Isma'il Pasha (Arabic: إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Sharing the ambitious outlook of his grandfather, Muhammad Ali Pasha, he greatly modernized Egypt and Sudan during his reign, investing heavily in industrial and economic development, urbanisation, and the expansion of the country's boundaries in Africa.
His philosophy can be glimpsed at in a statement that he made in 1879: "My country is no longer in Africa; we are now part of Europe. It is therefore natural for us to abandon our former ways and to adopt a new system adapted to our social conditions".
In 1867 he also secured Ottoman and international recognition for his title of Khedive (Viceroy) in preference to Wāli (Governor) which was previously used by his predecessors in the Ottoman Eyalet of Egypt and Sudan (1517–1867). However, Isma'il's policies placed the Ottoman Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan (1867–1914) in severe debt, leading to the sale of the country's shares in the Suez Canal Company to the United Kingdom, and his ultimate toppling from power at British hands.
|Khedive of Egypt and Sudan|
|Reign||19 January 1863 – 26 June 1879|
|Predecessor||Sa'id I (Wāli)|
|Born||31 December 1830|
|Died||2 March 1895 (aged 64)|
|Spouse||Shehret Feza Hanim|
Jeshm Afet Hanim
Shafaq Nur Hanim
Nur Felek Kadin
Misl Melek Kadin
Jihan Shah Kadin
Bezmi Alem Kadin
Hur Jenan Kadin
Jamal Nur Kadin
Misl Jihan Kadin
Felek Naz Kadin
Hussein Kamel of Egypt
Fuad I of Egypt
Prince Ali Jamal ud-din Pasha
|Dynasty||Muhammad Ali Dynasty|
The second of the three sons of Ibrahim Pasha, and the grandson of Muhammad Ali, Ismail, of Albanian descent, was born in Cairo at Al Musafir Khana Palace. His mother was Circassian Hoshiar (Khushiyar Khater), third wife of his father. She was reportedly a sister of Valide Sultan Pertevniyal (1812–1883). Pertevniyal was a wife of Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire and mother of Abdülaziz I.
After receiving a European education in Paris where he attended the École d'état-major, he returned home, and on the death of his elder brother became heir to his uncle, Said I, the Wāli and Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. Said, who apparently conceived his own safety to lie in ridding himself as much as possible of the presence of his nephew, employed him in the next few years on missions abroad, notably to the Pope, the Emperor Napoleon III, and the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. In 1861 he was dispatched at the head of an army of 18,000 to quell an insurrection in Sudan, a mission which he successfully accomplished.
After the death of Said, Ismail was proclaimed Khedive on 19 January 1863, though the Ottoman Empire and the other Great Powers recognized him only as Wāli. Like all Egyptian and Sudanese rulers since his grandfather Muhammad Ali Pasha, he claimed the higher title of Khedive, which the Ottoman Porte had consistently refused to sanction. Finally, in 1867, Isma'il succeeded in persuading the Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz to grant a firman finally recognizing him as Khedive in exchange for an increase in the tribute. Another firman changed the law of succession to direct descent from father to son rather than brother to brother, and a further decree in 1873 confirmed the virtual independence of the Khedivate of Egypt from the Porte.
Ismail spent heavily—some went to bribes to Constantinople to facilitate his reform projects. Much of the money went for the construction of the Suez Canal. About £46 million went to construct 8,000 miles of irrigation canals to help modernize agriculture. He built over 900 miles railroads, 5,000 miles of telegraph lines, 400 bridges, harbor works in Alexandria, and 4,500 schools. The national debt rose from £3 million to about £90 million, in a country with 5 million population and an annual treasury revenue of about £8 million.
Ismail launched vast schemes of internal reform on the scale of his grandfather, remodeling the customs system and the post office, stimulating commercial progress, creating a sugar industry, building the cotton industry, building palaces, entertaining lavishly, and maintaining an opera and a theatre. Over one hundred thousand Europeans came to work in Cairo, where he facilitated building an entire new quarter of the city on its western edge modeled on Paris. Alexandria was also improved. He launched a vast railroad building project that saw Egypt and Sudan rise from having virtually none to the most railways per habitable kilometer of any nation in the world.
