Islamic holy books

Islamic Holy Books are the texts which Muslims believe were authored by God via various prophets throughout humanity's history. All these books, in Muslim belief, promulgated the code and laws that Allah ordained for those people.

Muslims believe the Quran to be the final revelation of Allah to man, and a completion and confirmation of previous scriptures.[1] Despite the primacy that Muslims place upon the Quran as Allah's final word, Islam speaks of respecting all the previous scriptures, and belief in all the revealed books is an article of faith in Islam.

Among the books considered to be revealed, the four mentioned by name in the Quran are the Tawra (Torah or the Law) revealed to Musa (Moses), the Zabur (Mizmor/Zemirot or Psalms) revealed to Dawud (David), the Injil (Euangélion/Ewwangelliwon or the Gospel) revealed to Isa (Jesus), and the Quran revealed to Muhammad.

Major books

  • Quran: The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah).[2] The Quran is divided into chapters (surah in Arabic), which are then divided into verses (ayah). Muslims believe the Quran was verbally revealed by God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel (Jibril),[3][4] gradually over a period of approximately 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE,[5] when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death.[2][6][7] Muslims regard the Quran as the most important miracle of Muhammad, a proof of his prophethood,[8] and the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam and ended with Muhammad. It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature.[9][10][11][12]
  • Tawrat or Torah: According to the Quran, the Torah was revealed to Moses (Musa)[13] but the Quran argues that the current Torah has suffered corruption over the years, and is no longer reliable.[14] Moses and his brother Aaron (Hārūn) used the Torah to preach the message to the Israelites (Banu Isrā’īl).
  • Zabur: The Quran mentions the Zabur, often interpreted as being the Book of Psalms,[15] as being the holy scripture revealed to King David. Scholars have often understood the Psalms to have been holy songs of praise.[16] The current Psalms are still praised by many Muslim scholars,[17][18] but Muslims generally assume that some of the current Psalms were written later and are not divinely revealed. Quran 21:105 and Psalm 37:29 are direct counterparts.[19]
  • Injil or Gospel: The Injil was the holy book revealed to Jesus (Isa), according to the Quran. Although many lay Muslims believe the Injil refers to the entire New Testament, scholars assume that it refers not to the New Testament but to an original Gospel, given to Jesus as the word of God.[20] Therefore, according to Muslim belief, the Gospel was the message that Jesus, being divinely inspired, preached to the Children of Israel. The current canonical Gospels, in the belief of Muslim scholars, are not divinely revealed but rather are documents of the life of Jesus, as written by various contemporaries, disciples and companions. These Gospels, in Muslim belief, contain portions of the teachings of Jesus, but neither represent nor contain the original Gospel from God, which has been corrupted and/or lost.[21]

The Quran also mentions two ancient scrolls and another possible book:

  • Scrolls of Abraham (Arabic: صُّحُفِ إِبْرَهِيم "Ṣuḥufi Ibrāhīm" and/or Arabic: الْصُّحُفِ ٱلْأُولَى Alṣ-Ṣuḥufi ’l-Ūlā - "Books of the Earliest Revelation"): The Scrolls of Abraham are believed to have been one of the earliest bodies of scripture, which were given to Abraham (Ibrāhīm),[22] and later used by Ishmael (Ismā‘īl) and Isaac (Isḥāq). Although usually referred to as "scrolls", many translators have translated the Arabic suhuf as "books".[17][23] The Scrolls of Abraham are now considered lost rather than corrupted, although some scholars have identified them with the Testament of Abraham, an apocalyptic piece of literature available in Arabic at the time of Muhammad. The verse mentioning the "Scriptures" is in Quran 87:18-19 where they are referred to "Books of the Earliest Revelation".
  • Book of John the Baptist (Kitāb Yaḥyā): There is an allusion to a Book (Kitāb) of John the Baptist (Yaḥyā).[24] It is possible that portions of its text appear in some of the Mandæan scriptures such as the Ginza Rba or the Draša ḏ-Iahia "The Book of John the Baptist". Yahya is revered by the Mandæans and by the Sabians.
  • Scrolls of Moses (Arabic: صُّحُفِ مُوسَى "Ṣuḥufi Mūsā" and/or Arabic: الْصُّحُفِ ٱلْأُولَى Alṣ-Ṣuḥufi ’l-Ūlā - "Books of the Earliest Revelation"): These scrolls, containing the revelations of Moses, which were perhaps written down later by Moses, Aaron and Joshua, are understood by Muslims to refer not to the Torah but to revelations aside from the Torah. Some scholars have stated that they could possibly refer to the Book of the Wars of the Lord,[17] a lost text spoken of in the Old Testament or Tanakh in the Book of Numbers.[25] The verse mentioning the "Scriptures" is in Quran 87:18-19 where they are referred to "Books of the Earliest Revelation".

