Islamic eschatology is the aspect of Islamic theology concerning ideas of life after death, matters of the soul, and the "Day of Judgement," known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة, IPA: [jawmu‿l.qijaːma], "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين, Arabic pronunciation: [jawmu‿d.diːn], "the Day of Judgment"). The Day of Judgement is characterized by the annihilation of all life, which will then be followed by the resurrection and judgment by God. It is not specified when al-Qiyamah will happen, but according to prophecy elaborated by hadith-literature, there are major and minor signs that will foretell its coming. Multiple verses in the Qur'an mention the Last Judgment.
The main subject of Surat al-Qiyama is the resurrection. The Great Tribulation is described in the hadith and commentaries of the ulama, including al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah. The Day of Judgment is also known as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day, and the Hour (al-sā'ah).
Unlike the Qur'an, the hadith contains several events, happening before the Day of Judgment, which are described as several minor signs and twelve major signs. During this period, terrible corruption and chaos would rule the earth, caused by the Masih ad-Dajjal (the Antichrist in Islam), then Jesus will appear, defeating the Dajjal and establish a period of peace, liberating the world from cruelty. These events will be followed by a time of serenity when people live according to religious values.
Similar to other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches that there will be a resurrection of the dead that will be followed by a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is often known as fitna, Al-Malhama Al-Kubra (The Great Massacre) or ghaybah in Shī'a Islam. The righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Paradise), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (Hell).
Islamic scripture has a plethora of content on the Last Judgment and the tribulation associated with it. The two sources which are primarily referred to when exploring the topic of Islamic eschatology are the Qur'an itself and the hadith, or accounts of the actions and sayings of Prophet Muhammad during his lifetime. One of the functions of the Qur'an as it relates to eschatology and the Day of Judgement is to serve as a reminder of Allah's intentions for humanity and as a warning for those who do not abide by Him. Hadith are often referred to in tandem with the Qur'an in order to create a more detailed and comprehensive understanding of Islamic scripture. The compilation of hadith took place approximately two hundred years after the death of Muhammad. The Last Judgment and the tribulation have also been discussed in the commentaries of ulama such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, and Muhammad al-Bukhari. Scholarly discourse on eschatology and its sub themes often includes an exploration of hadith as they pertain to matters in the Qur'an, and serve as a source for clarification. Hadith are generally viewed as being second in authority to the Qur'an, as the Qur'an is generally understood to be the verbatim word of Allah.
In Islam, a number of major and minor signs foretell the end of days. There is debate over whether they could occur concurrently or must be at different points in time, although Islamic scholars typically divide them into three major periods.
Following the second period, the third will be marked by the ten major signs known as alamatu's-sa'ah al-kubra (the major signs of the end).[note 2] They are as follows:
Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي) meaning "guided one," is a messianic figure in Islamic tradition. He makes his first appearance in the hadiths and is thought as the first sign of the third period. Hadith reports state that he will be a descendant of Muhammad through Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and cousin Ali. The Mahdi will be looked upon to kill al-Dajjal, to end the disintegration of the Muslim community, and to prepare for the reign of Jesus, who will rule for a time thereafter. The Mahdi will fulfill his prophetic mission, a vision of justice and peace, before submitting to Jesus' rule. The physical features of Mahdi are described in the hadith—he will be of Arab complexion, of average height, with a big forehead, large eyes, and a sharp nose. He will have a mole on his cheek, the sign of the prophet on his shoulder, and be recognized by the caliphate while he sits in his own home. As written by Abu Dawud, "Our Mahdi will have a broad forehead and a pointed (prominent) nose. He will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with injustice and tyranny. He will rule for seven years." In some accounts, after the seven years of peace, God will send a cold wind causing everyone with the smallest measure of human-kindness or faith, to die and carry them straight to heaven. Therefore, only the wicked will remain and be victims of terrible animals and Satan, until the day of resurrection. Otherwise, the Mahdi will kill Satan before the last day, in most Shia accounts.
