The Islamic Djamaat of Dagestan, known in Russia as the Kadar zone (Russian: Кадарская зона), was an Islamist political entity in the Buynaksky District of Dagestan consisting of the fortified villages of Kadar, Karamakhi and Chabanmakhi. In the late 1990s, the Djamaat, heavily influenced by militant Wahhabism, declared independence and ejected Dagestani officials from the area. After a series of armed conflicts with Dagestani police and local moderate Muslims, the Djamaat broke off from government control. Sharia law was introduced in the villages, the Russian Constitution was declared void and an alliance was signed with Chechen forces with the aim of establishing an Independent Islamic Republic in the Caucasus.
Chechnya-based militants led by warlords Shamil Basaev and Ibn Al-Khattab launched an armed invasion of Dagestan in the autumn of 1999. While the invasion was resisted by Dagestani civilians and Russian troops, a retributive military attack was launched against the Djamaat. In the ensuing fighting, the three villages were destroyed and the Djamaat's militants left the area on 15 September 1999.
|Islamic Djamaat of Dagestan|
Кадарская зона / Отдельная исламская территорияParticipant in the War of Dagestan
|Area of operations||Dagestan|
|Battles and war(s)||War of Dagestan|
The radical Wahhabist creed of Islam arrived to Dagestan from Tajikistan in the late 1980s. Its spread was substantially sponsored by wealthy Islamist supporters in Saudi Arabia. In the early 1990s, the Dagestani Wahhabists were led by Bagaudtin Kebedov, who had previously worked with Akhmed-Kadji Akhtaev in the Islamic Party of Revival, until falling out with the more moderate Akhtaev. During the First Chechen War, Bagaudtin traveled to Chechnya to organise Wahhabist militant cells. In Dagestan he became the Amir of Islamic Community of Dagestan. Bagaudtin was the spiritual father of the Dagestani Wahhabism.
Bagaudtin Kebedov's teachings were put into practice in an area consisting of his home town Kadar, Karamakhi and Chabanmakhi in the Buinaksk District in central Dagestan southwest of the capital Makhachkala. This area became known as the Islamic Djamaat of Dagestan (a djamaat is traditional Dagestani political unit consisting of a village or group of villages). The majority of the villagers accepted the radical Wahhabist ideology, and young people from all over Dagestan and the Northern Caucasus arrived in the Djamaat in search of "pure Islam". While Bagaudtin was the spiritual leader of the djamaat, in military affairs the Arab warlord Ibn Al-Khattab, who had lived in Karamakhi before travelling to Chechnya and married a local woman, was the most influential person.
The Islamic Djamaat of Dagestan started receiving public attention in the later half of the 1990s, after Wahhabist extremists from the Djamaat were involved in a series of violent conflicts with traditional Muslims and later—with the Dagestani government.
On 21 June 1996, the administrative head of Kadar was murdered. The villagers blamed local Wahhabists, and the suspects fled to Chechnya. The incident escalated the tensions between the traditional Muslims and Djamaat's Wahhabists. On 12 May 1997, an armed conflict involving more than 450 gunmen erupted between the traditionalists and the Wahhabists at a funeral in Chabanmakhi. The Wahhabists had demanded that the participants pray toward Mecca instead of toward the coffin, which was in violation of traditional practices. 2 people died until the firing stopped, possibly due to a rumour that an army of Wahhabists were about to arrive from Chechnya as reinforcements.
The Dagestani government responded by sending hundreds of policemen and Ministry of Interior OMON special forces troops to the region to prevent further conflict. Several high-ranking officials also arrived to the scene, including Deputy Prime Minister Said Amirov. They promised that the killers would be found and prosecuted.
In 1997, the Islamic Djamaat of Dagestan and Chechen separatists led by commander Salman Raduyev, signed an alliance with the stated goal of creating an independent Islamist state in the Caucasus. Raduyev had previously launched the deadly terrorist attack into the Dagestani town of Kizlyar. After signing the alliance, the Djamaat militants joined the International Islamic Battalion, consisting of Chechen and international Islamists led by Ibn Al-Khattab, to launch a raid against the Russian 136th Armoured Brigade in Gerlakh.
Tensions around the villages continued to escalate during 1998. On 21 May 1998, Wahhabist gunmen seized the police station of Karamakhi, beating two policemen and stealing weapons. Two days later, the Dagestani government responded by sending 100 Ministry of Interior troops to the area. Their aim was to take the road leading to Karamakhi, but an assault by hundreds of gunmen forced them to withdraw. The next day, on 24 May 1998, the Wahhabists deployed a small army from the villages Karamakhi, Chabanmakhi and Kadar. The militants were heavily armed, carrying grenade launchers, mortars and automatic weapons. Struggling to bring the situation under control, the Dagestani government entered negotiations with the militants. They reached an agreement according to which prisoners would be swapped and both sides would be separated. This essentially meant that the territory of the Islamic Djamaat was no longer under government control.
