Ishfaq Ahmad

Ishfaq Ahmad, D.Sc., Minister of State, SI, HI, NI, FPAS (3 November 1930 – 18 January 2018), was a Pakistani nuclear physicist, emeritus professor of high-energy physics at the National Center for Physics, and former science advisor to the Government of Pakistan.[1]

A versatile theoretical physicist,[2] Ahmad made significant contributions in the theoretical development of the applications and concepts involving the particle physics, and its relative extension to the quantum electrodynamics, while working as senior research scientist at the CERN in 1960s and 1970s. Joining the PAEC in late 1950s, Ahmad served as the director of the Nuclear Physics Division at the secret Pinstech Institute which developed the first designs of atomic bombs, a clandestine project during the post-1971 war.[3] There, he played an influential role in leading the physics and mathematical calculations in the critical mass of the weapons, and did theoretical work on the implosion method used in the weapons.[4]

Since 1960s and onwards, he has been a high-ranking official at the IAEA as part of the Pakistan Government's official mission, working to make the peaceful use of nuclear power for the industrial development. Having chaired the PAEC from 1991 until 2001, he has been affiliated with the Pakistan Government as a Science adviser to the Prime minister on strategic and scientific programs, with the status of Minister of State. A vehement supporter for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, he earned public and international fame in May 1998 when he oversaw and directed PAEC to perform country's first public atomic tests (see Chagai-I and Chagai-II) in a secret weapon-testing laboratories in Balochistan Province of Pakistan.[5] He died on 18 January 2018, aged 87 in Lahore.[6][7]

Ishfaq Ahmad
Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad
Ishfaq Ahmad, c. 1990s
Born3 November 1930
Died18 January 2018 (aged 87)
ResidenceIslamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory
NationalityIndian, (1930–1947) Pakistani (1947–2018)
Alma materUniversité de Montréal
University of Punjab
Known forNuclear Deterrence
Contribution to Pion and particle physics
Stellar nucleosynthesis
AwardsNishan-i-Imitiaz (1998)
Hilal-i-Imtiaz (1995)
Sitara-i-Imtiaz (1989)
Scientific career
FieldsNuclear Physics
InstitutionsPakistan Atomic Energy Commission
PINSTECH Institute
International Atomic Energy Agency
Government College University
National Center for Physics
Planning Commission
ThesisStructure et identification des trajectoires dans les emulsions ionographiques à grain fin (1959)
Doctoral advisorPierre Demers
Other academic advisorsRafi Chaudhry
Notable studentsJaved Aslam
Fazal Hussain
Samar Mubarakmand

Biography

Early life and education

Ahmad was born in Gurdaspur, Indian Punjab state of the British India, to a Kakazai[8] family.[9] Ahmad obtained his early education in Jalandhar (Indian Punjab), Faisalabad (then Lyallpur) and Lahore, Pakistan. Ahmad enrolled in the Punjab University in Lahore to study Physics, and earned his undergraduate, B.Sc. degree, in Physics in 1949.[9]

After entering in the post graduate school at the Punjab University, Ahmad obtained his M.Sc. degree, in 1951, after submitting his master's thesis on nuclear physics, which was supervised by Rafi Chaudhry.[10] With his master's degree, he obtained Honours diploma and secured a gold medallion for the recognition of his work in physics.[9] He taught various undergraduate physics laboratory courses at the Government College University while working on fundamental concepts in nuclear physics with his university mentor. In 1954, he won the scholarship under the Columbo Plan fellowship program and went to Quebec, Canada for his doctorate studies.[11]

Ahmad attended the doctorate school at the Université de Montréal and did a two-year-long course in Particle physics and engaged his research on theoretical physics. In 1959, Ahmad obtained D.Sc. in Nuclear physics after submitting his doctoral works on concepts on advancing on particle physics.[11] His thesis were written on fluent French and English language, and reluctantly returned to Pakistan under the terms of Colombo Plan contract. His DSc thesis were supervised by Prof. Pierre Demers[12] and covered a wide range of research in the study of elementary particles by using the deployment of special fine grain nuclear emulsion (AgBr).[12] During his long doctoral studies, Ahmad studied nuclear reaction at the Montreal Laboratory with supervisors and scientists role in the Manhattan Project. Upon his return to Pakistan, he joined the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as a senior scientist.[11]

Academia and CERN

In 1952, Ahmad served as a visiting professor of mathematics at the Government College University, before accepting the professorship of mathematics at the University of Paris in 1959.[13] He engaged his research in theoretical physics and obtained a one-year-long research fellowship at the Niels Bohr Institute for Theoretical Physics.[14] In 1962–64, he accepted the professorship in physics at the University of Montreal and the University of Ottawa. In Ottawa, he carried out pioneering research in particle resonance and published important publications in theoretical physics.[15]