Though the predictions of the duration of his rule differ, hadith are consistent in describing that God will perfect him in a single night, imbuing him with inspiration and wisdom, and his name will be announced from the sky. The Mahdi will bring back worship of true Islamic values, and bring the Ark of the Covenant to light. He will conquer Istanbul and Mount Daylam and will regard Jerusalem and the Dome as his home. His banner will be that of the prophet Muhammad: black and unstitched, with a halo. Furled since the death of Muhammad, the banner will unfurl when the Mahdi appears. He will be helped by angels and others that will prepare the way for him. He will understand the secrets of abjad.
Sunni and Shi'a Islam have different beliefs regarding the identity of Mahdi. Historically, Sunni Islam considers religious authority as being derived from the caliph, who was appointed by the companions of Muhammad at his death. The Sunnis view the Mahdi as the successor of Mohammad; the Mahdi is expected to arrive to rule the world and reestablish righteousness. Some Sunnis share a belief that there may be no actual Mahdi, but that a series of mujaddid will instead lead to an Islamic revolution of a renewal of faith and avoidance of deviation from God's path. Sunni tradition has attributed such intellectual and spiritual attributes to numerous Muslims at the end of each Muslim century from the origin of Islam to the present day. This classical interpretation is favored by Sunni scholars like Ghazali.
Contrarily, Shi'a Islam vested religious authority in those of the bloodline of Muhammad, favoring his cousin and son by marriage, Ali. Ali was appointed the first Imam; and according to Twelver interpretation, he was followed by eleven more. Muhammad al-Mahdi, otherwise known as the Twelfth Imam, went into hiding in 873 at the age of four. His father was al-`Askari, who had been murdered; and so he was hidden from the authorities of the Abbasid Caliphate. He maintained contact with his followers until 940, when he entered the Occultation. Twelverism believes that al-Mahdi is the current Imam, and will emerge at the end of the current age. Some scholars say that, although unnoticed by others present, the Mahdi of Twelver Islam continues to make an annual pilgrimage while he resides outside of Mecca. In contradistinction, Sunni Islam foresees him as a separate and new person. The present Ayatollahs of Iran see themselves as joint caretakers of the office of the Imam until he returns.
The Mahdi is not described in the Qurʾān, only in hadith, with scholars suggesting he arose when Arabian tribes were settling in Syria under Muawiya. "They anticipated 'the Mahdi who will lead the rising people of the Yemen back to their country' in order to restore the glory of their lost Himyarite kingdom. It was believed that he would eventually conquer Constantinople."
Various eschatological interpretations exist within Shi'i Islam. The concept of seven celestial Hells, as well as the idea that one's souls temporarily wait in either Paradise or Hellfire until the End Times, are accounted for throughout Isma'ili Shi'i literature. Shi'i tradition broadly tends to recognize the coming of the Mahdi as signifying punishment to come for non-believers. Twelver Shi'i scholar 'Allama al-Hilli expressed that it is not possible for any Muslim to be ignorant of "the imamate and of the Return" and thus "whoever is ignorant of any of them is outside the circle of believers and worthy of eternal punishment." This statement is not indicative of all Shi'i eschatological thought, but does note the existence of a form of eternal punishment, or realm that is opposite Paradise.
Raj`a(Arabic: الرجعة, romanized: āl rj'ah, lit. 'Return')in Islamic terminology, refers to the Second Coming, or the return to life of a given past historical figure after that person's physical death. Shia believe that before the Day of Judgement, Muhammad al-Mahdi will return with a group of chosen companions. This return is more properly known as zuhur or 'appearance,' as the Hidden Imam is believed to have remained alive during his period of occultation, since the year 874. The return of these historical figures will signify the beginning of the Last Judgment. The purpose of this return is to establish justice for those who were oppressed in their lifetime up until their death: the oppressors are punished directly by the oppressed during this future reappearance.