On 5 July 1998, a congress attended by 1,000 armed militants was held in Karamakhi resulted in the Djamaat declaring independence and demands for the resignation of the Dagestani government, withdrawal of all federal troops and a union with Chechnya. By 10 August, the militants were controlling roads and traffic through the area, threatening to separate Dagestan's capital Makhachkala from the west of the republic. Dagestani authorities now began extensive negotiations with the militants and started to seriously consider using military force against the villages.
On 1 September 1998, an agreement was signed between the Djamaat representatives and the government of Dagestan, in which the militants agreed to "live according to the constitution", and the government agreed to let Wahhabi leaders to enforce order in the villages. On 5 September, a terrorist attack took place in Makhachkala. Apartment buildings near to the homes of the Dagestani Prime Minister and Mayor of the capital were bombed and demolished; however, no group claimed responsibility. After this, relative calm was restored, but Dagestani and Russian influence in the republic diminished. The September 1998 agreement was in effect a capitulation of the central government in favour of the Djamaat's Islamist radicals.
In August 1999, a researcher from the Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies visited the Islamid Djamaat. According to him, the road leading to Karamakhi was blocked by concrete structures and flanked by high-calibre machine guns. A sign warned that the traveler was about to enter independent Islamic territory. The militants stated they would not heed to the Russian Constitution, but follow only the Koran and Sunnah. Sharia law was the only law observed in the villages. The researcher was introduced to the militants' Taliban-styled training program. Its ideological part emphasized that "anyone who carried arms must do so in the name of Allah." The military training included practice in hand-to-hand combat, use of firearms including antiaircraft guns and mountain-combat tactics.
A Finnish journalist also travelled to Karamakhi in mid-August 1999, where he interviewed some villagers and their military Commander General Dzherollak. The journalist wrote: "The Wahhabists' trucks go all over Russia. Even one wrong move in Moscow or Makhachkala, they warn, will lead to bombs and bloodshed everywhere." According to the journalist the Wahhabis had told him, "if they start bombing us, we know where our bombs will explode."
On 17 April 1999, a congress headed by warlord Shamil Basaev was held in the Chechen capital Grozny. The Arab warlord Ibn Al-Khattab was also present, along with several Chechen leaders. Basaev declared the formation of an Islamic army consisting of thousands of militants. According to Basaev, these forces were "necessary for the realization of the resolutions of the congress, the main purpose of which is the creation of the Independent Islamic State in the range of Chechnya and Dagestan." The troops had been trained in camps operated by Basaev, Khattab and the Wahhabist leader Bagaudtin Kebedov.
On 2 August 1999, Basaev and Khattab launched an armed invasion of Dagestan from their bases in Chechnya. Their force consisted of 2,000–3,000 militants, including Chechens and international Islamists. Basaev and Khattab had expected the Dagestani civilians to welcome them as "liberators"—however, this did not happen. Instead, the Dagestanis saw the invading force as unwelcome religious fanatics. Spontaneuous citizen militias were formed for the defence of their country. Together with Dagestani police, they managed to stop the invaders' advance. By 26 August, Basaev's and Khattab's force had withdrawn back to Chechnya.
On 29 August, Dagestani OMON troops launched a military retribution against the Islamic Djamaat of Dagestan. The Russian Air Force also bombed the area. The joined federal and Dagestani offensive was accepted by most Dagestani civilians, because the Wahhabists were widely seen as aligned with the Chechnya-base militants who had attacked civilian villages weeks before.
While the fighting between the Wahhabists and Dagestani troops was ongoing on 4 September, the first attack of the Russian apartment bombings occurred; 64 people were killed in a blast that destroyed an apartment building in the nearby city of Buinaksk.
A day after the blast on 5 September, Basaev and Khattab launched a second incursion into Dagestan, ostensibly with the aim of relieving the Islamid Djamaat from the government attack. On 9 September, 94 Russian civilians were killed when an explosion destroyed their apartment building in Moscow. More terrorist attacks followed: on 13 September, 118 people died in a bombing in Moscow; on 16 September, a truck-bomb destroyed an apartment building in Volgodonsk.
According to Robert Bruce Ware, a leading specialist on Dagestan, the apartment bombings were likely perpetrated by the Dagestani Wahhabists as a retribution for the federal attack on the Islamic Djamaat.
