Isalo serotine


The Isalo serotine (Neoromicia malagasyensis) is a vespertilionid bat of Madagascar in the genus Neoromicia. It is known only from the vicinity of the Isalo National Park in the southwestern part of the island, where it has been caught in riverine habitats. After the first specimen was caught in 1967, it was described as a subspecies of Eptesicus somalicus (now Neoromicia somalica) in 1995. After four more specimens were collected in 2002 and 2003, it was recognized as a separate species. Because of its small distribution and the threat of habitat destruction, it is considered "vulnerable" in the IUCN Red List.

Neoromicia malagasyensis is a relatively small species, with a forearm length of 30 to 32 mm (1.2 to 1.3 in) and a body mass of 3.9 to 9 g (0.1 to 0.3 oz). The fur is dark brown above and mixed buff and gray below. The ears are translucent and the tibia is short. The baculum (penis bone) resembles that of N. melckorum, but is smaller.[4] The duration of the echolocation call, which consists of a component with rapidly falling frequency and one showing more stable frequency, averages 4.9 ms and the interval between calls averages 69.1 ms.

Isalo serotine
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Neoromicia
Species:
N. malagasyensis
Binomial name
Neoromicia malagasyensis
(Peterson, Eger, and Mitchell, 1995)
Neoromicia malagasyensis range
Collection localities of Neoromicia malagasyensis
Synonyms
  • Eptesicus somalicus malagasyensis Peterson et al., 1995[2]
  • Neoromicia malagasyensis: Goodman and Ranivo, 2004[3]
  • Eptesicus malagasyensis: Andriafidison et al., 2008[1]

Taxonomy

In their 1995 review of Malagasy bats, Randolph Peterson and colleagues established Eptesicus somalicus malagasyensis, a new subspecies of Eptesicus somalicus[2] (currently Neoromicia somalica).[Note 1] They had only a single specimen and noted that further material was needed to assess the new form's relationship with E. somalicus.[6] Studies in 2001 and 2002 provided evidence that E. somalicus and related species are not closely related to Eptesicus (nor to Pipistrellus, where they have also been placed), so that these species were allocated to the separate genus Neoromicia.[7] In 2004, Steven Goodman and Julie Ranivo reviewed the Malagasy subspecies after collecting two more specimens[8] and concluded that it was distinct enough to be classified as a separate species, Neoromicia malagasyensis.[3] Two years later, Paul Bates and colleagues reported on two more specimens[9] and showed that the bacula (penis bones) of N. malagasyensis and N. somalica are different, providing further evidence that they are distinct species. However, they recommended that further research assess the degree of difference between N. malagasyensis and N. matroka (formerly in Eptesicus, but placed in Neoromicia by Bates and colleagues), which occurs further east in Madagascar.[10] The IUCN Red List currently again classifies the species in Eptesicus, as Eptesicus malagasyensis.[1]

Neoromicia malagasyensis is one of at least six species of small vespertilionid bats ("pipistrelles") on Madagascar, in addition to N. matroka, N. melckorum, Pipistrellus hesperidus, P. raceyi, and Hypsugo anchietae. The classification of these bats has historically been controversial, leading to many changing identifications and generic assignments.[11] The genus Neoromicia is exclusively African and included 11 species in the 2005 third edition of Mammal Species of the World;[12] more species, like N. malagasyensis and N. matroka, have been added since. Common names proposed for this species include "Isalo Serotine"[1] and "Peterson's 'pipistrelle'".[10]

Description

Measurements
Specimen Sex Forearm Tail Hindfoot Ear Mass
ROM 42713[Note 2][13] Female 32 27 6[Note 3] 12 9
FMNH 175988[13] Male 30 37 4[Note 4] 11 3.9
FMNH 175989[13] Female 32 35 5[Note 4] 12 6.0
UA, uncatalogued[14] Male 30.1 30.4 5.3[Note 4] 9.8
UA, uncatalogued[14] Female 32.0 29.3 6.9[Note 4] 11.4
All measurements are in millimeters, except mass in grams.