Some Sunni scholars do believe in Raj’a, citing the return of numerous people, such as the Seven Sleepers, synchronous with the appearance of the Mahdi. According to Jalaluddin Al-Sayuti, in contrast to Shia belief, the return of the Prophet Muhammad is not limited to a specific time in the future. Al-Sayuti did not mention if any other religious figures will return after death before the resurrection. According to Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi, raj`a is understood to be the lack of physical presence of a prophet, who marks his apparent death by absence in the physical world but will reappear, from time to time, to those who are pure in heart.
Isa is the Arabic name for Jesus, and his return is considered the third major sign of the last days (the second being the appearance of Jesus's nemesis Masih ad-Dajjal). Although Muhammad is the preeminent Prophet in Islam, Jesus is mentioned in the Quran, and so is Idris (Enoch), who is said not to have died but to have been raised up by God. Thus, in accordance with post-Quranic hadith, Jesus conceivably will return to Earth as a just judge before the Day of Judgment. As written in hadith:
Hadith reference both the Mahdi and Isa simultaneously and the return of the Mahdi will coincide with the return of Isa, who will descend from the heavens in al-Quds at dawn. The two will meet, and the Mahdi will lead the people in fajr prayer. After the prayer, they will open a gate to the west and encounter Masih ad-Dajjal. After the defeat of ad-Dajjal, Isa will lead a peaceful forty-year reign until his death. He will be buried in a tomb beside Muhammad in Medina. Though the two certainly differ regarding their role and persona in Islamic eschatology, the figures of the Mahdi and Isa are ultimately inseparable, according to the Prophet. Though Isa is said to descend upon the world once again, the Mahdi will already be present.
The resurrection and final judgement are fundamental beliefs in Islam. According to the Quran, without them, the creation of humanity would be in vain. Thus the Day of Judgment, al-Qiyāmah, (also known as the Day of Reckoning or Resurrection, the Last Day, or the Hour) is one of the six articles of faith in Sunni Islam, and one of seven in Shia Islam. It is believed in Islam that the Qur'an states Allah will resurrect everyone from their graves on the day of judgement. It is believed that the time is coming and that there shall be no doubt that Allah will do as promised. Just as Allah created the people, they will be brought back to the same form. Allah will double the deeds of his most faithful servants.
The entire world will be engulfed by dukhan or smoke, for forty days, and there will be three huge earthquakes. The Qur'an will be taken to heaven and even the huffaz will not recall its verses. Finally, a pleasant breeze will blow that shall cause all believers to die, but infidels and sinners will remain alive. A fire will start, from Hadramawt in Yemen, that will gather all the people of the world in the land of Mahshar, and al-Qiyamah will commence.
The eighth sign is a breeze bearing a pleasant scent, which will emanate from Yemen, causing the awliya, sulaha and the pious to die peacefully once they inhale it. After the believers die, there will be a period of 120 years during which the world will contain only kafirs, sinners, oppressors, liars, and adulterers; and there will be a reversion to idolatry.
The ninth sign is the rising of the sun from the west after a long night. After midday, the sun will set again. According to hadith:
Abu Hurayrah states that the Messenger of God (saw) as said, "The Hour will not be established until the sun rises from the West and when the people see it they will have faith. But that will be (the time) when believing of the soul, that will have not believed before that time, will not benefit it.— Ibn Maja, as-Sunan, vol. 2 p 1352-53
The final signs will be nafkhatu'l-ula, when a trumpet will be sounded for the first time, and which will result in the death of the remaining sinners. Then there will be a period of forty years, after which the eleventh sign is the sounding of a second trumpet to signal the resurrection as ba'as ba'da'l-mawt. As written in the Qur'an:
The Trumpet will (just) be sounded, when all that are in the heavens and on earth will swoon, except such as it will please God (to exempt). Then will a second one be sounded, when, behold, they will be standing and looking on!
