play that allows a run to be scored (except in certain situations such as when an error is made on the play). For example, if the batter bats a base hit, then another player on a higher base can head home to score a run, and the batter gets credited with batting in that run.

Before the 1920 Major League Baseball season, runs batted in were not an official baseball statistic. Nevertheless, the RBI statistic was tabulated—unofficially—from 1907 through 1919 by baseball writer Ernie Lanigan, according to the Society for American Baseball Research.Common nicknames for an RBI include "ribby" (or "ribbie"), "rib", and "ribeye". The plural of RBI is generally "RBIs", although some commentators use "RBI" as both singular and plural, as it can also stand for "runs batted in".

Base running


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