Education reform increased the education budget more than tenfold. Traditional primary and secondary schools were expanded and specialized technical and vocational schools were created. Students were once again sent to Europe to study on educational missions, encouraging the formation of a Western-trained elite. A national library was founded in 1871.
One of his most significant achievements was to establish an assembly of delegates in November 1866. Though this was supposed to be a purely advisory body, its members eventually came to have an important influence on governmental affairs. Village headmen dominated the assembly and came to exert increasing political and economic influence over the countryside and the central government. This was shown in 1876, when the assembly persuaded Ismail to reinstate the law (enacted by him in 1871 to raise money and later repealed) that allowed landownership and tax privileges to persons paying six years' land tax in advance.
Ismail tried to reduce slave trading and with the advice and financial backing of Yacoub Cattaui extended Egypt's rule in Africa. In 1874 he annexed Darfur, but was prevented from expanding into Ethiopia after his army was repeatedly defeated by Emperor Yohannes IV, first at Gundat on 16 November 1875, and again at Gura in March of the following year.
Ismail dreamt of expanding his realm across the entire Nile including its diverse sources, and over the whole African coast of the Red Sea. This, together with rumours about rich raw material and fertile soil, led Ismail to expansive policies directed against Ethiopia under the Emperor Yohannes IV. In 1865 the Ottoman Sublime Porte ceded the Ottoman Province of Habesh (with Massawa and Suakin at the Red Sea as the main cities of that province) to Ismail. This province, which neighboured Ethiopia, first consisted of a coastal strip only, but expanded subsequently inland into territory controlled by the Ethiopian ruler. Here Ismail occupied regions originally claimed by the Ottomans when they had established the province (eyaleti) of Habesh in the 16th century. New economically promising projects, like huge cotton plantations in the Barka delta, were started. In 1872 Bogos (with the city of Keren) was annexed by the governor of the new "Province of Eastern Sudan and the Red Sea Coast", Werner Munzinger Pasha. In October 1875 Ismail's army occupied the adjacent highlands of Hamasien, which were then tributary to the Ethiopian Emperor. In March 1876 Ismail's army suffered a dramatic defeat after an attack by Yohannes's army at Gura'. Ismail's son Hassan was captured by the Ethiopians and only released after a large ransom. This was followed by a long cold war, only finishing in 1884 with the Anglo-Egyptian-Ethiopian Hewett Treaty, when Bogos was given back to Ethiopia. The Red Sea Province created by Ismail and his governor Munzinger Pasha was taken over by the Italians shortly thereafter and became the territorial basis for the Colony of Eritrea (proclaimed in 1890).
Ismail's khedivate is closely connected to the building of the Suez Canal. He agreed to, and oversaw, the Egyptian portion of its construction. On his accession, at the behest of Yacoub Cattaui his minister of Finance and close advisor, he refused to ratify the concessions to the Canal company made by Said, and the question was referred in 1864 to the arbitration of Napoleon III, who awarded £3,800,000 to the company as compensation for the losses they would incur by the changes which Ismail insisted upon in the original grant. Ismail then used every available means, by his own undoubted powers of fascination and by judicious expenditure, to bring his personality before the foreign sovereigns and public, and he had much success. In 1867 he visited Paris during the Exposition Universelle (1867) with Sultan Abdülaziz, and also London, where he was received by Queen Victoria and welcomed by the Lord Mayor. Whilst in Britain he also saw a British Royal Navy Fleet Review with the Ottoman Sultan. In 1869 he again paid a visit to Britain. When the Canal finally opened, Ismail held a festival of unprecedented scope, most of it financed by the Cattaui banking house, from whom he borrowed $1million, inviting dignitaries from around the world.