All will be naked and running to the Place of Gathering, while the enemies of God will be travelling on their faces with their legs upright. Finally, there will be no more injustice:
Surely God does not do injustice to the weight of an atom, and if it is a good deed He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.
At divine judgment, each person's Book of Deeds will be read, in which "every small and great thing is recorded," but with actions before adolescence omitted. Records shall be given with the right hand if they are good, and the left if they are evil. Even the smallest acts will not be ignored:
Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it!
And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it.
This will be followed by perfect, divine, and merciful justice. The age of the hereafter, or the rest of eternity, is the final stage after the Day of Judgment, when all will receive their judgment from God.
Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad] – those [among them] who believed in God and the Last Day and did righteousness – will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.
If one did good deeds, one would go to Jannah, and if unrighteous, would go to Jahannam. Punishments will include adhab, or severe pain, and khizy or shame. There will also be a punishment of the grave (for those who disbelieved) between death and the resurrection.
Although Islamic philosophers and scholars were in general agreement on a bodily resurrection after death, interpretations differ in regard to the specifications of bodily resurrection. Some of the theories are the following:
One of the primary beliefs pertaining to Islamic eschatology during the Early Muslim Period was that all humans could receive Allah's Mercy and were worthy of salvation. These early depictions even show how small, insignificant deeds were enough to warrant mercy. Most early depictions of the end of days depict only those who reject Tawhid, the concept of monotheism, are subject to eternal punishment. However, everybody is held responsible for their own actions. Concepts of rewards and punishments were seen as beyond this world, a view that is also held today.
In terms of classical Islam, the Limbo Theory of Islam, as described by Jane Smith and Yvonne Haddad, implies that some individuals are not immediately sent to the afterlife, but are held in a state of limbo. The fate awaiting all people after their death is either Gardens, or heaven, and the Fire, or hell. Traditional interpretations agree that, at minimum, these are two of the possible fates that await the dead. However, some have interpreted 7:46, "And there will be a veil between them. And upon the Heights are men who know all by their marks. They will call out to the inhabitants of the Garden, 'peace be upon you!' They will not have entered it, though they hope". Some have taken the mention of this veil between heaven and hell as an allusion to there being individuals who are not immediately sent to their ultimate destination.
There was considerable debate regarding whether heaven and hell exists at the current moment. The Mu'tazila argued that heaven and hell both cannot exist until the trumpet blasts that bring in the end times occurs, as the Qur'an states that once the trumpet sounds, all except Allah will be destroyed. However, the Ash'ariya argued that although the trumpet's sounding will precede all being destroyed, creation was a constant process. Furthermore, as Adam and Eve once resided in the Garden of Eden, the garden already exists. Also, hadith reports pertaining to the Night Journey state that Muhammad saw visions of both destinations. Thus, heaven and hell already exist.
In Classical Islam, there was a consensus among the theological community regarding the finality of the Gardens; faithful servants of Allah would find themselves in this heaven for eternity. However, some practitioners in the early Muslim community held a concept that stated that hell may not be eternal in and of itself. These views were based upon interpretations that viewed the upper levels of Hell as only lasting for as long as Allah deemed necessary. Once Muslims had their sins purged, these levels would be closed. These interpretations are centered on verses 11:106-107 in the Qur'an, stating, "As for those who are wretched, they shall be in the Fire, wherein there shall be for them groaning and wailing, abiding therein for so long as the heavens and the earth endure, save as thy Lord wills. Surely thy Lord does whatsoever He wills". To this end, the Qur'an itself gives a conflicting account of Hell, stating that Hell will endure as long as Heaven will, which has been established as eternal, but also the Qur'an maintains the possibility that Allah may yet commute a sentence to Hell. In a sense, these levels of Hell were interpreted to have a similar function as Purgatory in Christianity, with the exception to this comparison being that Hell in this context is for the punishment of the sinner's complete body, as opposed to the only the soul being punished in Purgatory. Arguments questioning the permanence of Hell take the view that Hell is not necessarily solely there to punish the evil, but to purify their souls. To clarify, the Garden is the reward while the Fire is for purification.
