Isabelline wheatear

The isabelline wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina) is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher in the family Muscicapidae. It is a migratory insectivorous bird. Its habitat is steppe and open countryside and it breeds in southern Russia and central Asia to northern Pakistan, wintering in Africa and northwestern India. It is a very rare vagrant to western Europe.

In colouring it resembles a female northern wheatear but it is larger at 15–16.5 centimetres (5.9–6.5 in) in length, more upright and more tawny in colour, and has more black on its tail. The term isabelline refers to the parchment-like colouration. The axillaries and underwing coverts are white, whereas in the commoner bird they are mottled with grey. The sexes are similar.

Isabelline wheatear
Isabelline wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina) male, non-breeding
bird showing black tail
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Muscicapidae
Genus: Oenanthe
Species:
O. isabellina
Binomial name
Oenanthe isabellina
(Temminck, 1829)

Etymology

The name is from the specific isabellinus, New Latin for "greyish-yellow" probably named for Isabella I of Castile, said to have promised not to change her undergarments until Spain was freed from the Moors.[2] "Wheatear" is not derived from "wheat" or any sense of "ear", but is a 16th-century linguistic corruption of "white" and "arse", referring to the prominent white rump found in most species.[3] The genus name Oenanthe is derived from the Ancient Greek oenos (οίνος) "wine" and anthos (ανθός) "flower". It refers to the northern wheatear's return to Greece in the spring just as the grapevines blossom.[2]

Description

Male and female isabelline wheatear are similar in appearance. The upper-parts are a pale sandy brown with an isabelline tinge (isabelline is a pale grey-yellow, fawn, cream-brown or parchment colour). The lower back is isabelline and the rump and upper tail-coverts are white. The tail feathers are brownish-black with a narrow edge and tip of buff and a large white base. In the outer tail feathers this occupies more than half the length of the feather but in the central feathers it is about one third. There is an over-eye streak of creamy white and the ear-coverts are pale brown. The chin is pale cream and the throat pale buff. The breast is sandy or isabelline buff and the belly creamy white. The under tail-coverts are pale buff and the under wing-coverts and axilliaries white with dark bases. The wing feathers are brownish-black, tipped and edged with creamy buff. The beak, legs and feet are black and the irises are brown.[4]

At a length of 16.5 centimetres (6.5 in) it is rather larger and also paler in colour than the northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe). The beak is longer than that bird and the ear-coverts are paler but otherwise the birds are very similar in appearance and could be confused. The plumage is moulted twice a year, there being a complete moult in late summer and a partial moult of the body feathers in mid-winter.[4]

The call note is a chirp, and a loud whistle is sometimes emitted. The song has been described as lark-like and starts with a croaking noise followed by various whistles and includes mimicry of the voices of other birds.[4]

Distribution and habitat

The isabelline wheatear is a migratory species with an eastern palearctic breeding range. This extends from Southern Russia, the Caspian region, the Kyzyl Kum Desert and Mongolia to Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan and Israel. It winters in Africa and northwestern India. It has occurred as a summer vagrant to Greece, Cyprus, Algeria and Tunisia.[5]

In the breeding season the isabelline wheatear is found in open country, barren tracts of land, arid regions, steppes, high plateaux and on the lower slopes of hills. In its winter quarters it occupies similar habitats in semi-arid regions, open country with sparse scrub and the borders of cultivated areas, showing a particular liking for sandy ground.[4]

Behaviour

Oenanthe isabellina MWNH 1866
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

The isabelline wheatear is an active and restless bird, moving across the ground with long hops, flitting into the air and perching on eminences or small bushes. Its posture is rather upright and it is constantly bobbing about and flaring, raising and lowering its tail. It sometimes flutters into the air to catch insect prey but mostly forages along the ground, probing the soil with its beak. Its diet includes ants, grasshoppers, moths, flies, mites, spiders and insect larvae, and it sometimes eats seeds as well.[4]

Isabelline wheatears are solitary birds in their winter quarters and may associate with other Oenanthe species during migration. On arrival at their breeding grounds they establish territories.[6] The male isabelline wheatear displays to the female by drooping and then spreading his wings while singing, leaping a short distance in the air, or flying up fifteen metres (fifty feet) or so, hovering and performing stunts, singing all the while, before landing again beside the female. The nest is usually underground, normally in the empty burrow of a pika, ground squirrel or mole rat, or they may excavate a fresh burrow. The nest is bulky and is composed of dried grasses. Four to six pale blue eggs are laid, usually unmarked but sometimes with a scattering of reddish speckles. The average size of the eggs is 22.16 by 16.6 millimetres (0.872 in × 0.654 in).[4] Both parents feed the chicks with small caterpillars and other insects. After they leave the nest, the chicks continue to be fed for about two weeks but after this the parents drive them out of the territory.[6] The breeding season starts at the end of March in Turkey but does not commence until May in Central Asia. There are probably two broods in the southern parts of the range.[4]