Ahmad also performed experiments on nuclear physics at the Meuse Underground Laboratories of France.[16] In 1965, Ahmad published a research report on absorption of Pion's cross sections and the range of complex atom's energy of the pion particle.[17] He recalled his Cern experience in 1994:

In 1994, I visited CERN as chairman of PAEC. The visit took place on the initiative of Pakistani (theoretical) physicist Ahmed Ali, who works at DESY. It brought back good memories of my earlier visits, which date back to 1962 when I came to CERN as a young post-doctoral fellow working at the University Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen (now the Niels Bohr Institute) to perform a nuclear emulsion experiment. During my visit in 1994, I was fascinated to see the exciting developments in physics that were taking place at CERN, and I had only one wish— that my own country, Pakistan— should somehow become involved in scientific collaboration with CERN, and that our physicists and engineers could also become part of the most advanced, challenging and rewarding scientific endeavour: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

— Ishfaq Ahmad, 1994, source[18]

In the 1990s, Ahmad played a pivotal role in building closer relations with the CERN, and lobbied tirelessly for PAEC to reach an agreement with CERN.[18][19] In 1997, Ahmad, as chair of PAEC, signed an agreement with CERN in the up gradation of the CMS detector and the financial contribution worth one million SFr for the construction of eight magnetic rings for the detector.[18] This was followed by In 1998, Ishfaq Ahmad, as PAEC chairman, reached another contract with CERN.[18] The signing of the agreement was followed by the state visit of CERN's director Christopher Llewellyn Smith with whom Ahmad signed a collaborative agreement that provided an entry point for Pakistani's scientist (respectively PAEC) into the CMS collaboration.[18]

In 2000, another treaty between PAEC and CERN was signed that covered the construction of the resistive plate chambers required for the CMS muon system. In Press Conference with Luciano Maiani, Ahmad quoted: "I very much hope and wish that these developments may eventually lead to Pakistan becoming an associate member of CERN."[20]

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

In 1960, Ahmad joined the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as senior scientist and was allowed to proceed aborad for post-doctoral work at several of the world's most renowned research institutions. Ahmad published papers in physics at the Niels Bohr Institute at Copenhagen; also at the University of Montreal in Canada as well as the University of Paris – Sorbonne in France. Finally, he settled down for work at the Lahore Centre of the PAEC (PAEC) in 1965. Ahmad held the post of Senior Scientific Officer until 1966.[21] From 1969 until 1971, Ahmad was the director of the Atomic Energy Center in Lahore; and then served as secretary of PAEC from 1967 till 1969.[21] In 1971, Ahmad became director of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology in Nilore until 1976.[21] In 1976, he became a Science Member of PAEC, raised to the position of Senior Member in 1988. He became Chairman of the Commission in 1991 and remained its Chairman from 13 March 1991 to 19 December 2001.[21]

While he was Chairman PAEC, Ahmad has been heading the country's delegation at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria.[22] At IAEA, he was always very keen for getting technical support and the breaking of the isololation of scientists from third world. On his persuasion IAEA's technical assistance program was adapted to cater for special needs of the developing countries.[22] In this regard a Standing Advisory Group on Technical Assistance and Cooperation (SAGTAC) was established; Ahmad served as the first Chairman of the Group.[22]

1971 war and atomic bomb project

After the 1971 war with India, the government sent Ishfaq Ahmad to the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH).[21] When Munir Ahmad Khan became the chairman of PAEC and was put in charge of secret atomic bomb project, Munir Khan appointed Ahmad as the director of PINSTECH, where he remained up to 1976. Ahmad served as the director of the Nuclear Physics Division at the secret Pinstech Institute which developed the first designs of atomic bombs, a clandestine project during the post-1971 war.[3] There, he played an influential role in leading the physics and mathematical calculations in the critical mass of the weapons, and did preliminary theoretical work on the implosion method used in the weapons.[4]

As early as in 1976, Ahmad, in a seismic team led by geophysicist Ahsan Mubarak conducted a three-dimensional geometrical survey and made several reconnaissance tours of the suitable areas in Balochistan. After a one-year-long survey, the team found a mountain which matched their specifications.[23] The 185-meter high-rise granite mountain was founded in the Ras Koh region of the Chagai Division of Balochistan, which at their highest point rise to a height of 3,009 metres.[23] Ahmad had long noted that the underground weapon-testing laboratories in the mountain should be "bone dry" and capable of withstanding a ~20 kilotonne nuclear force from the inside.[23] Within a week, further test experiments were conducted to measure the water content of the mountains and the surrounding area and to measure the capability of the mountain's rock to withstand a nuclear test.[23] Once this was confirmed, Ishfaq Ahmed finalised the work on a three-dimensional survey of the area.[23]

In 1976, PAEC succeeded in producing the first local 10kg of Yellowcake[24] and later on produced the 239Pu, the weapon grade plutonium in 1983, which was later tested with the nuclear device.[25][26]