Eschatological beliefs in Islam do not tend to distinguish the afterlife on the basis of gender. Amina Wadud discusses Hell and Paradise in her book "Qur'an and Woman" very briefly. Wadud mentions that the Qur'an does not mention any specific gender when talking about Hell. All genders have an equal chance and consequence to experience hell and one is not over the other. The Qur'an 43:74-76 states that "the guilty are immortal in hell's torment," not he or she. It is directed to the individual and "the basis of faith and deeds," not gender. This is consistent in the Qur'an. Amina Wadud goes on to discuss paradise, and how the Qur'an describes it with such detail in order to "entice" the readers and make it sound pleasing. Wadud states what the Qur'an says about good earthly things, and eternal things which includes women. 3:14-15 states "Beautiful of mankind is love of the joys (that come) from women and offspring..." 
Qurʼan and woman : rereading the sacred text from a woman's perspective ([2nd.] ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195128369.
Traditional Islam teaches predestination for both good and evil, and that everything that has happened and will happen has already been determined. Free will and predestination have been discussed by many Muslim theologians, but the free will believers, also known as al-qadariyya, have been overruled. The prophet Muhammad expressed predestination multiple times during his mission. Death is also seen as a homecoming. When people visit tombs, they are having a specific spiritual routine. The correct way to visit someones tomb is to recite parts of the Qur'an and pray for the deceased.
Abu Hamid al-Ghazali categorized non-Muslims into three categories:
"1. People who never heard of the message, who live in far away lands, such as the Byzantines ("Romans".) These will be forgiven.
2. People who were exposed to a distorted understanding of Islam and have no recourse to correct that information. These too will be forgiven.
3. People who heard of Islam because they live in neighboring lands and mix with Muslims. These have no hope of salvation".
Although many argue that anybody who thinks logically would eventually find that there is only one true, all-powerful God, However, others argue that if one has never received the message, they are not liable for not following it. This debate has been going on for centuries, however both sides generally agree that Islam is the only path, no other religion, even the other Abrahamic faiths, are proper paths to salvation. Although the Qur'an acknowledges the Bible as gospel, rejecting Muhammad and his message was, by and large, a rejection of Islam, and therefore a rejection of salvation.
The Qur'an makes a variety of statements on the state of the Jewish community, praising their dedication to monotheism in one line and criticizing their rejection of Muhammad the next. An example of a line criticizing the Jews can be found at 5:60-61: "Say, 'Shall I inform you of something worse than that by way of recompense from God? Whomsoever God has cursed and upon whom is His Wrath, and among whom He has made some to be apes and swine, and who worship false deities, such are in a worse situation, and further astray from the right way.' When they come to you, they say, 'We believe.' But they are certainly entered with disbelief and they have certainly left with it, and God knows best what they were concealing. Thou seest many of them hastening to sin and enmity and consuming what is forbidden. Evil indeed is that which they were doing.". Another example is 5:64: "The Jews say, 'God's Hand is shackled.' Shackled are their hands, and they are cursed for what they say. Nay, but His two Hands are outstretched, He bestows as He wills. Surely that which has been sent down unto thee from thy Lord will increase many of them in rebellion and disbelief. And we cast enmity and hatred among them till the Day of Resurrection. As often they ignite a flame for war, God extinguishes it. They endeavor to work corruption upon the earth. And God loves not thee workers of corruption." However, the Qur'an also takes a more reconciliatory tone in other lines. An example of this is in 3:113-115: "They are not all alike. Among the People of the Book is an upright community who recite God's signs in the watches of the night, while they prostrate. They believe in God and the Last Day, enjoin right and forbid wrong, and hasten unto good deeds. And they are among the righteous. Whatsoever good they do, they will not be denied it. And God knows the reverent". After reconciling the different descriptions, one can gather the conclusion that some Jews are considered worthy of damnation, while others are righteous and capable of salvation. The transgressions of the "apes and pigs" are not indicative of the entire community.