Following the federal military attack which started on 29 August 1999, the militants retreated from the Djamaat on 13 September 1999. The villages of Karamakhi, Chabanmakhi and Kadar were ruined in the fighting. As a physical geographic entity, the Islamic Djamaat of Dagestan finally ceased to exist, but the Dagestani Wahhabists continued to have a serious presence in the republic, and there is much evidence that they have been responsible for a long series of terrorist bombings in Dagestan.
The 1995 Shali cluster bomb attack refers to an incident which occurred on January 3, 1995, in which Russian fighter-jets repeatedly bombed the Chechen town of Shali with cluster bombs.2004 raid on Grozny
2004 raid on Grozny was a series of overnight attacks in central Grozny, capital of Chechnya.
According to estimates of the investigation group, 250-400 fighters entered the city on August 21, established their own roadblocks, and simultaneously attacked a number of polling places and other targets, according to law enforcement sources killing 58 members of police and pro-Moscow militia and five federal soldiers. More than a dozen civilians were also killed.Arab Mujahideen in Chechnya
The Arab Mujahideen in Chechnya (Arabic: المجاهدين العرب في الشيشان, Al-Mujahidin Al-'Arab fi Al-Shishan; Russian: Арабские моджахеды в Чечне, Arabskiye Muzhakhady v Chechnye) was an international unit of the Islamist Mujahideen that fought in Chechnya and other parts of the North Caucasus.
It was created by Fathi al-Jordani in 1995 during the First Chechen War, where it fought against the Russian Federation in favor of Chechnya's independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. During the Second Chechen War it played an important part in further fighting.Arthur Getagazhev
Arthur Getagazhev (Russian: Артур Гатагажев), also known as Emir Abdullah or Ubaydullakh, was an Islamist militant leader in the Russian North Caucasus republic of Ingushetia.
Active in the Insurgency in Ingushetia from at least 2009
, Getagazhev was credited for many attacks in Ingushetia including the assassination of the Ingushetia head of security Akhmet Kotiev.
Following the killing of Dzhamaleyl Mutaliyev (alias Emir Adam) by Russian security forces on 21 May 2013, Doku Umarov, leader of the Caucasus Emirate, appointed Getagazhev as the head of the Vilayat Galgaycho rebels. Getagazhev was among 7 killed during a raid by security forces on the village of Sagopshi on 24 May 2014.Asker Dzhappuyev
Asker Dzhappuyev also known as Emir Abdullah, was the leader of the Jihadist United Vilayat of Kabarda-Balkaria-Karachai organisation in the Russian Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria.
An ethnic Balkar, Dzhappuyev became the emir of Vilayat of Kabarda-Balkaria-Karachai on 16 May 2010 following the killing of his predecessor, Anzor Astemirov, by the Russian security services. Under Dzhappuyev's command, there was a substantial increase in the number of attacks carried out by the United Vilayat of Kabarda-Balkaria-Karachai. While he encouraged his fighters to avoid civilian casualties, other young commanders like Ratmir Shameyev were more radical.Among the attacks carried out in Kabardino-Balkaria during his tenure was a raid on the Baksan hydroelectric power station and the assassinations of the Kabardino-Balkaria mufti Anas Pshikhachev and the prominent ethnographer Aslan Tsipinov.On 29 April 2011, Dzhappuyev was amongst 10 militants, including Emir Abdul Jabbar of the North Eastern Sector and Emir Zakaria of the South Western Sector, killed by security forces in the village of Progress in Stavropol Krai. Caucasus Emirate leader Dokka Umarov appointed Alim Zankishiev as his successor.Aslan Byutukayev
Aslan Avgazarovich Byutukayev (Russian: Аслан Бютукаев), also known as Emir Khamzat and Abubakar, is a Chechen insurgent commander in the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) Wilayah al-Qawqaz, the commander of the Riyad-us Saliheen Brigade of Martyrs and a close associate of the deceased Caucasus Emirate leader Dokka Umarov. Byutukayev was listed as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist by the United States on July 13, 2016.Battle of Dolinskoye
The Battle of Dolinskoye (Dolinskoe, Dolinsky), which took place 25 kilometers northwest of the Chechen capital of Grozny, was the first major ground engagement of the First Chechen War.Battle of Khankala
The Battle of Khankala was a failed attempt by the Chechen separatists to counterattack at the strategic position at Khankala from Grozny and Argun using armoured vehicles.