Status

The isabelline wheatear has an extensive range, estimated as being 11.7 million square kilometres (4.36 million square miles), and a large population with an estimated total of 26 million to 378 million individuals. The population seems to be stable and the IUCN in their Red List of Threatened Species has evaluated this species as being of "least concern".[7]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Oenanthe isabellina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 207, 280. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  3. ^ "Wheatear". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Witherby, H. F., ed. (1943). Handbook of British Birds, Volume 2: Warblers to Owls. H. F. and G. Witherby Ltd. pp. 163–165.
  5. ^ Coward, T. A. (1941). The Birds of the British Isles and their Eggs. Frederick Warne. pp. 229–230.
  6. ^ a b "Isabelline wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina)". ARKive. Archived from the original on 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  7. ^ Butchart, S.; Symes, A. "Isabelline wheatear Oenanthe isabellina". Species factsheet. BirdLife International. Retrieved 2013-08-08.

Further reading

  • Corso, A (1997). Variability of identification characters of isabelline wheatear (19). Dutch Birding. pp. 153–165.

External links

Afghan snowfinch

The Afghan snowfinch (Pyrgilauda theresae) is a passerine bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, endemic to the northern parts of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. There are no major threats to the species despite its restricted range, so it is assessed as least concern on the IUCN Red List. This species is mostly a seed-eater, supplementing its diet with some insects. It builds its nest in the burrows or hollows of ground-dwelling rodents, lined with hair or feathers.

Isabelline

Isabelline may refer to:

Isabelline style, or Isabelline, a late medieval architectural style developed under the reign of Isabella I of Castile

Isabelline (colour), a pale grey-yellowish or parchment colour—an off-white colour often used to describe animals

Isabelline bush-hen (Amaurornis isabellina), also isabelline waterhen, a large rail

Isabelline shrike (Lanius isabellinus), member of the shrike family (Laniidae)

Isabelline wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina), small passerine bird

Parties and factions in Isabelline Spain

Isabelline (colour)

Isabelline , also known as isabella, is a pale grey-yellow, pale fawn, pale cream-brown or parchment colour. It is primarily found in animal coat colouring, particularly plumage colour in birds and, in Europe, in horses. It also has historically been applied to fashion. The first known record of the word was in 1600 as "isabella colour"; this use later became interchangeable in literature with "isabelline" after the latter was introduced into print in 1859. The origin of the word is unclear; the uncertainty prompted by this has generated several attempts to provide an etymology and led to one prominent legend.

List of Old World flycatcher species

Old World flycatchers is the common name for the avian family Muscicapidae, which also includes the Old World chats. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 330 species in the family, distributed among five subfamilies and 51 genera.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

List of birds of Bulgaria

This list of birds of Bulgaria includes all bird species which have been seen in the country. Birds marked with (W) are species which spend the winter in Bulgaria but do not breed there, birds marked with (V) are vagrant species and birds marked with (I) are introduced species. It includes 400 bird species from 21 orders, 63 families and 198 genera.

The varied natural habitat, relief and climate and relatively untouched environment are among the main reasons for the many bird species in the country. The numerous islands and wetlands along the Danube including the Persina Natural Park and Srebarna Nature Reserve, as well as the lakes and swamps along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, support many species of diving and aquatic birds such as ducks, swans, pelicans, grebes, spoonbills and many others. The eastern Rhodopes are among the strongholds of birds of prey in Europe, with most of the species in the continent nesting in that area. The mild climate in the extreme south offers good conditions for many Mediterranean birds as well as for wintering species from the north.

List of birds of Denmark

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Denmark. The avifauna of Denmark included a total of 476 species recorded in the wild by August 2019 according to Bird list of Denmark. Of these species, 185 are rare or accidental and six have been introduced by humans.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2019 edition.The following tags are used by the Danish Ornithologcial Society (Dansk Onitologisk Forening, DOF) to highlight some categories of occurrence. Those without tags are in Category A and "have been recorded in an apparently wild state in Denmark since 1st January 1950" according to DOF.

(B) Category B - species which naturally occurred in Denmark prior to 1 January 1950 but have not been recorded since then

(C) Category C - species introduced by humans, directly or indirectly, and which have established feral breeding populations

(*) Rarity - species which require submission to the Danish Rarities Committee of DOF for the sighting to be included in the official record.

List of birds of Finland

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Finland. The avifauna of Finland include a total of 477 confirmed species as of August 2019, according to Birdlife Suomi. Of them, 184 are rare or accidental, five have been introduced by humans, and six have not been reported in Finland since 1950.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2019 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence:

(R) Rare or accidental – a species which is rare in Finland, requiring submission to the Finnish Rarities Committee (Rariteettikomitea) for acceptance

(I) Introduced – a species introduced to Finland as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Historical – a species that has not occurred in Finland since 1950

List of birds of Georgia (country)

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the country of Georgia. The avifauna of Georgia include a total of 361 species, of which 11 are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Georgia.

The following tag has been used to highlight accidentals. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Georgia

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece included a total of 454 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία) as of August 2019. Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2019 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 119 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of Kyrgyzstan

376 bird species have occurred in the Kyrgyz Republic.

