Islet

An islet is a very small island.

Bangchuidao Island
Bàngchuí Island in Dalian, Liaoning, China is a typical rock islet
Mokolea Rock 2
Mōkōlea Rock in Kailua Bay, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, 2.2 km off North Beach, Marine Corps Base Hawaii

Types

Danmark Sandvika Bærum
Danes on the islet Danmark in Norway. It is a typical Nordic skerry.

As suggested by its origin as islette, an Old French diminutive of "isle",[1] use of the term implies small size, but little attention is given to drawing an upper limit on its applicability.

  • Ait(/eɪt/, like eight) or eyot (/aɪ(ə)t, eɪt/) is a small island.[1] It is especially used to refer to river islands found on the River Thames and its tributaries in England.
  • Cay or Key – an islet formed by the accumulation of fine sand deposits atop a reef.
  • Motu – A reef islet formed by broken coral and sand, surrounding an atoll.
  • River island – A small islet within the current of a river.
  • RockA "rock", in the sense of a type of islet, is an uninhabited landform composed of rock, lying offshore, and having at most minimal vegetation.
  • Sandbar – An exposed sandbar is another type of islet.
  • Sea stack – A thin, vertical landform jutting out of a body of water.
  • Skerry – A small rocky island, usually defined to be too small for habitation.
  • Subsidiary islets – A more technical application is to small land features, isolated by water, lying off the shore of a larger island. Likewise, any emergent land in an atoll is also called an islet.
  • Tidal island – Often small islands (not necessarily always islets) which lie off the mainland of an area, being connected to it in low tide and isolated in high tide.

Synonymous terms

Tahitian sunset
A Tahitian motu off the island of Raiatea at sunset
Rockall - geograph.org.uk - 1048791
Rockall, located west of Ireland and Scotland
  • In the Caribbean and West Atlantic, islets are often called cays or keys. Rum Cay in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys off Florida are examples of islets.
  • In Normandy and the Channel Islands, they are often identified by the French suffix -hou from the Scandinavian -holm.
  • In Scotland and Ireland, they are often called inches, from the Gaelic innis, which originally meant island, but has been supplanted to refer to smaller islands. In Ireland they are often termed skerries.
  • In and around Polynesia, islets are widely known by the term motu, from the term for the coral-rubble islets common to the region.
  • In and around the River Thames in England, small islands are known as aits or eyots.

In international law

Filfla 1
Filfla (1985)

Whether an islet is considered a rock or not can have significant economic consequences under Article 121 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which stipulates that "Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf." One long-term dispute over the status of such an islet was that of Snake Island (Black Sea).[2][3][4]

The International Court of Justice jurisprudence however sometimes ignores islets, regardless of inhabitation status, in deciding territorial disputes; it did so in 2009 in adjudicating the Romania-Ukraine dispute, and previously in the dispute between Libya and Malta involving the islet of Filfla.[2][5]

List of islets

There are thousands of islets on Earth: approximately 24,000 islands and islets in the Stockholm archipelago alone. The following is a list of example islets from around the world.

Notes

  1. ^ Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, Second Edition, 1958
  2. ^ a b Coalter G. Lathrop (July 22, 2009) "Maritime Delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v. Ukraine)". American Journal of International Law, Vol. 103. SSRN 1470697
  3. ^ Ukraine, Romania spar over islet, UPI 2006-7-14
  4. ^ Romania and Ukraine avoid rocky horror show, Euronews, 03/02/09
  5. ^ Hance D. Smith (1991). The Development of Integrated Sea Use Management. Taylor & Francis. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-415-03816-4.

References

  • Clive Schofield (2012). "Islands or Rocks, Is that the Real Question? The Treatment of Islands in the Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries". In Myron H. Nordquist, John Norton Moore, Alfred H.A. Soons, Hak-So Kim (eds.). The Law of the Sea Convention: US Accession and Globalization. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 322–340. ISBN 978-90-04-20136-1.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
Amylin

Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), is a 37-residue peptide hormone. It is cosecreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells in the ratio of approximately 100:1 (insulin:amylin). Amylin plays a role in glycemic regulation by slowing gastric emptying and promoting satiety, thereby preventing post-prandial spikes in blood glucose levels.

