Ishfaq Ahmad, D.Sc., Minister of State, SI, HI, NI, FPAS (3 November 1930 – 18 January 2018), was a Pakistani nuclear physicist, emeritus professor of high-energy physics at the National Center for Physics, and former science advisor to the Government of Pakistan.
A versatile theoretical physicist, Ahmad made significant contributions in the theoretical development of the applications and concepts involving the particle physics, and its relative extension to the quantum electrodynamics, while working as senior research scientist at the CERN in 1960s and 1970s. Joining the PAEC in late 1950s, Ahmad served as the director of the Nuclear Physics Division at the secret Pinstech Institute which developed the first designs of atomic bombs, a clandestine project during the post-1971 war. There, he played an influential role in leading the physics and mathematical calculations in the critical mass of the weapons, and did theoretical work on the implosion method used in the weapons.
Since 1960s and onwards, he has been a high-ranking official at the IAEA as part of the Pakistan Government's official mission, working to make the peaceful use of nuclear power for the industrial development. Having chaired the PAEC from 1991 until 2001, he has been affiliated with the Pakistan Government as a Science adviser to the Prime minister on strategic and scientific programs, with the status of Minister of State. A vehement supporter for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, he earned public and international fame in May 1998 when he oversaw and directed PAEC to perform country's first public atomic tests (see Chagai-I and Chagai-II) in a secret weapon-testing laboratories in Balochistan Province of Pakistan. He died on 18 January 2018, aged 87 in Lahore.
Ishfaq Ahmad, c. 1990s
|Born||3 November 1930|
|Died||18 January 2018 (aged 87)|
|Residence||Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory|
|Nationality||Indian, (1930–1947) Pakistani (1947–2018)|
|Alma mater||Université de Montréal|
University of Punjab
|Known for||Nuclear Deterrence|
Contribution to Pion and particle physics
|Institutions||Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission|
International Atomic Energy Agency
Government College University
National Center for Physics
|Thesis||Structure et identification des trajectoires dans les emulsions ionographiques à grain fin (1959)|
|Doctoral advisor||Pierre Demers|
|Other academic advisors||Rafi Chaudhry|
|Notable students||Javed Aslam|
Ahmad was born in Gurdaspur, Indian Punjab state of the British India, to a Kakazai family. Ahmad obtained his early education in Jalandhar (Indian Punjab), Faisalabad (then Lyallpur) and Lahore, Pakistan. Ahmad enrolled in the Punjab University in Lahore to study Physics, and earned his undergraduate, B.Sc. degree, in Physics in 1949.
After entering in the post graduate school at the Punjab University, Ahmad obtained his M.Sc. degree, in 1951, after submitting his master's thesis on nuclear physics, which was supervised by Rafi Chaudhry. With his master's degree, he obtained Honours diploma and secured a gold medallion for the recognition of his work in physics. He taught various undergraduate physics laboratory courses at the Government College University while working on fundamental concepts in nuclear physics with his university mentor. In 1954, he won the scholarship under the Columbo Plan fellowship program and went to Quebec, Canada for his doctorate studies.
Ahmad attended the doctorate school at the Université de Montréal and did a two-year-long course in Particle physics and engaged his research on theoretical physics. In 1959, Ahmad obtained D.Sc. in Nuclear physics after submitting his doctoral works on concepts on advancing on particle physics. His thesis were written on fluent French and English language, and reluctantly returned to Pakistan under the terms of Colombo Plan contract. His DSc thesis were supervised by Prof. Pierre Demers and covered a wide range of research in the study of elementary particles by using the deployment of special fine grain nuclear emulsion (AgBr). During his long doctoral studies, Ahmad studied nuclear reaction at the Montreal Laboratory with supervisors and scientists role in the Manhattan Project. Upon his return to Pakistan, he joined the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as a senior scientist.