See also

References

  1. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse, Holy Books
  2. ^ a b Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Qurʼān". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-04.
  3. ^ Lambert, Gray (2013). The Leaders Are Coming!. WestBow Press. p. 287. ISBN 9781449760137.
  4. ^ Roy H. Williams; Michael R. Drew (2012). Pendulum: How Past Generations Shape Our Present and Predict Our Future. Vanguard Press. p. 143. ISBN 9781593157067.
  5. ^
    • Chronology of Prophetic Events, Fazlur Rehman Shaikh (2002
    ) p. 50 Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.
  6. ^ Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers.
  7. ^ Quran 17:106
  8. ^ Peters, F.E. (2003). The Words and Will of God. Princeton University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-691-11461-7.
  9. ^ Margot Patterson, Islam Considered: A Christian View, Liturgical Press, 2008 p.10.
  10. ^ Mir Sajjad Ali, Zainab Rahman, Islam and Indian Muslims, Guan Publishing House 2010 p.24, citing N. J. Dawood's judgement.
  11. ^ Alan Jones, The Koran, London 1994, ISBN 1842126091, opening page.

    Its outstanding literary merit should also be noted: it is by far, the finest work of Arabic prose in existence.

  12. ^ Arthur Arberry, The Koran Interpreted, London 1956, ISBN 0684825074, p. 191.

    It may be affirmed that within the literature of the Arabs, wide and fecund as it is both in poetry and in elevated prose, there is nothing to compare with it.

  13. ^ Quran 53:36
  14. ^ "Torah - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
  15. ^ "Zabur - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
  16. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam, Psalms
  17. ^ a b c Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary
  18. ^ Martin Lings, Mecca; Abdul Malik, In Thy Seed
  19. ^ "Psalms - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
  20. ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Appendix: On the Injil
  21. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam, Injil
  22. ^ Quran 87:19
  23. ^ Marmaduke Pickthall, The Meaning of the Glorious Koran
  24. ^ Quran 19:12
  25. ^ Numbers 21:14
Aqidah

Aqidah (Arabic: عقيدة‎, romanized: ʿaqīdah, plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda etc.) is an Islamic term meaning "creed" (Arabic pronunciation: [ʕɑˈqiːdæ, ʕɑˈqɑːʔɪd]).

Many schools of Islamic theology expressing different views on aqidah exist. Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an example of aqidah. However, this term has taken a significant technical usage in Muslim history and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction. It is a branch of Islamic studies describing the beliefs of Islam.

Gospel in Islam

Injil (Arabic: إنجيل‎, romanized: ʾInjīl, alternative spellings: Ingil or Injeel) is the Arabic name for the Gospel of Jesus (Isa). This Injil is described by the Qur'an as one of the four Islamic holy books which was revealed by God, the others being the Zabur (possibly the Psalms), the Tawrat (the Torah), and the Qur'an itself. The word Injil is also used in the Quran, the Hadith and early Muslim documents to refer to both a book and revelations made by God to Jesus.

Islam

Islam () is an Abrahamic, monotheistic, universal religion teaching that there is only one God (Arabic: Allah), and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative examples (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570 – 8 June 632 CE).

Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law (sharia), which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment. The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam.Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is historically believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, and by the 8th century the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the historically Muslim world was experiencing a scientific, economic and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire, traders and conversion to Islam by missionary activities (dawah).Most Muslims are of one of two denominations; Sunni (75–90%) or Shia (10-20%). About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country; 31% of Muslims live in South Asia, the largest population of Muslims in the world; 20% in the Middle East–North Africa, where it is the dominant religion; and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.

Outline of Islam

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is a messenger of God.The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Islam.

Ramadan (calendar month)

Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month is spent by Muslims fasting during the daylight hours from dawn to sunset. According to Islam, the Quran was sent down to the lowest heaven during this month, thus being prepared for gradual revelation by Jibreel (Gabriel) to Muhammad. Therefore, Muhammad told his followers that the gates of Heaven would be open for the entire month and the gates of Hell (Jahannam) would be closed. The first day of the next month, Shawwal, is spent in celebration and is observed as the "Festival of Breaking Fast" or Eid al-Fitr.

Scrolls of Moses

The Scrolls of Moses (Arabic: صحف موسى‎ Ṣuḥuf Mūsā) are an ancient body of scripture mentioned twice in the Quran. They are part of the religious scriptures of Islam, although now they are believed to have been corrupted or lost. These scriptures are understood by Muslims to refer not to the Torah, the main Book of Law which Moses was given, but to an ancient text, which contained some of the inspired revelations which Moses received over his years of prophecy, which were then written down by Moses himself as well as his followers.

Tahrif

Taḥrīf (Arabic: تحريف‎, "distortion, alteration") is an Arabic term used by Muslims for the alterations which Islamic tradition claims Jews and Christians have made to the revealed books, specifically those that make up the Tawrat (or Torah), Zabur (possibly Psalms) and Injil (or Gospel).

Traditional Muslim scholars, based on Quranic and other traditions, maintain that Jews and Christians have changed the word of God.

People and things in the Quran

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