IAPP is processed from an 89-residue coding sequence. Proislet amyloid polypeptide (proIAPP, proamylin, proislet protein) is produced in the pancreatic beta cells (β-cells) as a 67 amino acid, 7404 Dalton pro-peptide and undergoes post-translational modifications including protease cleavage to produce amylin.

Beatrice Islet Conservation Park

Beatrice Islet Conservation Park is a protected area occupying the Beatrice Islets and adjoining intertidal areas in Nepean Bay on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. It is located about 4 kilometres (2.5 miles) east of the town of Kingscote.It was dedicated in 1967 for 'conservation of wildlife habitat' replacing previous statutory protection dating back to 1909. A management philosophy for the conservation park published in 1987 supports the use of the park as a 'feeding and roosting habitat for waterbirds'. The conservation park which is about 103 ha (250 acres) in size, occupies part of a sandspit extending from Cape Rouge to the immediate north of Kingscote. The Beatrice Islets which originally supported bushes of African boxthorn which, when cleared in either the 1960s or the 1970s, resulted in erosion and destabilisation of both islets to the extent that both were described as being 'a mudflat/cocklebed' which is submerged at high water.The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.

Boundary Islet

Boundary Islet, historically known as North East Islet, part of the Hogan Island Group, is a two-hectare (4.9-acre) islet that straddles the border of the Australian states of Victoria and Tasmania.

The islet is Tasmania's only land boundary, and at 85 metres (279 ft) long, it is the shortest land border between any Australian states or territory.It is located at latitude 39°12′ S, about 56 kilometres (35 mi) east of the southernmost point of mainland Victoria.

The boundary between Victoria and Tasmania is a parallel similarly at latitude 39°12′. The position of the island was surveyed in 1801 by Captain John Black, who erred in placing the islet further north than it is. It was later found that the border at 39°12′ S passed through the islet.

Boğsak Islet

Boğsak (Turkish: Boğsak Adası) is a Mediterranean islet in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Busby Islet Conservation Park

Busby Islet Conservation Park is a protected area located on Busby Islet in Nepean Bay on the north coast of Kangaroo Island in South Australia. The conservation park is located about 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) north of the town of Kingscote and occupies an area of 17 hectares (42 acres) on Busby Islet. It was dedicated in 1967 for 'the conservation of wildlife habitat' replacing previous statutory protection dating back to 1909. A management philosophy for the park published in 1987 supports the need to 'ensure the conservation, in perpetuity, of the natural environment, in particular the breeding habitat for birds of the ocean and seashore'. The conservation park is reported as supporting breeding populations of Australian pelicans, black-faced and pied cormorants, pied and sooty oystercatchers, and silver and Pacific gulls, serving as a roost site for migratory waders and being a place visited by Rock parrots and little grassbirds. The conservation park was declared as a 'no entry' area in October 2014. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.

Cone Islet

Cone Islet is a small granite island, with an area of 4.82 ha, in south-eastern Australia. It is part of Tasmania’s Curtis Group, lying in northern Bass Strait between the Furneaux Group and Wilsons Promontory in Victoria.

Enewetak Atoll

Enewetak Atoll (; also spelled Eniwetok Atoll or sometimes Eniewetok; Marshallese: Ānewetak, [æ̯ænʲee̯ɔ̯ɔ͡ɛɛ̯dˠɑk], or Āne-wātak, [æ̯ænʲee̯-ɒ̯ɒ͡ææ̯dˠɑk]) is a large coral atoll of 40 islands in the Pacific Ocean and with its 664 people (as of 2011) forms a legislative district of the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands. With a land area total less than 5.85 square kilometres (2.26 sq mi), it is no higher than 5 meters and surrounds a deep central lagoon, 80 kilometres (50 mi) in circumference. It is the second-westernmost atoll of the Ralik Chain and is 305 kilometres (190 mi) west from Bikini Atoll.

It was held by the Japanese from 1914 until its capture by the United States in February of 1944, during World War II. Nuclear testing by the US totaling more than 30 megatons of TNT took place during the cold war; in 1977–1980, a concrete dome (the Runit Dome) was built on Runit Island to deposit radioactive soil and debris.The Runit Dome is deteriorating and could be breached by a typhoon, though the sediments in the lagoon are even more radioactive than those which are contained.