In 1952, Ahmad served as a visiting professor of mathematics at the Government College University, before accepting the professorship of mathematics at the University of Paris in 1959. He engaged his research in theoretical physics and obtained a one-year-long research fellowship at the Niels Bohr Institute for Theoretical Physics. In 1962–64, he accepted the professorship in physics at the University of Montreal and the University of Ottawa. In Ottawa, he carried out pioneering research in particle resonance and published important publications in theoretical physics.
Ahmad also performed experiments on nuclear physics at the Meuse Underground Laboratories of France. In 1965, Ahmad published a research report on absorption of Pion's cross sections and the range of complex atom's energy of the pion particle. He recalled his Cern experience in 1994:
In 1994, I visited CERN as chairman of PAEC. The visit took place on the initiative of Pakistani (theoretical) physicist Ahmed Ali, who works at DESY. It brought back good memories of my earlier visits, which date back to 1962 when I came to CERN as a young post-doctoral fellow working at the University Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen (now the Niels Bohr Institute) to perform a nuclear emulsion experiment. During my visit in 1994, I was fascinated to see the exciting developments in physics that were taking place at CERN, and I had only one wish— that my own country, Pakistan— should somehow become involved in scientific collaboration with CERN, and that our physicists and engineers could also become part of the most advanced, challenging and rewarding scientific endeavour: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).— Ishfaq Ahmad, 1994, source
In the 1990s, Ahmad played a pivotal role in building closer relations with the CERN, and lobbied tirelessly for PAEC to reach an agreement with CERN. In 1997, Ahmad, as chair of PAEC, signed an agreement with CERN in the up gradation of the CMS detector and the financial contribution worth one million SFr for the construction of eight magnetic rings for the detector. This was followed by In 1998, Ishfaq Ahmad, as PAEC chairman, reached another contract with CERN. The signing of the agreement was followed by the state visit of CERN's director Christopher Llewellyn Smith with whom Ahmad signed a collaborative agreement that provided an entry point for Pakistani's scientist (respectively PAEC) into the CMS collaboration.
In 2000, another treaty between PAEC and CERN was signed that covered the construction of the resistive plate chambers required for the CMS muon system. In Press Conference with Luciano Maiani, Ahmad quoted: "I very much hope and wish that these developments may eventually lead to Pakistan becoming an associate member of CERN."
In 1960, Ahmad joined the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as senior scientist and was allowed to proceed aborad for post-doctoral work at several of the world's most renowned research institutions. Ahmad published papers in physics at the Niels Bohr Institute at Copenhagen; also at the University of Montreal in Canada as well as the University of Paris – Sorbonne in France. Finally, he settled down for work at the Lahore Centre of the PAEC (PAEC) in 1965. Ahmad held the post of Senior Scientific Officer until 1966. From 1969 until 1971, Ahmad was the director of the Atomic Energy Center in Lahore; and then served as secretary of PAEC from 1967 till 1969. In 1971, Ahmad became director of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology in Nilore until 1976. In 1976, he became a Science Member of PAEC, raised to the position of Senior Member in 1988. He became Chairman of the Commission in 1991 and remained its Chairman from 13 March 1991 to 19 December 2001.
While he was Chairman PAEC, Ahmad has been heading the country's delegation at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. At IAEA, he was always very keen for getting technical support and the breaking of the isololation of scientists from third world. On his persuasion IAEA's technical assistance program was adapted to cater for special needs of the developing countries. In this regard a Standing Advisory Group on Technical Assistance and Cooperation (SAGTAC) was established; Ahmad served as the first Chairman of the Group.
After the 1971 war with India, the government sent Ishfaq Ahmad to the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). When Munir Ahmad Khan became the chairman of PAEC and was put in charge of secret atomic bomb project, Munir Khan appointed Ahmad as the director of PINSTECH, where he remained up to 1976. Ahmad served as the director of the Nuclear Physics Division at the secret Pinstech Institute which developed the first designs of atomic bombs, a clandestine project during the post-1971 war. There, he played an influential role in leading the physics and mathematical calculations in the critical mass of the weapons, and did preliminary theoretical work on the implosion method used in the weapons.