Ibn al-Nafis wrote of Islamic eschatology in Theologus Autodidactus (circa AD 1270), where he used reason, science, and early Islamic philosophy to explain how he believed al-Qiyamah would unfold, told in the form of a theological fiction novel.
ʾĀkhirah (Arabic: الآخرة) is an Islamic term referring to the afterlife. It is repeatedly referenced in chapters of the Quran concerning the Last Judgment, an important part of Islamic eschatology. Traditionally, it is considered to be one of the six main beliefs of Muslims, the others including: Tawhid (unitarianism), belief in the angels, belief in the Revealed Books (Scrolls of Abraham, Tawrat, Zabur, Injil and Quran), belief in the prophets and messengers, and belief in predestination.
According to the Islamic beliefs, God will play the role of the qadi, weighing the deeds of each individual. He will decide whether that person's ʾākhirah lies in Jahannam (Hell) or Jannah (Heaven) on the basis of the weight of either good or bad deeds in comparison with one another. The judgment doesn't depend upon the amount of deeds as much as it does on the will behind the deed, deeds are judged on the basis of the will behind it.
Jannah and Jahannam both have various levels. The placement of a person may depend upon the extent of his or her good deeds. It is also said that God may forgive a sin against Himself but not against another.
According to Islam, death is not the end of the life, but it is a transferral from this world to everlasting world. With the withdrawal of the spirit from the body, the soul's life in the Barzakh begins until the Day of Resurrection. According to the deeds of the believer and disbeliever, their Barzakh differs.Al-Balad
Sūrat al-Balad (Arabic: سورة البلد, "The City"), is the 90th Surah or chapter of the Qur'an. It is composed of 20 ayat (verses).Al-Burooj
Sūrat al-Burūj (Arabic: البروج, "The Great Star") is the eighty-fifth chapter (sura) of the Quran with 22 verses.Al-Ghashiyah
Sūrat al-Ghāshiyah (Arabic: الغاشية, “The Overwhelming”, “The Pall”) is the 88th chapter (surah) of the Qur'an with 26 verses (ayat).
The sura's topics are Paradise, Hell and the miracle of creation of all things by God (allāh).
This Surah describes the faces of the believers on the day of judgement. According to hadith, Muhammed used to recite these words on the day of Jumu'ah after surah Al-Jumua (Sura 62).Al-Inshiqaq
Sūrat al-Inshiqāq (Arabic: سورة الانشقاق, “The Sundering”, “Splitting Open”) is the eighty-fourth chapter (sura) of the Qur'an with 25 ayat. It mentions details of the Day of Judgment when, according to the chapter, everyone will receive reckoning over their deeds in this world.Al-Masih ad-Dajjal
Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (Arabic: المسيح الدجّال Al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl, "the false messiah, liar, the deceiver") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology. He is to appear, pretending to be al-Masih (i.e. the Messiah), before Yawm al-Qiyamah (the Day of Resurrection). He is an anti-messianic figure, comparable to the Antichrist in Christian eschatology and to Armilus in medieval Jewish eschatology.Al-Qa'im (person)
Al-Qāʾim (Arabic: القائم "He Who Arises") is a messiah-like figure in Shia Islam, sometimes referred to as the Mahdi, but distinctly of a Shiʿa tradition. Believers in Babism and the Bahá'í Faith both consider the Báb (1819-1850) to have been the Qāʾim.Amik Valley
The Amik, Amuk, or Amuq Valley (Arabic: الأعماق al-A’maq) is located in the southern part of Turkey, in the Hatay Province, close to the city of Antakya (Antioch on the Orontes). Along with Dabiq in north western Syria, it is believed to be one of the future sites of the battle of Armageddon according to Islamic eschatology.It is notable for a series of archaeological sites in the "plain of Antioch".