Khankala is a former Soviet military base and airstrip at the eastern outskirts of Grozny, also overtaking the main Rostov-Baku highway and cutting direct access into the Chechen capital of Grozny from the town of Argun. It was captured by a column of Russian troops led by elements of the 104th Guards Airborne Division in a surprise south-east dash from the village of Tolstoy-Yurt.
Reportedly, in the aftermath of the battle, the Chechen attackers were repelled by Russian paratroopers, losing six tanks and an armoured personnel carrier.Caucasian Front (militant group)
The Caucasian Front (Russian: Кавказский фронт) also called Caucasus Front or the Caucasian Mujahadeen, was formally established in May 2005 as an Islamic structural unit of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria's armed forces by the decree of the separatist President of Chechnya Abdul-Halim Sadulayev during the Second Chechen War.Chechenpress
State News Agency Chechenpress (SNA Chechenpress) is the news agency of the Chechen separatists who proclaim themselves to be the representatives of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. It used to be the official press agency of Chechnya.
As of 2008, SNA Chechenpress, linked with London-based Akhmed Zakayev, is the Chechen nationalist website rival to the Islamist Kavkaz Center website run by Movladi Udugov. In November 2007 the editors of Chechenpress declared it works since then directly under the ChRI Parliament.Counter-insurgency operations during the Second Chechen War
Counter-insurgency operations during the Second Chechen War have been conducted by the Russian army in Chechnya since 1999. The President of Chechnya, and former rebel, Ramzan Kadyrov declared this phase to end in March 2009. On 27 March 2009, the President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev met with Alexander Bortnikov, the Director of the Federal Security Service to discuss the official ending of counter-terrorism operations in Chechnya. Medvedev directed the National Anti-Terrorism Committee, which Bortnikov also heads, to report to the Russian government on this issue, which will then by decided by the Russian parliament.As of early 2009 there were close to 480 active insurgents situated in the mountains under leadership of field commander Doku Umarov, according to official data.Clashes with insurgents also continued in other regions of North Caucasus in 2009.Guerrilla phase of the Second Chechen War
The following lists detail the incidents of guerrilla warfare and counter insurgency in the republic of Chechnya and the rest of the North Caucasus since the official end of the main Russian offensive in April 2000. The lists are incomplete and the actual casualty count is much higher. Both Russian and separatist reports of casualties are often considered unreliable.Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade
The Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (Russian: Исламская международная миротворческая бригада; abbreviated IIPB), also known as the Islamic International Brigade, the Islamic Peacekeeping Army, was the name of an international Islamist terrorist mujahideen organization, founded in 1998.Kadar, Russia
Kadar (Russian: Кадар) is a rural locality in the Buynaksky District of the Republic of Dagestan in Russia. It was one of four villages under the control of the Islamic Djamaat of Dagestan between 1998 and 1999.Khasavyurt Accord
Khasavyurt Accord (Russian: Хасавюртовские соглашения) was an agreement that marked the end of the First Chechen War, signed in Khasavyurt in Dagestan on 30 August 1996 between Alexander Lebed and Aslan Maskhadov.Russia–Chechen Peace Treaty
Russian-Chechen Peace Treaty, also known as the Moscow Peace Treaty, was a formal peace treaty "on peace and the principles of Russian-Chechen relations" following the First Chechen War of 1994-1996. It was signed by the president of Russia Boris Yeltsin and the newly elected president of Chechnya Aslan Maskhadov, on May 12, 1997, at the Moscow Kremlin.Shatoy ambush
The Shatoy ambush (known in Russia as the Battle of Yaryshmardy) was an April 16, 1996, attack by forces of the Arab-born commander Ibn al-Khattab near the town of Shatoy in the southern mountains of Chechnya, during the First Chechen War.Supyan Abdullayev
Supyan Abdullayev (Russian: Супьян Абдуллаев; 8 November 1956 – 28 March 2011) was the vice president of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. He was appointed to this position (vacant since the death of Shamil Basayev) on 19 March 2007, by the President of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Dokka Umarov. He was considered the most senior figure after Umarov in the ranks of the Caucasian Emirate and a possible successor.Abdullayev was commander of the Jundullah Brigade, linked to the Vedeno-based wing of the Chechen resistance movement which was close to Basayev. He was primarily a religious figure rather than a military man, alike Abdul-Halim Sadulayev.Vilayat Nokhchicho
The Province of Nokhchicho (Chechen: Vilayat Noxçiyçö, Вилаят Нохчийчоь) was the Chechen-based wing of the Caucasus Emirate organisation. It was created in 2007 as one of the Emirate's six vilayats, replacing the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.
|First Chechen War|
|Second Chechen War|
|Wars in culture|