These developments – especially the costly war with Ethiopia – left Egypt in deep debt to the European powers, and they used this position to wring concessions out of Ismail. One of the most unpopular among Egyptians and Sudanese was the new system of mixed courts, by which Europeans were tried by judges from their own states, rather than by Egyptian and Sudanese courts. But at length the inevitable financial crisis came. A national debt of over £100 million sterling (as opposed to three millions when he acceded to the throne) had been incurred by the Khedive, whose fundamental idea of liquidating his borrowings was to borrow at increased interest. The bond-holders became restive, chief among them the House of Cattaui. Judgments were given against the Khedive in the international tribunals. When he could raise no more loans, he sold the Egyptian and Sudanese shares in the Suez Canal Company in 1875 with the assistance of Yacoub Cattaui to the British government for £3,976,582; this was immediately followed by the beginning of direct intervention by the Great Powers in Egypt and Sudan.
In December 1875, Stephen Cave and John Stokes were sent out by the British government to inquire into the finances of Egypt, and in April 1876 their report was published, advising that in view of the waste and extravagance it was necessary for foreign Powers to interfere in order to restore credit. The result was the establishment of the Caisse de la Dette. In October, George Goschen and Joubert made a further investigation, which resulted in the establishment of Anglo-French control over finances and the government. A further commission of inquiry by Major Baring (afterwards 1st Earl of Cromer) and others in 1878 culminated in Ismail making over his estates to the nation and accepting the position of a constitutional sovereign, with Nubar as premier, Charles Rivers Wilson as finance minister, and de Blignières as minister of public works.
As the historian Eugene Rogan has observed, "the irony of the situation was that Egypt had embarked on its development schemes to secure independence from Ottoman and European domination. Yet with each new concession, the government of Egypt made itself more vulnerable to European encroachment."
This control of the country by Europeans was unacceptable to many Egyptians, who united behind a disaffected Colonel Ahmed Urabi. The Urabi Revolt consumed Egypt. Hoping the revolt could relieve him of European control, Ismail did little to oppose Urabi and gave into his demands to dissolve the government. Britain and France took the matter seriously, and insisted in May 1879 on the reinstatement of the British and French ministers. With the country largely in the hands of Urabi, Ismail could not agree, and had little interest in doing so. As a result, the British, and French governments pressured the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II to depose Ismail Pasha, and this was done on 26 June 1879. The more pliable Tewfik Pasha, Ismail's eldest son, was made his successor. Ismail Pasha left Egypt and initially went into exile to Resina, today Ercolano near Naples, until 1885 when he was eventually permitted by Sultan Abdülhamid II to retire to his Palace of Emirgan on the Bosporus in Constantinople. There he remained, more or less a state prisoner, until his death. According to TIME magazine, he died while trying to guzzle two bottles of champagne in one draft. He was later buried in Cairo.
Isma'il PashaBorn: 31 December 1830 Died: 2 March 1895
| Wali and Khedive of Egypt and Sudan
|Recognized as Khedive|
|| Khedive of Egypt and Sudan
Ahmad Rifaat Pasha (8 December 1825 – 15 May 1858) was a member of the Muhammad Ali dynasty of Egypt. He was heir presumptive to Sa'id Pasha.
However, in 1858, a special train conveying Ahmad Rifaat Pasha was being carried on a car float across the Nile at Kafr el-Zayyat. The train fell off the car float into the river and the prince was drowned.Sa'id outlived Ahmad Rifaat until 1863, when he was succeeded by Isma'il Pasha.Cairo Marriott Hotel
The Cairo Marriott Hotel is one of the tallest buildings in Cairo, a large hotel located in the Zamalek district on Gezira Island, situated on the Nile, and just west of downtown Cairo, Egypt. The Marriott opened in 1983, but the central wing was built as the Gezirah Palace for the Khedive Isma'il Pasha in 1869 and converted to a luxury hotel in 1894.Egyptian Geographic Society
The Egyptian Geographic Society (Arabic: الجمعية الجغرافية المصرية; French: Société de géographie d'Egypte) was established by a decree of Khedive Isma'il Pasha on 19 May 1875. Its first president was the German botanist, traveller and ethnologist Georg August Schweinfurth. Founded as the Khedivial Society of Geography, its name was modified several times in order to reflect Egypt's changing political status. It acquired its current name following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.Ethiopian–Egyptian War