The primary sites of the series are Tell al-Judaidah, Çatalhöyük (Amuq) (not to be confused with Çatalhöyük in Anatolia), Tell Tayinat, Tell Kurdu, Alalakh, and Tell Dhahab. Tell Judaidah was surveyed by Robert Braidwood and excavated by C. MacEwan of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago in the 1930s.Araf (Islam)
A'raf (Arabic: الأعراف) is the Muslim separator realm or borderland between heaven and hell, inhabited by the people who are evenly balanced in their sins and virtues. This place may be described as a kind of beneficent purgatory with privation but without suffering. The word is literally translated as "The Heights" in English. The realm is described as a high curtain between hell and paradise. Ibn Kathir described A'raf as a wall that contains a gate. In this high wall lived people who witness the terror of hell and the beauty of paradise. They yearn to enter paradise, but their sins and virtues are evenly balanced. Yet with the mercy of God, they will be among the last people to enter the paradise. The Catholic scholar of Islam Louis Massignon believed, the christian concept of limbo was inspired by the Muslim interpretation of A'raf.At-Tariq
Sūrat aṭ-Ṭāriq (Arabic: الطارق, “The Piercing Star”, “The Nightcomer”, literally “The Knocker”) is the eighty-sixth sura of the Qur'an with 17 ayat. Muslims believe this chapter was sent to Mohammed when he was in Mecca.Barzakh
Barzakh (Arabic: برزخ, from Persian barzakh, "barrier, partition" is an Arabic word meaning "obstacle", "hindrance", "separation", or "barrier") designates a place between hell and heaven, where the soul resides after death, and experiences its own heaven or hell, until the resurrection on Qiyamah (Judgement Day).In Islamic eschatology, although largely up to interpretation, al-Barzakh is generally viewed as the barrier between the physical and spiritual worlds. Barzakh may, according to Ghazali, also be the place for those, who go neither to hell or to heaven, resembling the Christian concept of limbo.Beast of the Earth
The Beast of the Earth (دابة الأرض Dābbat al-Arḍ), in Islamic eschatology, will be one of the signs of the coming of the Last Day. It will appear after the sun rises in the west, where the Beast will be sighted the first time. The Beast is mentioned in the Quran (in Sura An-Naml) and is also mentioned in the ahadith, which expand upon the characteristics of the beast. Islamic tradition holds that the Beast will precipitate the death of all true believers and the removal of the Quran from the world.The Quran mentions that the Beast will address the unbelievers and admonish them for their lack of attention towards God:
And when the Word is fulfilled against them (the unjust), we shall produce from the earth a beast to (face) them: He will speak to them, for that mankind did not believe with assurance in Our Signs.Beatific vision
In Christian theology, the beatific vision (Latin: visio beatifica) is the ultimate direct self-communication of God to the individual person. A person possessing the beatific vision reaches, as a member of redeemed humanity in the communion of saints, perfect salvation in its entirety, i.e. heaven. The notion of vision stresses the intellectual component of salvation, though it encompasses the whole of human experience of joy, happiness coming from seeing God finally face to face and not imperfectly through faith. (1 Cor 13:11–12).It is related to the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox belief in theosis, the Wesleyan notion of Christian perfection, and is seen in most – if not all – church denominations as the reward for Christians in the afterlife.Dabiq, Syria
Dabiq (Arabic: دابق /ˈdaːbiq/) is a town in northern Syria, about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Aleppo and around 10 km (6.2 mi) south of Syria's border with Turkey. It is administratively part of the Akhtarin nahiyah (subdistrict) of the A'zaz District of Aleppo Governorate. Nearby localities include Mare' to the southwest, Sawran to the northwest, and Akhtarin town to the southeast. In the 2004 census, Dabiq had a population of 3,364.The town was the site of the battle of Marj Dabiq in 1516, in which the Ottoman Empire decisively defeated the Mamluk Sultanate.