As early as in 1976, Ahmad, in a seismic team led by geophysicist Ahsan Mubarak conducted a three-dimensional geometrical survey and made several reconnaissance tours of the suitable areas in Balochistan. After a one-year-long survey, the team found a mountain which matched their specifications. The 185-meter high-rise granite mountain was founded in the Ras Koh region of the Chagai Division of Balochistan, which at their highest point rise to a height of 3,009 metres. Ahmad had long noted that the underground weapon-testing laboratories in the mountain should be "bone dry" and capable of withstanding a ~20 kilotonne nuclear force from the inside. Within a week, further test experiments were conducted to measure the water content of the mountains and the surrounding area and to measure the capability of the mountain's rock to withstand a nuclear test. Once this was confirmed, Ishfaq Ahmed finalised the work on a three-dimensional survey of the area.
In 1976, PAEC succeeded in producing the first local 10kg of Yellowcake and later on produced the 239Pu, the weapon grade plutonium in 1983, which was later tested with the nuclear device.
At PINSTECH, Ahmad produced the first Photographic plate to identify the fissile matter in natural uranium when it is explored. However, due to its classified research, the knowledge of such detector is completely classified. The NPD developed the Thermoluminescent Dosimeter to measure the detection of alpha particles emitted in the decay of radon and thoron gases. Ahmad collaborating with Hameed Ahmad Khan —director of Radiation Physics Division – in the development of CR-39, a type of particle detector. Ahmad gained expertise in nuclear emulsion and developed a first classified nuclear emulsion that provided information about the mass, charge and velocity of the particles producing the track.
A first device was physically manufactured by 1983, and transported to Sargodha air force base for a first test. On 11 March 1983, a first cold test, codename Kirana-I, of a device was secretly carried out at the weapon-testing laboratories built inside the Central Ammunition Depot (CAD) of Sargodha AFB. The test was overseen and conducted by a small team of scientists led by Ahmad, while calculations on quantum oscillator was conducted by Theoretical physics group. Other invitees and attendees included the Munir Ahmad Khan, Samar Mubarakmand, and Masud Ahmad of PAEC whilst others were high-ranking civilians officials of elite civil bureaucracy and the active-duty officer of the Pakistan military.
In 1991, Ahmad was officially approved as the chairman of PAEC by the Prime minister of Pakistan after Munir Khan retired. During this time, he had been a senior scientist and acted as official science advisor to the government of Pakistan on many occasions. In 1998, Ahmad visited Canada to deliver lecture on quantum physics at the Montreal Laboratory when the news of surprise nuclear tests, codename Pokhran-II, of India reached to him. On 16 May 1998, Ahmad cut short his trip and returned to Pakistan to attend meeting with Prime minister Nawaz Sharif, and arranged his meeting with Prime minister on 17 May 1998. The message was bestowed to him by the Joint Headquarters at Rawalpindi, informing him to remain on stand-by a meeting with the Prime Minister. After commencing the meeting with the Prime minister, Ahmad received green signal from the government of Pakistan to conduct country's first test as a suitable reply to Indian nuclear aggression.
Ahmad personally supervised the test preparations as he also suggests the codenames of the tests. On 28 May 1998, the PAEC, sided by KRL and corps of engineers, performed the first nuclear tests, codename Chagai-I which was followed by Chagai-II two days later, on May 1998. Evidently, the fission devices were had contained the boosted-fission HEU nuclear process, that came from the KRL. But, on 30 May, the second test, codename Chagai-II, was performed completely under the command and control management of the PAEC. The fission devices, on a second test, were reportedly had contained the weapon grade plutonium, producing around at ~20kt of nuclear force. All together, the superposition of sum of the forces and the total blast yield was ranged at the nearly ~40kt of nuclear force, according to the PAEC scientific data.
After his retirement from PAEC, Ahmad developed keen scientific interest in the science of climate change. This interest lead to the creation of 2 new centre viz Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC) and Center for Earthquake Studies (CES), both initially attached to the National Center for Physics (NCP) in Islamabad. Ahmad sereved as elected President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences and is the lifetime Chairman of the Board of Governors of the National Center for Physics (NCP)— a research institute established on the pattern of International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) at Trieste, Italy.