At PINSTECH, Ahmad produced the first Photographic plate to identify the fissile matter in natural uranium when it is explored.[27] However, due to its classified research, the knowledge of such detector is completely classified.[27] The NPD developed the Thermoluminescent Dosimeter to measure the detection of alpha particles emitted in the decay of radon and thoron gases. Ahmad collaborating with Hameed Ahmad Khan —director of Radiation Physics Division – in the development of CR-39, a type of particle detector.[28] Ahmad gained expertise in nuclear emulsion and developed a first classified nuclear emulsion that provided information about the mass, charge and velocity of the particles producing the track.[29]

A first device was physically manufactured by 1983, and transported to Sargodha air force base for a first test. On 11 March 1983, a first cold test, codename Kirana-I, of a device was secretly carried out at the weapon-testing laboratories built inside the Central Ammunition Depot (CAD) of Sargodha AFB. The test was overseen and conducted by a small team of scientists led by Ahmad, while calculations on quantum oscillator was conducted by Theoretical physics group.[30] Other invitees and attendees included the Munir Ahmad Khan, Samar Mubarakmand, and Masud Ahmad of PAEC whilst others were high-ranking civilians officials of elite civil bureaucracy and the active-duty officer of the Pakistan military.

Chagai tests

In 1991, Ahmad was officially approved as the chairman of PAEC by the Prime minister of Pakistan after Munir Khan retired. During this time, he had been a senior scientist and acted as official science advisor to the government of Pakistan on many occasions. In 1998, Ahmad visited Canada to deliver lecture on quantum physics at the Montreal Laboratory when the news of surprise nuclear tests, codename Pokhran-II, of India reached to him. On 16 May 1998, Ahmad cut short his trip and returned to Pakistan to attend meeting with Prime minister Nawaz Sharif, and arranged his meeting with Prime minister on 17 May 1998. The message was bestowed to him by the Joint Headquarters at Rawalpindi, informing him to remain on stand-by a meeting with the Prime Minister. After commencing the meeting with the Prime minister, Ahmad received green signal from the government of Pakistan to conduct country's first test as a suitable reply to Indian nuclear aggression.

Ahmad personally supervised the test preparations as he also suggests the codenames of the tests. On 28 May 1998, the PAEC, sided by KRL and corps of engineers, performed the first nuclear tests, codename Chagai-I which was followed by Chagai-II two days later, on May 1998.[31] Evidently, the fission devices were had contained the boosted-fission HEU nuclear process, that came from the KRL. But, on 30 May, the second test, codename Chagai-II, was performed completely under the command and control management of the PAEC. The fission devices, on a second test, were reportedly had contained the weapon grade plutonium, producing around at ~20kt of nuclear force. All together, the superposition of sum of the forces and the total blast yield was ranged at the nearly ~40kt of nuclear force, according to the PAEC scientific data.[32]

Later work and activism

After his retirement from PAEC, Ahmad developed keen scientific interest in the science of climate change. This interest lead to the creation of 2 new centre viz Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC) and Center for Earthquake Studies (CES), both initially attached to the National Center for Physics (NCP) in Islamabad. Ahmad sereved as elected President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences and is the lifetime Chairman of the Board of Governors of the National Center for Physics (NCP)— a research institute established on the pattern of International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) at Trieste, Italy.

He also put Pakistan on the governing Council of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria, which conducts policy related research using mathematical modeling and simulation tools.[33]

Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC)

Dr Ishfaq Ahmad's efforts led to the creation of the Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC) in Islamabad where, for the first time, research on policy issues related to Climate Change is being undertaken in Pakistan. The centre, an autonomous organisation under the federal govt, works in collaboration with national institutions such as Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), WAPDA and PCRWR etc. The centre has also established collaborative relationship with international institutions, most importantly The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. GCISC, with Dr. Arshad M Khan as its Executive Director, also serves as the Secretariat of the Prime Minister’s Committee on Climate Change.[34]

Center for Earthquake Studies (CES)

After the 8 October 2005, Kashmir earthquake, the Government has decided to establish a Center for Earthquake studies in Islamabad, under the technical direction of Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad. The centre under the directorship of Mr. Shahid Ashraf and Dr. Ahsan Mubarak started work in collaboration with world leading scientists such as Prof. Elchin Khalilov of Azerbaijan. The centre conducts research using a Gravitational Wave Recorder housed at the National Centre for Physics, Islamabad.