In Islamic eschatology, it is believed that Dabiq is one of two possible locations (the other is Amaq) for an epic battle between invading Christians and the defending Muslims which will result in a Muslim victory and mark the beginning of the end of times. The Islamic State believes Dabiq is where an epic and decisive battle will take place with Christian forces of the West, and have named their online magazine after the village. After being driven out of the town of Dabiq by the Turkish Military and Syrian Rebels in October 2016, ISIL/IS/Daesh replaced this publication with a new one named Rumiyah.Dhul-Suwayqatayn
Dhul-Suwayqatayn (Arabic: ذوالسويقتين) is a group that prophecies by Muhammad say will emerge at the end of time. They are Abyssinian (Ethiopian) men destined by God to destroy the Kabah. There are two traditions regarding the time of the Kabaa's destruction:
The Kaaba will be destroyed when Isa is still alive. Before Isa's army can reach him, God sends a wind to take the souls of all believers, leaving only disbelievers behind. Dhul-Suwayqatayn will then destroy the Kaabah, taking it down brick by brick.
The Kaaba will be destroyed after Yajuj and Majuj perish from the Earth and Isa has died while Muslims still perform Hajj and Umrah. As quoted by a hadith narrated by Abu Sa`id al-Khudri saying that Muslims will still be doing Hajj & Umrah to Kabaa after the event of Yajuj and Majuj.Israfil
Israfil (Arabic: إِسْـرَافِـيْـل, romanized: Isrāfīl, alternate spellings: Israfel, Esrafil) is the angel who blows into the trumpet before Armageddon and sometimes depicted as the angel of music. Though unnamed in the Quran, he is one of the four Islamic archangels, the others being long with Mikhail, Jibrail and Azrael. It is believed that Israfil will blow the trumpet from a holy rock in Jerusalem to announce the Day of Resurrection. He is commonly thought as the counterpart of the Judeo-Christian archangel Raphael.Kiraman Katibin
In Islamic tradition the two kiraman katibin (Arabic: كراماً كاتبين "honourable scribes"), are two angels called Raqib and Atid, believed by Muslims to record a person's actions. Whether a person is sent to Jannah (paradise) or Jahannam (hell/purgatory) is not, however, dependent on whether good deeds outweigh bad deeds; but is ultimately up to God's mercy upon a believer. The Quran refers to them in two places, in 50:16-18 and by name as 'Noble Recorders' in 82:10-12.The work of the kiraman katibin is to write down and record every action of a person each day. One angel figuratively sits on the right shoulder and records all good deeds, while the other sits on the left shoulder and records all bad deeds.
The book in which the angels are writing is the cumulative record of a given person's deeds. After that person's death, it is said that on the Day of Judgement each person will be confronted with this record, and the two angels will be present to tell God of what the person did.Munkar and Nakir
Munkar and Nakir (Arabic: منكر ونكير) (English translation: "The Denied and The Denier") in Islamic eschatology, are angels who test the faith of the dead in their graves.Sufyani
The Sufyani (Arabic: السفياني) is a character from Islamic eschatology. The term Sufyani refers to his descent from the progeny of Abu Sufyan. According to hadiths, he will be the rival and opponent of Mahdi. Reports about Sufyani are available in both Sunni and Shia Hadith collections. The Sufyani is not the Dajjal. The hadith regarding the Sufyani specify that he is a tyrant who will spread corruption and mischief on the earth before the Mahdi. He will be such a tyrant that he will kill the children and rip out the bellies of women. The Sufyani will murder those from the household of the prophet and will rule over Syria. When he hears about the Mahdi, he will send an army to seize and kill him. However the earth will swallow this army before it even reaches the Mahdi.