He also put Pakistan on the governing Council of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria, which conducts policy related research using mathematical modeling and simulation tools.
Dr Ishfaq Ahmad's efforts led to the creation of the Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC) in Islamabad where, for the first time, research on policy issues related to Climate Change is being undertaken in Pakistan. The centre, an autonomous organisation under the federal govt, works in collaboration with national institutions such as Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), WAPDA and PCRWR etc. The centre has also established collaborative relationship with international institutions, most importantly The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. GCISC, with Dr. Arshad M Khan as its Executive Director, also serves as the Secretariat of the Prime Minister’s Committee on Climate Change.
After the 8 October 2005, Kashmir earthquake, the Government has decided to establish a Center for Earthquake studies in Islamabad, under the technical direction of Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad. The centre under the directorship of Mr. Shahid Ashraf and Dr. Ahsan Mubarak started work in collaboration with world leading scientists such as Prof. Elchin Khalilov of Azerbaijan. The centre conducts research using a Gravitational Wave Recorder housed at the National Centre for Physics, Islamabad.
Ishfaq Ahmad is internationally known for his long-standing public advocacy for the nuclear power plants for the industrial and socio-economic growth. On international forums, Ahmad deterred the international pressure mounted on Pakistan after conducting its tests, instead highlighted the achievements gained by Pakistan on its nuclear power infrastructure in the country as well as the need of Pakistan's usage of nuclear power for its economical growth. In 2012, Ahmad lobbied for the HMC-3 consortium to be listed as first commercial nuclear power corporation and helped the consortium to acquired its first license to manufacture nuclear materials for industrial power plants.
In 1989, Ishfaq Ahmad was bestowed with first state honour, Sitara-e-Imtiaz by Benazir Bhutto; and Hilal-e-Imtiaz in 1995. In 1998, Ahmad received the highest state honour, Nishan-e-Imtiaz, given to any national of Pakistan, for his services to the country in a graceful state ceremony. The same year, he was awarded gold medallion by the Institute of Leadership and Management in Lahore.
D.Sc. Thesis (UQAM): Structure and Identification of trajectories in fine grain ionographic emulsions, under the direction of Pierre Demers, Faculty of Science, University of Montreal, Canada, 1958.
6. L'INFLUENCE DU DÉVELOPPEMENT SUR LA STRUCTURE DES TRAJECTOIRES ET SUR LE VOILE DANS LES ÉMULSIONS À GRAINS FINS, Canadian Journal of Physics, 1959, 37(12). pp. 1548–1552. (http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/p59-171)
nucléaire sur la structure des lacunes. Ahmad Ishfaq and Max Morand. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences, France, 1959, Vol. 1–3 (T248, part 1), pp. 1798–1800 (http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k32002/f1836.image).
1964, Ann. ACFAS, 31, 76–7, 1965.
13. The role of pre-irradiation annealing in changing the track development characteristics of glass track detectors. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, Vol.131(1), 1975, pp. 89–92.
19–24 February 2007, Cyprus (https://www.springer.com/environment/sustainable+development/book/978-3-540-95990-8).
Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad (a theoretical physicist) and others involved in critical technologies and projects worked as a team, and gave ultimate security to Pakistan... Quoted by: Pakistan Defence Journal, 2004
| Science Advisor to the Prime Minister Secretariat
Abdul Qadeer Khan
Atta ur Rahman
| Science Advisor to the Prime Minister Secretariat
30 March 2008 – 16 March 2013
Mohammad Abdus Salam (; Punjabi, Urdu: عبد السلام, pronounced [əbd̪ʊs səlaːm]; 29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996), was a Pakistani theoretical physicist. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to receive any Nobel Prize (after Anwar Sadat of Egypt).Salam was science advisor to the Ministry of Science and Technology in Pakistan from 1960 to 1974, a position from which he was supposed to play a major and influential role in the development of the country's science infrastructure. Salam contributed to developments in theoretical and particle physics. He was the founding director of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and responsible for the establishment of the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) in the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). As Science Advisor, Salam played a role in Pakistan's development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and may have contributed as well to development of atomic bomb project of Pakistan in 1972; for this, he is viewed as the "scientific father" of this programme. In 1974, Abdus Salam departed from his country, in protest, after the Parliament of Pakistan passed unanimously a parliamentary bill declaring members of the Ahmadiyya movement to which Salam belonged non-Muslims. In 1998, following the country's nuclear tests, the Government of Pakistan issued a commemorative stamp, as a part of "Scientists of Pakistan", to honour the services of Salam.Salam's notable achievements include the Pati–Salam model, magnetic photon, vector meson, Grand Unified Theory, work on supersymmetry and, most importantly, electroweak theory, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Salam made a major contribution in quantum field theory and in the advancement of Mathematics at Imperial College London. With his student, Riazuddin, Salam made important contributions to the modern theory on neutrinos, neutron stars and black holes, as well as the work on modernising the quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. As a teacher and science promoter, Salam is remembered as a founder and scientific father of mathematical and theoretical physics in Pakistan during his term as the chief scientific advisor to the president. Salam heavily contributed to the rise of Pakistani physics to the physics community in the world. Even until shortly before his death, Salam continued to contribute to physics, and to advocate for the development of science in Third-World countries.Abdus Salam Centre for Physics
The Professor Abdus Salam Centre for Physics (Urdu: عبداسلام ادارہ برائے طبیعیات), previously known as the Riazzudin National Centre for Physics is an academic national research institute for physics and mathematical sciences located in Islamabad, Pakistan. The Government of Pakistan had the jurisdiction of the institute from 1999 until April 2004, when the institute was made a scientific organization. However, the institute is still funded in large by the Pakistani federal government. The proposal for the establishment of the centre was first put forward in 1951. It is under the de facto control of the Strategic Plans Division of the Pakistani National Command Authority.Since its inception in 1999, the institute operates quadripartite supervision of ICTP, PAEC, INSC, and CERN, and main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for theoretical and high-energy physics research. As of today, the NCP emerged as world's leading particle physics institute producing hundreds of papers by world's scientists who joined this institute, and numerous scientific experiments have been constructed at NCP by national and international collaborations to make use of them.Abdus Salam Chair in Physics
The Abdus Salam Chair in Physics, also known as Salam Chair in Physics, is an academic physics research institute of the Government College University at Lahore, Punjab province of Pakistan. Named after Pakistan's only Nobel Laureate, Abdus Salam, the institute is partnered with Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). While it is a physics research institute, the institute is dedicated to the field of Theoretical and Mathematical physics.
The institute was established in 1999, after it was suggested by Ishfaq Ahmad, by the Government of Pakistan led by the Prime minister Nawaz Sharif. Its first director, who is designated as Salam Professor, was Dr. Ghulam Murtaza who was appointed in 1999. The institute is partnered with PAEC and International Center for Theoretical Physics, and also participated with the projects led by the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).Ahsan Mubarak