Advocacy for Nuclear power

Ishfaq Ahmad is internationally known for his long-standing public advocacy for the nuclear power plants for the industrial and socio-economic growth.[35][36] On international forums, Ahmad deterred the international pressure mounted on Pakistan after conducting its tests, instead highlighted the achievements gained by Pakistan on its nuclear power infrastructure in the country as well as the need of Pakistan's usage of nuclear power for its economical growth.[37] In 2012, Ahmad lobbied for the HMC-3 consortium to be listed as first commercial nuclear power corporation and helped the consortium to acquired its first license to manufacture nuclear materials for industrial power plants.[38]

State Honours, Awards and Recognition

In 1989, Ishfaq Ahmad was bestowed with first state honour, Sitara-e-Imtiaz by Benazir Bhutto; and Hilal-e-Imtiaz in 1995.[9] In 1998, Ahmad received the highest state honour, Nishan-e-Imtiaz, given to any national of Pakistan, for his services to the country in a graceful state ceremony.[9] The same year, he was awarded gold medallion by the Institute of Leadership and Management in Lahore.

Fellowships

Publications

Thesis

D.Sc. Thesis (UQAM): Structure and Identification of trajectories in fine grain ionographic emulsions, under the direction of Pierre Demers, Faculty of Science, University of Montreal, Canada, 1958.

Research papers

  • Trajectories structure in fine-grained emulsions, Ann. ACFAS, 23, 111–112, 1957. (http://er.uqam.ca/nobel/c3410/PierreDemersBibl1950-9.html)
  • Structure des trajectoires dans les émulsions à grain fin, avec Ishfaq Ahmad, 1er Colloque International de Photographie Corpusculaire. Strasbourg, 1957
  • Identification of particles in the fine grain emulsions with Ishfaq Ahmad and Jean-Louis Meunier, 1er Colloque International de Photographie Corpusculaire. Strasbourg, 1957
  • Photometric analysis of the trajectories in ionographic detectors, 25th ACFAS, Univ. Laval, Quebec, Nov.3,1957.Ann.ACFAS,24, 119, 1958.
  • An optical model of the granular structure of trajectories, 2nd Symposium photography corpuscular Montreal 1958. ACFAS, 26th Congress, University of Ottawa, 31 Oct.- 2 Nov. 1958.

6. L'INFLUENCE DU DÉVELOPPEMENT SUR LA STRUCTURE DES TRAJECTOIRES ET SUR LE VOILE DANS LES ÉMULSIONS À GRAINS FINS, Canadian Journal of Physics, 1959, 37(12). pp. 1548–1552. (http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/p59-171)

  • The ionographic detector considered a pulse source, PC II, PUM, 314- 316, 1959.
  • Influence du diamètre moyen des grains vierges dans une émulsion

nucléaire sur la structure des lacunes. Ahmad Ishfaq and Max Morand. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences, France, 1959, Vol. 1–3 (T248, part 1), pp. 1798–1800 (http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k32002/f1836.image).

  • Influence of the gelatin on the granular size distribution of silver bromide during the production of ionographic emulsions, PC III, PUM, 128–134, 1964. (http://er.uqam.ca/nobel/c3410/PierreDemersBibl1960-9.html)
  • Ionographic emulsion made with a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol and albumin, ACFAS, 32nd Congress, Univ. Ottawa, Ontario, 6–8 Nov. 1964.

1964, Ann. ACFAS, 31, 76–7, 1965.

  • Ionographic emulsions loaded with diamond powder, ACFAS, 32nd Congress, Univ. Ottawa, Ontario, 6 to 8 November,
  • (3,3) Resonance in the Nucleus – Progress of Theoretical Physics, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan. Vol 35 (3), 1966 (http://ptp.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/3/566.full.pdf).

13. The role of pre-irradiation annealing in changing the track development characteristics of glass track detectors. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, Vol.131(1), 1975, pp. 89–92.

  • ‘Seasoning’ of latent damage trails in lunar samples, Nature 254, 1975, pp 126–127.
  • Anisotropy in the track development properties of various crystallographic planes of natural quartz crystals, Radiation Effects, Vol. 30(3), 1976, pp 159–165.
  • The use of Alpha Sensitive Plastic Films (ASPF) for uranium/thorium exploration and prospecting. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 11(6), 1978, pp 295–297.
  • The measurement of radon and thoron by solid state nuclear track detectors, Radiation Effects, Vol. 35 (1–2), 1978, pp 35–43.
  • Track structure and identification of particles in nuclear emulsions. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, Vol. 173(1), 1980, pp 15–20.
  • Some important considerations in the use of solid state nuclear track detectors for radon gas concentration measurements. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, Volume 173 (1), 1980, pp 183–189.
  • Field experience about the use of alpha sensitive plastic films for uranium exploration. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, Volume 173(1), 1980, Pages 191–196
  • CERN and Pakistan: a personal perspective, 2003 (http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/28934).
  • Managing nuclear knowledge in a developing country: Pakistan's perspective. Int. J. Nuclear Knowledge Management. Vol 1(1–2), 2004, pp 90–97.
  • MANAGING NUCLEAR KNOWLEDGE: ROLE OF IAEA AND ITS TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAMME, International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management Strategies, Information Management and Human Resource Development, 7–10 September 2004, Sacley, France. (http://www.iaea.org/km/cnkm/presentations/ahmadpakistan.pdf)
  • DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE, International Conference on Environment: Survival and Sustainability.