The Ethiopian-Egyptian War was a war between the Ethiopian Empire and the Khedivate of Egypt from 1874 to 1876, resulting in an Ethiopian victory.General Congregation Council
General Congregation Council (Arabic: المجلس الملي العام للأقباط الأرثوذكس) is part of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and represents the laity of the Church, it is also known as the Coptic Orthodox Lay Council
Established in February 1874 during the vacancy time of the Patriarchal Throne before the election of Pope Cyril V of Alexandria. The order for its establishment was issued by Isma'il Pasha who was, then, the Khedive of Egypt. The first rules of the Council were issued in January 1874 by Khedive Tewfik Pasha who ruled Egypt after his father Isma'il Pasha. By 1883, the Council was fully established and in charge of managing non ecclesiastical matters of the church.The Chairman of the council is the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.Hoshiar Kadinefendi
Hoshiar Kadinefendi (Arabic: خوشيار قادن افندی, Turkish: Hoşyar Kadınefendi; c. 1813 – 21 June 1886) was a consort to Ibrahim Pasha and was Walida Pasha to their son Isma'il Pasha. She was the younger sister of Pertevniyal Sultan, the Valide Sultan, or Queen mother, to Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz I, and Abdülaziz's aunt.Imperial Firman of 27 May 1866
The Imperial Firman Relative to Hereditary Succession was a firman (i.e., decree) issued by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Abdülaziz on 27 May 1866 at the request of Isma'il Pasha, the wāli (i.e. governor) of Egypt, which was then an Ottoman province. The firman changed the rule of succession in Egypt from one based on agnatic seniority to one based on male primogeniture in the direct line of Isma'il Pasha. The full text of the firman read as follows:
Having considered the demand you have submitted to me, in which you inform me that a modification of the order of succession established by the Firman, addressed to your ancestor, Mehmed Ali-Pacha, dated on the 2nd of the month of Rebiul-Akhir, 1257, confering upon him the Government à titre d'hérédité of the Province of Egypt, and the transmission of the succession from father to son, in a direct line by primogeniture, would be favorable to the good administration of Egypt and the development of the well-being of the inhabitants of that Province—Appreciating in all their extent the efforts you have made toward this end since your nomination to the Government-General of Egypt, which is one of the most important provinces of my Empire, as well as the fidelity and devotion of which you have never ceased to give me proofs; and wishing upon my part to give you a striking testimony of the good-will and entire confidence I accord to you, I have decided that henceforth the Government of Egypt and the annexed territories and dependencies shall be transmitted to your eldest son, and in the same manner to the eldest sons of his successors.If the Governor-General leaves no male heir, the succession will fall to his eldest brother, and in default of brothers, to the eldest son of the eldest brother. This shall be hereafter the law of succession in Egypt. Moreover, the conditions contained in the foregoing Firman are, and remain always in force as heretofore; each one of the conditions will be constantly observed, and the maintenance of the privileges which flow from these conditions will depend upon the integral observance of each one of the obligations which they impose.The pledges more recently accorded by my Imperial Government-General of Egypt to maintain 30,000 effective troops, to create a difference between the moneys coined in Egypt, in my Imperial name, and the other moneys of my Empire, to confer the civil grades of my Government as high as the rank of Sanié (second rank of the first class), are equally confirmed.The law which interdicts the succession of the male descendants of the daughters of the Governors will be maintained in future as in past.The tribute of 80,000 bourses, paid by Egypt into the Imperial Treasury, is increased to 150,000 bourses, commencing March, 1866.My Imperial Trade being issued to put into execution the preceding conditions, the present Firman, bearing my Imperial signet, has been transmitted to you by my Chancellerie.It is incumbent upon you, with that loyalty and zeal which characterizes you, profiting by the knowledge you have acquired of the requirements of Egypt, to consecrate yourself to the good administration of that country; to labor to assure to the people entire security and tranquillity; and, recognizing the value of the pledge I have just given you of my Imperial favor, to observe with fidelity the conditions as established above.Done 12th day of the Month of Muharram, 1283.