Ahsan Mubarak (Urdu: احسن مبارک; SI, DSc), is a Pakistani geophysicist and nuclear seismologist who is renowned for his pioneering research on earthquake sciences, and seismic activities in Pakistan. He is the current director of the Center for Earthquake Studies (CES), senior scientist at the Global Network for the Forecasting of Earthquakes (GNFE) and a visiting professor of geophysics at the Quaid-e-Azam University.Ashraf ministry
Ashraf ministry is the cabinet of Pakistan from 2012 to 2013.Center for Earthquake Studies
The Center for Earthquake Studies (CES), is an academic earth science, earthquake studies and mathematical national research institute, located in Islamabad, Pakistan. The institute is headquartered in the campus area of the National Centre for Physics (NCP) and conducts mathematical research in earth sciences, with the close coordination with the NCP.Chagai-I
Chagai-I is the code name of five simultaneous underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15 hrs PST on 28 May 1998. The tests were performed at Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai District of Balochistan Province.Chagai-I was Pakistan's first public test of nuclear weapons. Its timing was a direct response to India's second nuclear tests, on 11 and 13 May 1998. These tests by Pakistan and India resulted in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1172 and economic sanctions on both states by a number of major powers, particularly the United States and Japan. By testing nuclear devices, Pakistan became the seventh nation to publicly test nuclear weapons. Pakistan's second nuclear test, Chagai-II, followed on 30 May 1998.Ishfaq Ahmad (computer science professor)
Ishfaq Ahmad is an IEEE Fellow and a Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). He is the Director of Center For Advanced Computing Systems (CACS) and has previously directed IRIS (Institute of Research in Security) at UTA. He is widely recognized for his contributions to scheduling techniques in parallel and distributed computing systems, and video coding.KANUPP Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering
The Karachi Institute of Power Engineering, commonly refers to KINPOE, formerly known as Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, is a post-graduate and engineering university that offers programme to the field of nuclear and power engineering, and the physical sciences. It also offers Post-diploma Program. The engineering university located near at the Karachi Nuclear Power Complex (KANUPP-II) near at Paradise Point in Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan. The Institute is known for its research and training in nuclear power engineering and sciences.
KINPOE has been established by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) by dr. Ishfaq Ahmad in 1993, to develop qualified manpower for its nuclear power program. The Institute is affiliated with the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) (earlier it was affiliated with NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, for the award of Master of Engineering degree in Nuclear Engineering and Power engineering.Kirana Hills
The Kirana Hills is a small and extensive rocky mountain range located in Sargodha, Pakistan. It is also a place of tourist attraction in Sargodha City. Locally known as "Black Mountains" due to its brownish landscape, its highest peak is about 980 feet (300 m).Known for its extreme weather conditions, its maximum temperature reaches to 50 °C (122 °F) in the summer while the minimum temperature recorded is as low as freezing point in the winter. Due to its rocky landscape and minerals, a volcanic and geophysical survey was conducted by the Geological Survey of Pakistan. Its environs are heavily infested with wild boars.List of Pakistani scientists
Abdus Salam, theoretical physicist (Nobel Laureate 1979)
Abdul Qadeer Khan, metallurgical engineer
Rameez Ahmad, Nanotechnologist
Asad A. Abidi, electrical engineer
Haroon Ahmed, electrical engineer
Ishfaq Ahmad, nuclear physicist
Nazir Ahmed, nuclear physicist
M. A. B. Beg, theoretical particle physicist
Shahid Hussain Bokhari, computer systems engineer
Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry, nuclear physicist
Ahmad Hasan Dani, archaeologist
Peter Finke, particle physicist
Fayyazuddin, theoretical physicist
Pervez Hoodbhoy, nuclear physicist
Ashiq Hussain, neuroscientist
Faheem Hussain, theoretical physicist
Syed Tajammul Hussain, chemist and nano-technologist
Tasneem Zehra Hussain String theorist
Mujahid Kamran, theoretical physicist
Munir Ahmad Khan, nuclear engineer
Javaid Laghari, electrical engineer
Abdul Majid (physicist), rocket scientist and engineer
Samar Mubarak Mand, nuclear physicist
Nergis Mavalvala, astrophysicist
Qasim Mehdi, molecular biologist
Salim Mehmud, nuclear scientist
Asad Naqvi, mathematical physicist
Ansar Pervaiz, nuclear scientist
Atta ur Rahman, organic chemist
Abdul Razaque, computer scientist and engineer
Riaz-ud-Din, theoretical physicist
Abdullah Sadiq, nuclear physicist
Umar Saif, computer scientist
Tasneem M. Shah, theoretical physicist
Irfan Siddiqi, physicist in quantum measurement & nano-science
Kushnood Ahmed Siddiqui, scientist