19–24 February 2007, Cyprus (https://www.springer.com/environment/sustainable+development/book/978-3-540-95990-8).

Books

  • Ahmad, Ishfaq, D.Sc. (2002). Water and New Technologies (in English and French). Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Global Change Impact Studies Centre. p. 168. ISBN 978-969-8500-00-9.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad (N.I, H.I, S.I) Advisor S&T / Minister of State". Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  2. ^ Shabbir, Usman. "Munir Ahmad Khan and PAEC's other achievements". The Multan Conference, 20 Jan 1972: The day the bomb was born. Islamabad, Pakistan: Usman Shabbir published as cover story in Defence Journal (May 2004 issue). p. 1. Retrieved 10 October 2012. Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad (a theoretical physicist) and others involved in critical technologies and projects worked as a team, and gave ultimate security to Pakistan... Quoted by: Pakistan Defence Journal, 2004
  3. ^ a b (Rahman 1998, pp. 71–72)
  4. ^ a b (Rahman 1998, pp. 78–80)
  5. ^ (Rahman 1998, pp. 18–20)
  6. ^ "Famed nuclear scientist Ishfaq Ahmed passes away". Samaa TV. January 19, 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  7. ^ "Renowned nuclear scientist 'Dr Ishfaq Ahmad' laid to the rest". Business Plus. January 21, 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  8. ^ Sheikh, Majid (2017-10-22). "The history of Lahore's Kakayzais". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  9. ^ a b c d e (PAS), Pakistan Academy of Sciences (2012). "Fellow: Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad-PAS". The Office of Pakistan Academy of Sciences..
  10. ^ "Career of Tahir Hussain". Pride of Pakistan.
  11. ^ a b c Rehman, Mumtazul Haque. "Appendix". Montreal Religious Sites Project. McGill University. Retrieved 25 Apr 2010.
  12. ^ a b Demers, Pierre. "Decade 1950–59". Demers Group of Physics. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  13. ^ Friends, The Successful Pakistan in and Around the World. "See:Prof. Ishfaq Ahmad". www.friendskorner.com. Friendskorner.com.
  14. ^ Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad (N.I, H.I, S.I), Deputy Chairman / Advisor S&T, Minister of State, Planning Commission. "Minister Planning Commission: Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad (N.I, H.I, S.I)". Planning Commission of Pakistan. Jawaid Azfar, Computer Center of Planning Commission. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Ahmad, Ishfaq; et. al (1966). "Resonance in the Nucleus". Progress of Theoretical Physics. 35 (1–3). Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  16. ^ (NPT), Nazaria-i-Pakistan Trust; Khalid Mahmood Asim (2003). "Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad". Prominent Scientists of Pakistan. Retrieved 25 Apr 2010.
  17. ^ Ishfaq Ahmad. "Í ABSURPTIÜN ÜF FAST Tt MESÜNS IN NUCLEAR EMULSIUN". EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH.
  18. ^ a b c d e CERN Courier. "CERN and Pakistan: a personal perspective" (cws). CERN Courier services. CERN. Retrieved 2014-03-26.
  19. ^ "People". CERN Courier. 39 (6): 32. July 1999.
  20. ^ "CERN and Pakistan strengthen agreement". CERN Courier. 40 (6): 9. July 2000.
  21. ^ a b c d e IAS. "Prof. Ishfaq Ahmad". Islamic Academy of Sciences. Islamic Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  22. ^ a b c IAEA archives. "Technical cooperation with IAEA". IAEA archives. Retrieved 2014-03-26.
  23. ^ a b c d e RAI MUHAMMAD SALEH AZAM. "When Mountains Move – The Story of Chagai". RAI MUHAMMAD SALEH AZAM. The Nation, 2000. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  24. ^ (Rahman 1998, pp. 80–81)
  25. ^ (Rahman 1998, pp. 99–100)
  26. ^ Azam, Rai Muhammad Saleh (June 2000). "See: Kirana Hills: The Cold Tests". Defense Journal of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012.
  27. ^ a b Ahmad, Ishfaq; Khan, Hameed Ahmad; Akber, Riaz Ahmad (1978). "The use of Alpha Sensitive Plastic Films (ASPF) for uranium/thorium exploration and prospecting". Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 11 (6): 295–297. Bibcode:1978RaPC...11..295K. doi:10.1016/0146-5724(78)90090-0.
  28. ^ Khan, Hameed Ahmad; Ahmad, Ishfaq (1981). "Radon/thoron detection properties of a CR-39 plastic track detector". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. 185 (1–3): 401–405. Bibcode:1981NucIM.185..401K. doi:10.1016/0029-554X(81)91237-4.
  29. ^ Ahmad, Ishfaq (June 1980). "Track structure and identification of particles in nuclear emulsions". Nuclear Instruments and Methods. 173 (1): 15–20. Bibcode:1980NucIM.173...15A. doi:10.1016/0029-554X(80)90564-9.
  30. ^ Sublette, Carey. "Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons Program - Development". nuclearweaponarchive.org.
  31. ^ (NPT), Ashfaque; Khalid Mahmood Asim (2003). "Dr. Ashfaque Ahmad". Prominent Scientists of Pakistan. Nazaria-i-Pakistan Trust. Retrieved 25 Apr 2010.
  32. ^ Ibid, (Pakistan's Leaders Online), See:
  33. ^ IIASA, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (2009). "Council Member: Dr. Ahmad, Ishfaq". IIASA-National Member Organization:Pakistan. Directorate of National Member Organizations and Council Members. Archived from the original on 27 June 2005.
  34. ^ (GCISC), Global Change Impact Studies Centre (2006). "GCISC Advisory Committee". Global Change Impact Studies Centre.
  35. ^ "The Future Role of Nuclear Power in Member States", Sustainable Development: A Role for Nuclear Power?, IAEA Sustainable Development: A Role for Nuclear Power?, 28–29 September 1999
  36. ^ Staff reports. "'Nuclear power programme meets". Daily Times. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  37. ^ Ahmad, Ishfaq (18–22 September 2000). "Statement by Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad. Leader of the Pakistan Delegation to the 44th IAEA General Conference. Vienna" (google docs). IAEA Press Release. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  38. ^ Anis, Mohammad (3 October 2012). "HMC-3 gets licence to produce parts for N-plants". The News International. Retrieved 12 October 2012.