Neoromicia malagasyensis is a relatively small "pipistrelle",[9] but larger than N. somalica.[15] The fur on the back is long and dark brown and the underparts contain both gray and dark buff hairs; there, the fur becomes lighter towards the tail.[10] The fur is darker than in N. somalica,[6] but paler than in N. matroka.[16] The brown ears are translucent.[10] The tragus (a projection on the inner side of the outer ear) is similar to that of N. somalica, but may be a little narrower.[15] Relative to the two other Malagasy Neoromicia species, the tibia is short. A single baculum (penis bone), 2.2 mm long, has been studied. It resembles the baculum of N. melckorum, but is smaller. As in N. matroka, the distal (far) end is flat and displaced downwards, but the N. malagasyensis baculum has a smaller area and less well-developed flanges at the sides and a smaller vertical extension of the bone.[10]

The skull is somewhat smaller than that of N. matroka[10] and the braincase and palate are narrower.[16] Compared to N. somalica, the skull is broader.[6] The ridge on the lacrimal bone is better developed, the palate is broader, the frontal bones contain a depression and are swollen at the sides, the mastoid bones are smaller,[15] and the coronoid and angular processes of the mandible (lower jaw) are more prominent.[3]

The echolocation call of this species was reported in a 2007 study that consists of a component with rapidly falling frequency followed by one with more slowly changing frequency.[17] The call takes 3.6 to 6.3 ms, averaging 4.9 ms, and the period between two calls is 34.2 to 94.4 ms, averaging 69.1 ms. The maximum frequency averages 79.8 kHz, the minimum frequency averages 40.5 kHz, and the call emits the most energy at a frequency of 45.7 kHz.[18]

Distribution and ecology

Neoromicia malagasyensis is known only from the vicinity of Isalo National Park, an area of about 2000 km2 (800 sq mi), in interior southwestern Madagascar.[1] The holotype was caught in 1967 in a mistnet set in a row of palms along a river in dry savannah habitat.[19] Peterson and colleagues reported that it had been collected near the village of Marinday,[2] but Goodman and Ranivo suggested that it may instead have come from near Ilakaka.[8] Two specimens, a male and a female, were collected at different localities in Isalo National Park in early December 2002, both in mistnets near rivers. The male had enlarged testes and the female had recently stopped lactating and had large mammae.[8] Two others followed in 2003, also from the national park, and caught in woodland near rivers.[20] A 2009 study on echolocation described the call of six individuals of N. malagasyensis from an unspecified site within the national park.[21] In view of its small known range and the threat of habitat destruction, the IUCN Red List assesses the species as "vulnerable"; further research is recommended on its roosting and dietary habits.[1]

Notes

  1. ^ Neoromicia somalicus in Simmons (2005, p. 495). However, Ricucci and Lanza (2008) indicated that the gender of the name Neoromicia is feminine, and therefore the correct form is somalica.[5]
  2. ^ Holotype.
  3. ^ Including the claw.
  4. ^ a b c d Excluding the claw.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Monadjem, A.; Andriafidison, D.; Cardiff, S.G.; Hutson, A.M.; Jenkins, R.K.B.; Kofoky, A.; Racey, P.A.; Ranivo, J.; Ratrimomanarivo, F.H.; Razafimanahaka, J. (2019). "Neoromicia malagasyensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T136820A22044073.
  2. ^ a b c Peterson et al., 1995, p. 100
  3. ^ a b c Goodman and Ranivo, 2004, p. 438
  4. ^ Goodman, Steven M., et al. "The genus Neoromicia (Family Vespertilionidae) in Madagascar, with the description of a new species." Zootaxa 3250.1 (2012): 25.
  5. ^ Ricucci and Lanza, 2008, p. 176
  6. ^ a b c Peterson et al., 1995, p. 101
  7. ^ Goodman and Ranivo, 2004, p. 434
  8. ^ a b c Goodman and Ranivo, 2004, p. 435
  9. ^ a b Bates et al., 2006, p. 313
  10. ^ a b c d e f Bates et al., 2006, p. 315
  11. ^ Bates et al., 2006, pp. 299–300
  12. ^ Simmons, 2005, pp. 493–495
  13. ^ a b c Goodman and Ranivo, 2004, table 1
  14. ^ a b Bates et al., 2006, table 1
  15. ^ a b c Goodman and Ranivo, 2004, p. 436
  16. ^ a b Bates et al., 2006, p. 321
  17. ^ Kofoky et al., 2009, p. 382, fig. 7a
  18. ^ Kofoky et al., 2009, table 1
  19. ^ Peterson et al., 1995, pp. 100, 102; Bates et al., 2006, p. 315
  20. ^ Bates et al., 2006, pp. 313, 315
  21. ^ Kofoky et al., 2009, p. 382

Literature cited

Angolan long-eared bat

The Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis) is a species of vesper bat in the Vespertilionidae family. It can be found in moist savanna in Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Beatrix's bat

Beatrix's bat (Glauconycteris beatrix) is a species of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.