List of birds of Norway

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Norway. The avifauna of Norway included a total of 517 species recorded in the wild by the end of 2016 according to the Norwegian Ornithological Society (Norsk Ornitologisk Forening, NOF). An additional 23 species have been recorded by Bird Checklists of the World by early 2018. Of the 540 species listed here, 257 are accidental, five have been introduced by humans, and one is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The (A) tags are from Bird Checklists of the World. The (I) and (D) tags are from the NOF. The notes of population status such as "endangered" apply to the world population and are also from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Norway

(I) Introduced - a species introduced directly or indirectly to Norway and which has an established population

(D) Category D - species (17) for which there is reasonable doubt as to the wild origin of reported birds

List of birds of Poland

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Poland. The avifauna of Poland include 446 species, of which six have been introduced by humans and seven have not occurred since 1950.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the Polish Fauna Commission (Komisja Faunistyczna). The Polish names of the birds, with their scientific names, are in the Polish Wikipedia article.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(B) Historical - species that have not occurred in Poland since 1950

(C) Introduced - species introduced to Poland as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(*) Rare - species that are rare or accidental in Poland

List of birds of Sweden

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Sweden. The avifauna of Sweden include a total of 508 confirmed species as of April 2014, according to Birdlife Sverige. An additional 22 species have been recorded by Bird Checklists of the World by early 2018. Of the 530 species listed here, 225 are accidental and two have been introduced by humans. One is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence; the tags are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Sweden

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Sweden as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and has become established

List of birds of the Netherlands

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Netherlands. The avifauna of the Netherlands included a total of 514 species documented in the wild through June 2019 according to Checklist of Dutch bird species. The checklist "incorporates all decisions by the Dutch rarities committee 'Commissie Dwaalgasten Nederlandse Avifauna' (CDNA) and the Dutch taxonomic committee 'Commissie Systematiek Nederlandse Avifauna' (CSNA)". Of these species, 201 are accidental, 14 have been introduced by humans, and one is extinct. An additional eight species are under review for inclusion on the list and two more were inadequately documented before 1800.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2019 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The notes of population status such as "endangered" apply to the world population and are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Netherlands, requiring review by the CDNA for inclusion in the record

(I) Introduced - a species whose "ancestors originated from captivity or ship transport" and which have been established for at least 20 years per the CDNA

(UR) Under review - "new taxa not yet accepted but documented by published photographs" per the CDNA

(B) Before 1800 - species "recorded only before 1800 (location and/or date not well enough documented)" per the CDNA

Sibley-Monroe checklist 14

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Uludağ

Uludağ (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈuɫudaː]), the ancient Mysian Olympus (also Bithynian Olympus), is a mountain in Bursa Province, Turkey, with an elevation of 2,543 m (8,343 ft).

In Turkish, Uludağ means "great mountain". In ancient times the range of which it is a part, extending along the southern edge of Bithynia, was known as Olympos in Greek and Olympus in Latin, the western extremity being known as the Mysian Olympus and the eastern as the Bithynian Olympus, and the city of Bursa was known as Prusa ad Olympum from its position near the mountain. Throughout the Middle Ages, it contained hermitages and monasteries: "The rise of this monastic centre in the 8th c. and its prestige up to the 11th are linked to the resistance of numerous monks to the policy of the iconoclast emperors and then to a latent opposition to the urban, Constantinopolitan monasticism of the Studites." One of the greatest monks of the Christian East, the wonder-working Byzantine monk Saint Joannicius the Great, lived as a hermit on this mountain.

Mt. Uludağ is the highest mountain of the Marmara region. Its highest peak is Kartaltepe at 2,543 m (8,343 ft). To the north are high plateaus: Sarıalan, Kirazlıyayla, Kadıyayla, and Sobra.

There is an abandoned wolfram mine near the summit. The mine and the integrated plant, which were built in 1974 for US$60 million, were closed in 1989 due to high production costs.

The area is a popular center for winter sports such as skiing, and a national park of rich flora and fauna. Summer activities, such as trekking and camping, also are popular.

Urtsadzor

Urtsadzor (Armenian: Ուրցաձոր), is a village in the Ararat Province of Armenia, containing the former village of Chimankend.

Wheatear

The wheatears are passerine birds of the genus Oenanthe. They were formerly considered to be members of the thrush family, Turdidae, but are now more commonly placed in the flycatcher family, Muscicapidae. This is an Old World group, but the northern wheatear has established a foothold in eastern Canada and Greenland and in western Canada and Alaska.

Wildlife of Ladakh

The flora and fauna of [Ladakh] was first studied by [Ferdinand Stoliczka], an [Austria]n[Czech people|Czech][palaeontologist], who carried out a massive expedition in the region in the 1870s. The fauna of Ladakh have much in common with that of Central Asia generally, and especially those of the Tibetan Plateau. An exception to this are the birds, many of which migrate from the warmer parts of India to spend the summer in Ladakh. For such an arid area, Ladakh has a great diversity of birds — a total of 318 species have been recorded (Including 30 species not seen since 1960). Many of these birds reside or breed at high-altitude wetlands such as Tso Moriri.

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