Further reading

  • Rehman, Shahidur (1999) [1999], "§Untold story of Pakistan's Nuclear Quest", Long Road to Chagai, 1, Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Printwise Publications, pp. 70–100, ISBN 978-969-8500-00-9

External links

Atom Diagram
Government offices
Preceded by
Javaid Laghari
Science Advisor to the Prime Minister Secretariat
1996–2001
Succeeded by
Abdul Qadeer Khan
Acting
Preceded by
Atta ur Rahman
Science Advisor to the Prime Minister Secretariat
30 March 2008 – 16 March 2013
Succeeded by
Sania Nishtar
Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam (; Punjabi, Urdu: عبد السلام‬‎, pronounced [əbd̪ʊs səlaːm]; 29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996), was a Pakistani theoretical physicist. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to receive any Nobel Prize (after Anwar Sadat of Egypt).Salam was science advisor to the Ministry of Science and Technology in Pakistan from 1960 to 1974, a position from which he was supposed to play a major and influential role in the development of the country's science infrastructure. Salam contributed to developments in theoretical and particle physics. He was the founding director of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and responsible for the establishment of the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) in the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). As Science Advisor, Salam played a role in Pakistan's development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and may have contributed as well to development of atomic bomb project of Pakistan in 1972; for this, he is viewed as the "scientific father" of this programme. In 1974, Abdus Salam departed from his country, in protest, after the Parliament of Pakistan passed unanimously a parliamentary bill declaring members of the Ahmadiyya movement to which Salam belonged non-Muslims. In 1998, following the country's nuclear tests, the Government of Pakistan issued a commemorative stamp, as a part of "Scientists of Pakistan", to honour the services of Salam.Salam's notable achievements include the Pati–Salam model, magnetic photon, vector meson, Grand Unified Theory, work on supersymmetry and, most importantly, electroweak theory, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Salam made a major contribution in quantum field theory and in the advancement of Mathematics at Imperial College London. With his student, Riazuddin, Salam made important contributions to the modern theory on neutrinos, neutron stars and black holes, as well as the work on modernising the quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. As a teacher and science promoter, Salam is remembered as a founder and scientific father of mathematical and theoretical physics in Pakistan during his term as the chief scientific advisor to the president. Salam heavily contributed to the rise of Pakistani physics to the physics community in the world. Even until shortly before his death, Salam continued to contribute to physics, and to advocate for the development of science in Third-World countries.

Abdus Salam Centre for Physics

The Professor Abdus Salam Centre for Physics (Urdu: عبداسلام ادارہ برائے طبیعیات‎), previously known as the Riazzudin National Centre for Physics is an academic national research institute for physics and mathematical sciences located in Islamabad, Pakistan. The Government of Pakistan had the jurisdiction of the institute from 1999 until April 2004, when the institute was made a scientific organization. However, the institute is still funded in large by the Pakistani federal government. The proposal for the establishment of the centre was first put forward in 1951. It is under the de facto control of the Strategic Plans Division of the Pakistani National Command Authority.Since its inception in 1999, the institute operates quadripartite supervision of ICTP, PAEC, INSC, and CERN, and main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for theoretical and high-energy physics research. As of today, the NCP emerged as world's leading particle physics institute producing hundreds of papers by world's scientists who joined this institute, and numerous scientific experiments have been constructed at NCP by national and international collaborations to make use of them.