It can be found in the following countries: Angola, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria.

It is found in these habitats: subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

It is threatened by habitat loss.

Eastern false pipistrelle

The eastern false pipistrelle, species Falsistrellus tasmaniensis, is a vespertilionid bat that occurs in eastern and south-eastern Australia, including the island of Tasmania.

Eptesicus

Eptesicus is a genus of bats, commonly called house bats or serotine bats, in the family Vespertilionidae.The 25 species within this genus are:

Little black serotine (Eptesicus andinus)

Bobrinski's serotine (Eptesicus bobrinskoi)

Botta's serotine (Eptesicus bottae)

Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis)

Chiriquinan serotine (Eptesicus chiriquinus)

Diminutive serotine (Eptesicus diminutus)

Surat serotine (Eptesicus dimissus)

Horn-skinned bat (Eptesicus floweri)

Argentine brown bat (Eptesicus furinalis)

Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Gobi big brown bat (Eptesicus gobiensis)

Guadeloupe big brown bat (Eptesicus guadeloupensis)

Long-tailed house bat (Eptesicus hottentotus)

Harmless serotine (Eptesicus innoxius)

Meridional serotine (Eptesicus isabellinus)

Japanese short-tailed bat (Eptesicus japonensis)

Kobayashi's bat (Eptesicus kobayashii)

Eptesicus lobatus

Jamaican serotine (Eptesicus lynni)

Sind bat (Eptesicus nasutus)

Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii)

Thick-eared bat (Eptesicus pachyotis)

Lagos serotine (Eptesicus platyops)

Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus)

Eptesicus taddeii

Sombre bat (Eptesicus tatei)

Greenish yellow bat

The greenish yellow bat (Scotophilus viridis) is a species of vesper bat. It is found in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitats are dry and moist savanna.

Harlequin bat

The harlequin bat (Scotomanes ornatus) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae, the vesper bats. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Scotomanes.

This bat is found in south-eastern Asia from India to China and Vietnam.This is a common and widespread species. It lives in forests and caves and roosts in trees.

Hypsugo

The genus Hypsugo contains many bats referred to as pipistrelles or pipistrelle bats. They belong to the family Vespertilionidae or vesper bats within the order Chiroptera.

Java pipistrelle

The Java pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus) is a species of pipistrelle bat found in South and Southeast Asia, including Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Brunei; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia; Laos; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand and Vietnam. It favors human habitations.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

Madeira pipistrelle

The Madeira pipistrelle (Pipistrellus maderensis) is a species of vesper bat. It is endemic to Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands.

Neoromicia

Neoromicia is a genus of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.

It contains the following species:

Dark-brown serotine (Neoromicia brunneus)

Cape serotine (Neoromicia capensis)

Yellow serotine (Neoromicia flavescens)

Neoromicia grandidieri

Tiny serotine (Neoromicia guineensis)

Heller's pipistrelle (Neoromicia helios)

Isabelline white-winged serotine (Neoromicia isabella)

Isalo serotine (Neoromicia malagasyensis)

Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka)

Melck's house bat (Neoromicia melckorum)

Banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nana)

Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli)

Rosevear's serotine (Neoromicia roseveari)

Neoromicia robertsi

Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalicus)

Neoromicia stanleyi

White-winged serotine (Neoromicia tenuipinnis)

Aloe serotine (Neoromicia zuluensis)

Nyctalus

Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.

There are eight species within this genus:

Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator

Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum

Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus

Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri

Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus

Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula

Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyi

Plecotus

The genus Plecotus consists of the long-eared bats. Many species in the genus have only been described and recognized in recent years.

Rendall's serotine

Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.

Its natural habitats are dry savanna, moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland.

It is threatened by habitat loss.

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Vespertilioninae

The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

White-winged serotine

The white-winged serotine (Neoromicia tenuipinnis) is a species of vesper bat.

It can be found in the following countries: Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Uganda.

It is found in these habitats: subtropical or tropical dry forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical mangrove forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, and moist savanna.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio
Family
Pteropodidae
Hipposideridae
Emballonuridae
Nycteridae
Myzopodidae
Molossidae
Miniopteridae
Vespertilionidae

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