Gros Islet

Gros Islet (English: Large Island) is a community near the northern tip of the island country of Saint Lucia. Originally a quiet fishing village, it has gone on to become one of the more popular tourist destinations in the country.Settled by the Carib (and possibly Arawak), the area was first identified as Gros Islet in a French map from 1717. The community was a Roman Catholic parish, as the first priests who arrived on the island settled in the village in 1749. Gros Islet was first settled by the French from Martinique.

In 1778, as a retaliation for the declaration of war on the British by the French, the British navy captured the island of Saint Lucia from the French and built a naval base at Gros Islet Bay in 1782, temporarily changing the name to Fort Rodney. The island has switched hands between the British and French throughout its existence.

Between 1991 and 2001 the population rose 54%; the highest rise in the country. In 2001, the population was 19,409, making it the secondmost-populous community in Saint Lucia, up from 13,505 in the 1991 census and 10,164 in the 1980 edition. Of this number, 9,307 were male and 10,102 were female.A nearby mangrove swamp was dredged to form Rodney Bay Marina and many hotels, resorts, and villas have since been built. However the old village of Gros Islet is still a flourishing district.

In September of the year 2011, Parliamentary Representative Honourable Leonard Montoute advised that the constituency may become St. Lucia's second city, if the expansion plans for the area progress in accordance with its development blue print.

Güvercin Islet

Güvercin Islet ("Pigeon Islet") is a Mediterranean islet of Turkey. It is a part of Silifke ilçe (district) of Mersin Province. It is at 36°14′38″N 33°48′38″E and situated about 200 metres (660 ft) to main land. The islet is quite small; only 3,000 square metres (32,000 sq ft). There are ruins of late Roman Empire era in this otherwise unnotable island. The ruins are in the north east side of the island . The ruins probably belonged to a mansion. The construction material is rectangular stone. There are tombs, ceramics and a part of a mosaic floor in the island.

Islet cell transplantation

Islet transplantation is the transplantation of isolated islets from a donor pancreas into another person. It is an experimental treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Once transplanted, the islets begin to produce insulin, actively regulating the level of glucose in the blood.

Islets are usually infused into the person's liver. If the cells are not from a genetically identical donor the person's body will recognize them as foreign and the immune system will begin to attack them as with any transplant rejection. To prevent this immunosuppressant drugs are used. Recent studies have shown that islet transplantation has progressed to the point that 58% of the people in one study were insulin independent one year after the operation.In the period from 1999 to 2004, 471 people with type 1 diabetes have received islet transplants at 43 institutions worldwide.

Liancourt Rocks

The Liancourt Rocks are a group of small islets in the Sea of Japan. While South Korea controls the islets, its sovereignty over them is contested by Japan.

South Korea classifies the islets as Dokdo-ri, Ulleung-eup, Ulleung County, North Gyeongsang Province, and calls them Dokdo (Korean pronunciation: [tok̚.t͈o]; Korean: 독도; Hanja: 獨島, "solitary island[s]"). Japan classifies the islands as part of Okinoshima, Oki District, Shimane Prefecture, and calls them Takeshima (竹島, "bamboo island[s]"). The Franco-English name "Liancourt Rocks" derives from Le Liancourt, the name of a French whaling ship that came close to being wrecked on the rocks in 1849.The Liancourt Rocks consist of two main islets and 35 smaller rocks; the total surface area of the islets is 0.187554 square kilometres (46.346 acres), with the highest elevation of 168.5 metres (553 ft) found at an unnamed location on the West Islet. The Liancourt Rocks lie in rich fishing grounds that may contain large deposits of natural gas.

List of Torres Strait Islands

The Torres Strait Islands are a group of at least 274 small islands in the Torres Strait. This is an incomplete list of islands in the Torres Strait.

List of islands of the Philippines

This is a list of islands of the Philippines. The Philippine archipelago comprises about 7,641 islands, of which only about 2,000 are inhabited. They are clustered into the three major island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.

More than 5,000 islands of the archipelago are yet to be named.The following list breaks the islands down further by region and smaller island group for easier reference.

Little Ndrova Island

Little Ndrova Island, also called Ndawara Islet, is an island of Manus Province, Papua New Guinea, one of the Admiralty Islands.