Abdus Salam Chair in Physics

The Abdus Salam Chair in Physics, also known as Salam Chair in Physics, is an academic physics research institute of the Government College University at Lahore, Punjab province of Pakistan. Named after Pakistan's only Nobel Laureate, Abdus Salam, the institute is partnered with Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). While it is a physics research institute, the institute is dedicated to the field of Theoretical and Mathematical physics.

The institute was established in 1999, after it was suggested by Ishfaq Ahmad, by the Government of Pakistan led by the Prime minister Nawaz Sharif. Its first director, who is designated as Salam Professor, was Dr. Ghulam Murtaza who was appointed in 1999. The institute is partnered with PAEC and International Center for Theoretical Physics, and also participated with the projects led by the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).

Ahsan Mubarak

Ahsan Mubarak (Urdu: احسن مبارک; SI, DSc), is a Pakistani geophysicist and nuclear seismologist who is renowned for his pioneering research on earthquake sciences, and seismic activities in Pakistan. He is the current director of the Center for Earthquake Studies (CES), senior scientist at the Global Network for the Forecasting of Earthquakes (GNFE) and a visiting professor of geophysics at the Quaid-e-Azam University.

Ashraf ministry

Ashraf ministry is the cabinet of Pakistan from 2012 to 2013.

Center for Earthquake Studies

The Center for Earthquake Studies (CES), is an academic earth science, earthquake studies and mathematical national research institute, located in Islamabad, Pakistan. The institute is headquartered in the campus area of the National Centre for Physics (NCP) and conducts mathematical research in earth sciences, with the close coordination with the NCP.

Chagai-I

Chagai-I is the code name of five simultaneous underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15 hrs PST on 28 May 1998. The tests were performed at Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai District of Balochistan Province.Chagai-I was Pakistan's first public test of nuclear weapons. Its timing was a direct response to India's second nuclear tests, on 11 and 13 May 1998. These tests by Pakistan and India resulted in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1172 and economic sanctions on both states by a number of major powers, particularly the United States and Japan. By testing nuclear devices, Pakistan became the seventh nation to publicly test nuclear weapons. Pakistan's second nuclear test, Chagai-II, followed on 30 May 1998.

Ishfaq Ahmad (computer science professor)

Ishfaq Ahmad is an IEEE Fellow and a Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). He is the Director of Center For Advanced Computing Systems (CACS) and has previously directed IRIS (Institute of Research in Security) at UTA. He is widely recognized for his contributions to scheduling techniques in parallel and distributed computing systems, and video coding.

KANUPP Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering

The Karachi Institute of Power Engineering, commonly refers to KINPOE, formerly known as Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, is a post-graduate and engineering university that offers programme to the field of nuclear and power engineering, and the physical sciences. It also offers Post-diploma Program. The engineering university located near at the Karachi Nuclear Power Complex (KANUPP-II) near at Paradise Point in Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan. The Institute is known for its research and training in nuclear power engineering and sciences.

KINPOE has been established by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) by dr. Ishfaq Ahmad in 1993, to develop qualified manpower for its nuclear power program. The Institute is affiliated with the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) (earlier it was affiliated with NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, for the award of Master of Engineering degree in Nuclear Engineering and Power engineering.

Kirana Hills

The Kirana Hills is a small and extensive rocky mountain range located in Sargodha, Pakistan. It is also a place of tourist attraction in Sargodha City. Locally known as "Black Mountains" due to its brownish landscape, its highest peak is about 980 feet (300 m).Known for its extreme weather conditions, its maximum temperature reaches to 50 °C (122 °F) in the summer while the minimum temperature recorded is as low as freezing point in the winter. Due to its rocky landscape and minerals, a volcanic and geophysical survey was conducted by the Geological Survey of Pakistan. Its environs are heavily infested with wild boars.

List of Pakistani scientists

Abdus Salam, theoretical physicist (Nobel Laureate 1979)