It was reported that Isma'il Pasha spent approximately $5,000,000 in gifts to the Sultan and to his ministers in order to obtain this decree altering the rule of succession in Egypt. The firman restricted succession to the throne to Isma'il Pasha's sons. The latter's uncle, Prince Muhammad Abdul Halim (son of the dynasty's founder Muhammad Ali Pasha), who had been hitherto heir apparent under the old system of agnatic seniority, was thus stripped of his place in the line of succession. Accordingly, he opposed Isma'il Pasha and his successor Tewfik Pasha. Prince Muhammad Abdul Halim's son, Said Halim Pasha, continued to claim Egypt's throne after his father's death.Ismail Pasha
Ismail Pasha may refer to:
Ayaşlı İsmail Pasha (1620–1690), Ottoman grand vizier (1688)
Çelebi Ismail Pasha (died 1702), Ottoman governor of Egypt, Rumelia, Sidon, Konya, Anatolia, Damascus, Crete, Baghdad, and Van
Ismail Pasha al-Azm (r. 1721-1730), Ottoman governor of Damascus and Tripoli
Ismail Pasha (Tripolitanian) (fl. 1780–1792), Ottoman governor of Egypt and Morea
Ismail Selim Pasha (c. 1809–1867), Egyptian general of Greek origin
Isma'il Raghib Pasha (1819–1894), better known as Raghib Pasha, Ottoman politician and Prime Minister of Egypt
Isma'il Pasha (1830–1895), Khedive of Egypt and Sudan (1864–1879)
Ismail Fazil Pasha (1856–1921), Ottoman general and Turkish politician
Ismail Sedki Pasha (1875–1950), better known as Isma'il Sidqi, Egyptian politician and Prime Minister
Ismail Enver Pasha (1881–1922), better known as Enver Pasha, Ottoman military officer and Turkish nationalistIsmail Pasha al-Azm
Ismail Pasha al-Azm was an Ottoman statesman who served as the governor of Damascus and amir al-hajj in 1725–1730. Prior to this post he served as the agha (local commander) of Ma'arrat al-Nu'man and steadily moved up the ranks to become the governor of the districts of Ma'arrat al-Nu'man, Hama and Homs in 1719 and then governor of Tripoli in 1721 before being assigned to the Damascus governorship.
His consistent promotion was attributed to his successes in restoring order to the Syrian countryside after a period of high instability, protecting Syria's farmlands from Bedouin raids and ensuring the safety of the annual Hajj pilgrim caravan to Mecca. Although he was deposed from the governorship in 1730, he established his family, al-Azm, as a major political household in Syria whose members were frequently appointed as the governors of the Damascus, Tripoli and Sidon provinces and who often served longer than typical terms.Jamal Nur Kadinefendi
Jamal Nur Kadinefendi (Turkish: Cemalnur Kadınefendi) (Arabic: جمال نور فادين افندی) (born in 1850; died c. 1876) was a consort to Khedive Isma'il Pasha of Egypt.Jeshm Afet Hanimefendi
Jeshm Afet Hanim (Arabic: جشم آفت هانم; Turkish: Çeşm İfet Hanım) was the Princess consort of Khedive Isma'il Pasha of Egypt. She was the adoptive mother of the future Sultana of Egypt Melek Tourhan.Line of succession to the former Egyptian throne
Under the Muhammad Ali dynasty, the line of succession to the former Egyptian throne was subject to a number of changes during its history. From its founding in 1805 until 1866, the dynasty followed the imperial Ottoman practice of agnatic seniority, whereby the eldest male in any generation would succeed to the throne. In 1866, however, the then Khedive of Egypt Isma'il Pasha obtained a firman from the Ottoman Emperor which restricted the succession to the male-line descendants of Isma'il Pasha. The resulting succession remained in force until the abolition of the Egyptian monarchy in 1953, following the 1952 Egyptian Revolution.