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass. These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other parts of the body. There are a number of types of pancreatic cancer. The most common, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, accounts for about 85% of cases, and the term "pancreatic cancer" is sometimes used to refer only to that type. These adenocarcinomas start within the part of the pancreas which makes digestive enzymes. Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can also arise from these cells. One to two percent of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors, which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. These are generally less aggressive than pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Signs and symptoms of the most-common form of pancreatic cancer may include yellow skin, abdominal or back pain, unexplained weight loss, light-colored stools, dark urine, and loss of appetite. There are usually no symptoms in the disease's early stages, and symptoms that are specific enough to suggest pancreatic cancer typically do not develop until the disease has reached an advanced stage. By the time of diagnosis, pancreatic cancer has often spread to other parts of the body.Pancreatic cancer rarely occurs before the age of 40, and more than half of cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma occur in those over 70. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, and certain rare genetic conditions. About 25% of cases are linked to smoking, and 5–10% are linked to inherited genes. Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed by a combination of medical imaging techniques such as ultrasound or computed tomography, blood tests, and examination of tissue samples (biopsy). The disease is divided into stages, from early (stage I) to late (stage IV). Screening the general population has not been found to be effective.The risk of developing pancreatic cancer is lower among non-smokers, and people who maintain a healthy weight and limit their consumption of red or processed meat. A smoker's chance of developing the disease decreases if they stop smoking and almost returns to that of the rest of the population after 20 years. Pancreatic cancer can be treated with surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, palliative care, or a combination of these. Treatment options are partly based on the cancer stage. Surgery is the only treatment that can cure pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and may also be done to improve quality of life without the potential for cure. Pain management and medications to improve digestion are sometimes needed. Early palliative care is recommended even for those receiving treatment that aims for a cure.In 2015, pancreatic cancers of all types resulted in 411,600 deaths globally. Pancreatic cancer is the fifth most-common cause of death from cancer in the United Kingdom, and the third most-common in the United States. The disease occurs most often in the developed world, where about 70% of the new cases in 2012 originated. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma typically has a very poor prognosis: after diagnosis, 25% of people survive one year and 5% live for five years. For cancers diagnosed early, the five-year survival rate rises to about 20%. Neuroendocrine cancers have better outcomes; at five years from diagnosis, 65% of those diagnosed are living, though survival varies considerably depending on the type of tumor.

Pancreatic islets

The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans. The pancreatic islets constitute 1 to 2% of the pancreas volume and receive 10–15% of its blood flow. The pancreatic islets are arranged in density routes throughout the human pancreas, and are important in the metabolism of glucose.

Saplı Islet

Saplı Islet (Turkish: Saplı Ada, meaning "Island with a handle", also called Boynuince Islet) is a Mediterranean islet of Turkey.

The island is at the Yenikaş coast which is located 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) west of Aydıncık ilçe (district) of Mersin Province. At 36°07′48″N 33°17′41″E it forms the west wall of the bay named Soğuksu. Its distance to Mersin is about 177 kilometres (110 mi)

The surface area of the islet is about 17×103 square metres (1.8×105 sq ft). It is connected to the main land by a short path. There are ruins of the antiquity on the islet. Although currently there is no archaeological excavation on the islet, it is included in SİT areas in Turkey.

South East Mutton Bird Islet

South East Mutton Bird Islet is a steep unpopulated islet located close to the south-western coast of Tasmania, Australia. Situated 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) south of where the mouth of Port Davey meets the Southern Ocean, the 0.52-hectare (1.3-acre) islet is one of the eight islands that comprise the Mutton Bird Islands Group. The South East Mutton Bird Islet is part of the Southwest National Park and the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Site.

South West Mutton Bird Islet

South West Mutton Bird Islet is a dome-shaped unpopulated islet located close to the south-western coast of Tasmania, Australia. Situated some 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) south of where the mouth of Port Davey meets the Southern Ocean, the 0.52-hectare (1.3-acre) islet is one of the eight islands that comprise the Mutton Bird Islands Group. The South West Mutton Bird Islet is part of the Southwest National Park and the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Site.The highest point of Mutton Bird Island is 28 metres (92 ft) above sea level.

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