Abdul Qadeer Khan, metallurgical engineer

Rameez Ahmad, Nanotechnologist

Asad A. Abidi, electrical engineer

Haroon Ahmed, electrical engineer

Ishfaq Ahmad, nuclear physicist

Nazir Ahmed, nuclear physicist

M. A. B. Beg, theoretical particle physicist

Shahid Hussain Bokhari, computer systems engineer

Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry, nuclear physicist

Ahmad Hasan Dani, archaeologist

Peter Finke, particle physicist

Fayyazuddin, theoretical physicist

Pervez Hoodbhoy, nuclear physicist

Ashiq Hussain, neuroscientist

Faheem Hussain, theoretical physicist

Syed Tajammul Hussain, chemist and nano-technologist

Tasneem Zehra Hussain String theorist

Mujahid Kamran, theoretical physicist

Munir Ahmad Khan, nuclear engineer

Javaid Laghari, electrical engineer

Abdul Majid (physicist), rocket scientist and engineer

Samar Mubarak Mand, nuclear physicist

Nergis Mavalvala, astrophysicist

Qasim Mehdi, molecular biologist

Salim Mehmud, nuclear scientist

Asad Naqvi, mathematical physicist

Ansar Pervaiz, nuclear scientist

Atta ur Rahman, organic chemist

Abdul Razaque, computer scientist and engineer

Riaz-ud-Din, theoretical physicist

Abdullah Sadiq, nuclear physicist

Umar Saif, computer scientist

Tasneem M. Shah, theoretical physicist

Irfan Siddiqi, physicist in quantum measurement & nano-science

Kushnood Ahmed Siddiqui, scientist

Raziuddin Siddiqui, astrophysicist

Salim-uz-Zaman Siddiqui, chemist

Ishrat Hussain Usmani, nuclear physicist

Muhammad Suhail Zubairy, physicist in quantum optics

Muhammad Yar Khuhawar, chemist

List of Ravians

Alumni of the Government College University, Lahore are called Ravians. Following is list of notable Ravians.

List of Université de Montréal people

The following is a list of noted principals, alumni and professors of Université de Montréal.

Ministry of Science and Technology (Pakistan)

The Ministry of Science and Technology (Urdu: وزارت سائنس و ٹیکنالوجی‬‎, abbreviated as MoST) is a Cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Pakistan concerned with science and technology in Pakistan and in general, Pakistan's science policy, planning, co-ordination and directing of efforts to initiate and launch scientific and technological programs as well as projects aimed at economic development. The ministry is coordinated by the Federal Minister for Science and Technology and is headquartered in Islamabad.

Muhammad Hafeez Qureshi

Muhammad Hafeez Qureshi (Urdu: محمد حفيظ قريشى; January 28, 1930 – August 11, 2007), SI, HI, popular as Hafeez Qureshi, was a Pakistani nuclear scientist and a mechanical engineer, known for his classified work at the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).Known for being a director of PAEC's secretive divisions charged with testings of nuclear materials, he oversaw the work on weapon systems manufacturing and gained expertise on engineering applications of nuclear physics and mechanics. However, he is more famed of spearheading Pakistan's quest for nuclear capability.

Noor Muhammad Butt

Noor Muhammad Butt (Urdu: ڈاکٹر این ایم بٹ); b. 3 June 1936); SI, FPAS, best known as "Dr. N. M. Butt", is a Pakistani nuclear physicist and the chairman and professor of Nanotechnology at Preston Institute of Nano Science and Technology. He earned international prestige for his edge-leading research in neutron diffraction, and made important contributions to Mössbauer spectroscopy.

Project-706

Project-706, also known as Project-726 was a codename of a project to develop Pakistan's first atomic bomb using uranium. At the same time, Pakistani nuclear technology scientists and engineers gained expertise in the use of reactor-grade plutonium and successfully produced weapons grade plutonium by the early 1980s.

It was a major scientific effort of Pakistan. Project-706 refers specifically to the period from 1974–1983 when it was under the control of former prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and later on under the military administration of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. The project's roots lay in scientists' fears since 1967 that India was also developing nuclear weapons of its own. Developing nuclear technology for Pakistan was a main goal and of Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto who initiated the scientific research in 1972.Before the launching of Project-706 in 1974, the initial scientific research, starting from 1972, was directed and organized by renowned Pakistani scientist Abdus Salam. From 1974, the research was led by engineers Munir Ahmad Khan of PAEC and Abdul Qadeer Khan of KRL. Time magazine has called Project-706 Pakistan's equivalent of the United States Manhattan Project. The project initially cost US$450 million (raised by both Libya and Saudi Arabia) which was approved by Bhutto in 1972.Project-706 led to the creation of multiple production and research sites that operated in extreme secrecy and ambiguity. Apart from research and development the project was also charged with gathering intelligence on Indian nuclear efforts. The Project was disbanded when the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) carried out the first cold test of a miniature nuclear device on 11 March 1983. Scientists and military officers who participated in the Project were given higher promotion in their respective services, and conferred with high civil decorations by the Government of Pakistan.

Samar Mubarakmand

Samar Mubarakmand (Urdu: ثمر مبارک مند‬; b. 17 September 1942; NI, HI, SI, FPAS), is a Pakistani nuclear physicist known for his research in gamma spectroscopy and experimental development of the linear accelerator.He came to public attention as the director of the test teams responsible for the performing the country's first and successful atomic tests (see Chagai-I and Chagai-II) at the Chagai Test Site, located in the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Prior to that, he was the project director of the integrated missile programme and supervised the development of Shaheen and Babur missile program. Serving the founding chairman of Nescom from 2001 until 2007, he was subsequently appointed by the government to assist the Thar coalfield project.

University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

The University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Urdu: جامعہ انجینئری و ٹیکنالوجی لاہور‬‎; abbreviated as UET Lahore) is a public university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan specializing in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects.

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