In 1914, however, the British government deposed Khedive Abbas II, the senior descendant of Isma'il, and proclaimed a protectorate over Egypt. His son Muhammad Abdel Moneim lost his place as heir apparent, and the throne passed to the lines of Abbas II's uncles Hussein Kamel and Fuad I. A Royal Edict of 13 April 1922 specifically excluded Abbas II from the succession, though it stated that "this exception shall not apply to his sons and their progeny." As a result, the descendants in the male line from Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim remained eligible for the throne and retained a senior position in the order of precedence of the Kingdom of Egypt.List of Prime Ministers of Egypt
This article lists the Prime Ministers of Egypt. The office of Prime Minister was created when the Cabinet of Egypt was established in August 1878, after Khedive Isma'il Pasha agreed to turn his powers over to a cabinet modeled after those of Europe. Nubar Pasha was thus the first Prime Minister of Egypt in the modern sense. Prior to that, Egypt had traditional Muslim-style viziers. The current Prime Minister of Egypt is Mostafa Madbouly, since 7 June 2018.Muhammad Ali dynasty family tree
The Muhammad Ali dynasty ruled Egypt without interruption from Muhammad Ali's seizure of power in 1805 until the proclamation of the Republic in 1953. Eleven individuals (all of them men) ruled Egypt during the dynasty's 148-year lifespan. Due to the polygamous unions of several 19th-century rulers and their often numerous offspring, it is impossible to list all of the descendants of Muhammad Ali Pasha in a single chart. The family tree below is far from exhaustive; its mere aim is to show the family relationships between the dynasty's eleven rulers as well as its two regents.Nur Felek Kadinefendi
Nur Felek Kadinefendi (1863-1914), was the first consort of Isma'il Pasha of Egypt. She was born in Greece in 1837. Her maiden name was Tatiana.
At a young age, she was captured during one the raids and sold into slavery. She was delivered as a concubine to the harem of Sa'id,the Wāli of Egypt in 1852. However, Isma'il Pasha, then not yet the Khedive of Egypt, took Tatiana as a concubine for him. She gave birth to Prince Hussein Kamel Pasha in 1853. She later converted to Islam and her name was changed to Nur Felek. When Isma'il Pasha ascended the throne in 1863, she was elevated to the rank of first Kadinefendi, literally meaning first consort, or wife. Nur Felek had a high status in the imperial palace, since she was the mother of Isma'il's second eldest son. Isma'il's eldest son was Tewfik Pasha, son of the Turkish concubine Shafaq Nur Hanimefendi.
After the removal of Abbas II, her son Hussein Kamel became Sultan of Egypt and she became the mother Sultana, a title equivalent to Queen mother and Valide Sultan, a rank higher than the Walida Pasha, the title held by mothers of reigning Khedives like Hoshiar Kadinefendi, mother of Isma'il Pasha and Emina Ilhamy, mother of Abbas II.Orman Garden
The Orman Garden is one of the most famous Botanical gardens in Egypt. It is located at Giza, in Cairo. It dates back to 1875 and the reign of Khedive Isma'il Pasha who established the garden on a larger site than it presently occupies as part of the Palace of the Khedive. It became a public botanical garden in 1910/1917 and put under the Ministry of Agriculture management.The garden covers about 28 acres. Today, the garden contains a herbarium building, a rock garden, a rose garden, cactus gardens, and probably the most notable feature, the lotus pond.
Orman Garden is located west of the River Nile and east of Cairo University in the Giza Governorate. “Orman” is a Turkish word, which means “the forest”.Pertevniyal Sultan
Pertevniyal Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: پرتونیال سلطان; c. 1809 – 26 January 1884), was the consort of Sultan Mahmud II, and Valide Sultan to their son Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire. Her sister, Hoşyar Kadın, was the mother of Isma'il Pasha, Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879.Qasr El Nil Street
Qasr El Nil Street is a street in downtown Cairo, Egypt, one of the biggest streets in Cairo, with many businesses, restaurants, and an active nightlife.
The vintage urban planning and architecture here are reminiscent of the illustrious period of late 19th and early 20th century European Beaux-Arts and Egyptian—Islamic—Moorish Revival styles. The street and its new building designs were part of creating a new international downtown district, to link to Egypt’s rich Islamic heritage and institutions with the many new foreign enterprises, at the turn of the 20th century in Cairo.Shafaq Nur Hanim
Shafaq Nur Hanim (Arabic: شفق نور هانم; Turkish: Şefeknur Hanım; c. 1836 - 17 March 1884) was the Princess consort of Khedive Isma'il Pasha and was Walida Pasha to their son Tewfik Pasha, the next Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
|Cities and ports|