Raziuddin Siddiqui, astrophysicist
Salim-uz-Zaman Siddiqui, chemist
Ishrat Hussain Usmani, nuclear physicist
Muhammad Suhail Zubairy, physicist in quantum optics
Muhammad Yar Khuhawar, chemistList of Ravians
Alumni of the Government College University, Lahore are called Ravians. Following is list of notable Ravians.List of Université de Montréal people
The following is a list of noted principals, alumni and professors of Université de Montréal.Ministry of Science and Technology (Pakistan)
The Ministry of Science and Technology (Urdu: وزارت سائنس و ٹیکنالوجی, abbreviated as MoST) is a Cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Pakistan concerned with science and technology in Pakistan and in general, Pakistan's science policy, planning, co-ordination and directing of efforts to initiate and launch scientific and technological programs as well as projects aimed at economic development. The ministry is coordinated by the Federal Minister for Science and Technology and is headquartered in Islamabad.Muhammad Hafeez Qureshi
Muhammad Hafeez Qureshi (Urdu: محمد حفيظ قريشى; January 28, 1930 – August 11, 2007), SI, HI, popular as Hafeez Qureshi, was a Pakistani nuclear scientist and a mechanical engineer, known for his classified work at the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).Known for being a director of PAEC's secretive divisions charged with testings of nuclear materials, he oversaw the work on weapon systems manufacturing and gained expertise on engineering applications of nuclear physics and mechanics. However, he is more famed of spearheading Pakistan's quest for nuclear capability.Noor Muhammad Butt
Noor Muhammad Butt (Urdu: ڈاکٹر این ایم بٹ); b. 3 June 1936); SI, FPAS, best known as "Dr. N. M. Butt", is a Pakistani nuclear physicist and the chairman and professor of Nanotechnology at Preston Institute of Nano Science and Technology. He earned international prestige for his edge-leading research in neutron diffraction, and made important contributions to Mössbauer spectroscopy.Project-706
Project-706, also known as Project-726 was a codename of a project to develop Pakistan's first atomic bomb using uranium. At the same time, Pakistani nuclear technology scientists and engineers gained expertise in the use of reactor-grade plutonium and successfully produced weapons grade plutonium by the early 1980s.
It was a major scientific effort of Pakistan. Project-706 refers specifically to the period from 1974–1983 when it was under the control of former prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and later on under the military administration of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. The project's roots lay in scientists' fears since 1967 that India was also developing nuclear weapons of its own. Developing nuclear technology for Pakistan was a main goal and of Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto who initiated the scientific research in 1972.Before the launching of Project-706 in 1974, the initial scientific research, starting from 1972, was directed and organized by renowned Pakistani scientist Abdus Salam. From 1974, the research was led by engineers Munir Ahmad Khan of PAEC and Abdul Qadeer Khan of KRL. Time magazine has called Project-706 Pakistan's equivalent of the United States Manhattan Project. The project initially cost US$450 million (raised by both Libya and Saudi Arabia) which was approved by Bhutto in 1972.Project-706 led to the creation of multiple production and research sites that operated in extreme secrecy and ambiguity. Apart from research and development the project was also charged with gathering intelligence on Indian nuclear efforts. The Project was disbanded when the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) carried out the first cold test of a miniature nuclear device on 11 March 1983. Scientists and military officers who participated in the Project were given higher promotion in their respective services, and conferred with high civil decorations by the Government of Pakistan.Samar Mubarakmand
Samar Mubarakmand (Urdu: ثمر مبارک مند; b. 17 September 1942; NI, HI, SI, FPAS), is a Pakistani nuclear physicist known for his research in gamma spectroscopy and experimental development of the linear accelerator.He came to public attention as the director of the test teams responsible for the performing the country's first and successful atomic tests (see Chagai-I and Chagai-II) at the Chagai Test Site, located in the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Prior to that, he was the project director of the integrated missile programme and supervised the development of Shaheen and Babur missile program. Serving the founding chairman of Nescom from 2001 until 2007, he was subsequently appointed by the government to assist the Thar coalfield project.University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
The University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Urdu: جامعہ انجینئری و ٹیکنالوجی لاہور; abbreviated as UET Lahore) is a public university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan specializing in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects.