Isabella of Austria ( 18 July 1501 – 19 January 1526), also known as Elizabeth, Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Castile and Aragon, was Queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway as the wife of King Christian II. She was the daughter of King Philip I and Queen Joanna of Castile and the sister of Emperor Charles V. She was born at Brussels. She served as regent of Denmark in 1520.
|Isabella of Austria|
Portrait by Mabuse
|Queen consort of Denmark|
|Tenure||12 August 1515 – 20 January 1523|
|Coronation||12 August 1515|
|Queen consort of Norway|
|Tenure||12 August 1515 – 20 January 1523|
|Queen consort of Sweden|
|Tenure||1 November 1520 – 23 August 1521|
|Born||18 July 1501|
|Died||19 January 1526 (aged 24)|
|Spouse||Christian II of Denmark|
|John, Prince of Denmark|
Dorothea, Electress Palatine
Christina, Duchess of Milan
|House||House of Habsburg|
|Father||Philip I of Castile|
|Mother||Joanna of Castile|
Isabella spent her childhood in the Netherlands under the tutorage of the regent of the Netherlands, Margaret of Austria. Her fortune, her succession rights, and her connections made her a valuable pawn in the royal marriage market. The king of Denmark had first intended to marry her eldest sister Eleanor of Austria, but the Habsburgs considered Eleanor too valuable for the throne of Denmark, because as the eldest sister, there was a likelihood that her progeny may succeed. Therefore, Isabella was selected for the Danish king.
On 11 July 1514, one week short of her 13th birthday, Isabella was married by proxy to King Christian II of Denmark with Emperor Maximilian I, her grandfather, standing in for the king. She remained in the Netherlands, but is said to have fallen in love with her spouse at the sight of his painting, and asked to be taken to Denmark. A year after the wedding, the Archbishop of Nidaros was sent to escort her to Copenhagen. The marriage was ratified on 12 August 1515 (she was 14 years old).
Isabella was crowned Queen of Denmark and Norway and began using another version of her name, Elisabeth, but the relationship between her and her new family and Christian was quite cool during the first years of the marriage. The King's Dutch mistress, Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, had been with him since 1507, and he was not about to give her up for a teenager. Dyveke's mother, Sigbrit Willoms, was also influential at court, and Isabella was given less influence than both of them. This angered the Emperor, and caused some diplomatic strife between him and King Christian, but the matter was resolved when Dyveke died in 1517, and Isabella's relationship with her husband improved vastly over the next few years; her relationship with Sigbrit Willoms improved as well, and both women acted as political advisors to the king. From 1516, Anne Meinstrup was head lady-in-waiting of her court.
In 1520, Christian took the throne of Sweden, thereby making Isabella Queen of Sweden. After taking Stockholm, he asked the Swedish representatives to turn it and the regency of Sweden over to Isabella if he himself should die when his children were minors. She was to be the last Queen of Sweden who was also Queen of Denmark during the Kalmar union, but she in fact never visited Sweden; pregnant at the time of her spouse's accession to the throne of Sweden, she did not follow him there. Isabella served as the regent of Denmark during Christian's stay in Sweden. Her husband was deposed as king of Sweden the following year. King Christian imprisoned many Swedish noblewomen, related to rebellious Swedish nobles, at the infamous Blåtårn ("Blue Tower") of Copenhagen Castle, including Christina Gyllenstierna, Cecilia Månsdotter and Margareta Eriksdotter Vasa, and King Gustav I of Sweden used their purported harsh treatment in captivity in his propaganda against Christian II and claimed that the Danish monarch starved the women and children, who only survived by the mercy showed them by the queen of Denmark, Isabella of Austria.
When King Christian was deposed in 1523 by disloyal noblemen supporting his uncle Duke Frederick, the new king wanted to be on good terms with Isabella's family. He wrote her a personal letter in her native German, offering her a dowager queen's pension and permitting her to stay in Denmark under his protection while King Christian fled to the Low Countries. But Isabella wrote back to Duke Frederick in Latin, stating that : "ubi rex meus, ibi regnum meum", that is "where my king is, there is my kingdom".
Isabella left Denmark with her husband and their children after her husband was deposed in 1523 and travelled to the Netherlands. Isabella and Christian travelled around Germany in an attempt to gain help for Christian's restoration to the throne. Isabella made her own negotiations with her relatives, and also accompanied her husband on his travels. They visited Saxony in 1523 and Berlin in 1523–1524. In Berlin, Isabella became interested in the teachings of Luther, and felt sympathy for Protestantism, however she never converted officially. When she visited Nürnberg in 1524, she received communion in the Protestant way, which so enraged her birth family, the Habsburgs, that Christian decided that she should hide her Protestant views in the future, for political reasons
In the spring of 1525, Isabella caught some kind of serious illness, which worsened after she travelled through a storm later that year, and lasted all summer. The former queen died at the castle of Zwijnaarde near Ghent aged twenty-four. She received both Protestant and Catholic communion, but the Habsburgs declared that she had died a convinced Catholic. Her religious sympathies, and whether she was a Protestant or a Catholic after 1524, have been debated. At her deathbed, she gave the cause of her husband's restoration to her aunt, the regent of the Netherlands, Margaret of Austria.
Her fifteenth generation great-granddaughter, Princess Isabella of Denmark, was named after her.
|John||21 February 1518||1532||died young.|
|Philip Ferdinand||4 July 1519||1519||twin, died in infancy.|
|Maximilian||4 July 1519||1519||twin, died in infancy|
|Dorothea||10 November 1520||31 May 1580||married in 1535, Frederick II, Elector Palatine and had no issue.|
|Christina||November 1521||10 December 1590||married in 1533, Francesco II Sforza and had no issue, married secondly in 1541, Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and had issue.|
|Unnamed son||January 1523||January 1523||stillborn.|
Isabella of AustriaBorn: 18 July 1501 Died: 19 January 1526
Title last held byChristina of Saxony
| Queen consort of Denmark
Sophie of Pomerania
| Queen consort of Norway|
| Queen consort of Sweden
Title last held byCatherine of Saxe-Lauenburg
Archduchess Isabella Maria Theresia Christine Eugenie of Austria-Teschen (17 November 1888 – 6 December 1973) was a daughter of Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen and his wife, Princess Isabella of Croÿ. She was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (her grandfather, Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria, was a grandson of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II).
Isabella was notable for her brief marriage to Prince Georg of Bavaria. Their separation and subsequent annulment were widely reported in newspapers. As a result of this and her later actions as a nurse in the Austrian army, Isabella became considered as a romantic figure; one publication called her "the most romantic heroine of the present war in Austria".Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria
Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (21 May 1834 – 14 July 1901), was an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Tuscany by birth and Countess of Trapani by marriage to her uncle Prince Francis, Count of Trapani.
Maria Isabella was born in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, as the daughter of Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his second wife, Princess Maria Antonia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.Christian II of Denmark
Christian II (1 July 1481 – 25 January 1559) was a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union. He reigned as King of Denmark and Norway from 1513 until 1523 and of Sweden from 1520 until 1521. From 1513 to 1523, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig and Holstein in joint rule with his uncle Frederick.
Christian was the oldest son of King John and belonged to the House of Oldenburg. Denmark was then an elective monarchy in which the nobility elected the new king (from among the sons or close male relatives of the previous monarch), who had to share his power with them. He came into conflict with the Danish nobility when he was forced to sign a charter, more strict than any previous, to ensure his access to the throne. Through domestic reforms he later sought to evade being restricted by the provisions of the charter. Internationally, he tried to maintain the Kalmar Union between the Scandinavian countries which brought him to war with Sweden, lasting between 1518 and 1523. Though he captured the country in 1520, his slaughter of leading Swedish nobility afterwards (known as the Stockholm Bloodbath) made him despised and after a short reign in Sweden, where to this day he is known as Christian the Tyrant (Kristian Tyrann), he was deposed in a rebellion led by the nobleman Gustav Vasa. His problems grew as he tried to limit the influence of foreign trading nations in Denmark. His reign in Denmark and Norway was cut short in 1523 when his uncle deposed him and took the thrones as Frederick I.
Christian was exiled to the Netherlands, ruled by his brother-in-law, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. After attempting to reclaim the thrones in 1531, he was arrested and held in captivity for the rest of his life, first in Sønderborg Castle and later at Kalundborg Castle. Supporters tried to restore him to power both during his exile and his imprisonment but they were defeated decisively during the Count's Feud in 1536.In 1515, he married Isabella of Austria, granddaughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. However, he is most known for his relation with Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, a commoner of Dutch ancestry who became his mistress before his marriage and whose mother became his closest advisor. When Dyveke suddenly died in 1517, Christian had the nobleman Torben Oxe executed, on dubious grounds, for having poisoned her. Dyveke’s mother would follow Christian in exile but his in-laws forced him to break their friendship. As a captive, he was treated well and as he grew older he was gradually given more freedom. He died aged 77, outliving his uncle and his cousin, King Christian III. He was intelligent but irresolute (he could not decide between Protestantism and Catholicism for instance), which is also part of his legacy in literature.
His wife was invited to remain in Denmark rather than live in exile but declined and died in 1526, after which her family took Christian's children from him. Christian tried to have his son John recognized as heir to the throne; however, this was denied and John died a year later. His daughters, Dorothea and Christina, the children of his to survive childhood, also made claims to the throne on behalf of themselves or their children but likewise in vain.Christina of Denmark
Christina of Denmark (Danish: Christine af Danmark; November 1521 – 10 December 1590) was a Danish princess, the younger surviving daughter of King Christian II of Denmark and Norway and Isabella of Austria. She became the duchess-consort of Milan, then duchess-consort of Lorraine. She served as the regent of Lorraine from 1545 to 1552 during the minority of her son. She was also a claimant to the thrones of Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1561-1590. Finally, she was sovereign Lady of Tortona in 1578-1584.Christina of Saxony
Christina of Saxony (b. Torgau, 25 December 1461 – d. Odense, 8 December 1521), was Queen consort of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. She was born a granddaughter of Frederick the Gentle of Saxony, and daughter of Ernest, Elector of Saxony and Elisabeth of Bavaria. She was the grandmother of Christina of Denmark through her son Christian II.Czantoria Wielka
Czantoria Wielka or Wielka Czantoria (Czech: Velká Čantoryje) is a mountain on the border of Poland (Silesian Voivodeship, Cieszyn County) and the Czech Republic (Moravian-Silesian Region, Frýdek-Místek District), in the Silesian Beskids mountain range and historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. It reaches a height of 995 meters. Parts of the mountain on both sides are designated a protected area.It is distinct for its steep slopes in the east and the west. Mostly coniferous trees grow on its slopes. It is the largest peak of the Czech part of the Silesian Beskids. There is a 29 m-high lookout tower on the mountain and mountain hut on the Czech side of the mountain.
The mountain hut was constructed in 1904 by the German tourist association Beskidenverein, and was named Erzherzogin Isabella Schutzhaus in honor of Archduchess Isabella of Austria. In 1920 the new border between the states of Poland and Czechoslovakia was established running across the mountain (thus creating Zaolzie region). After World War II and expropriation of German property, the hut was nationalized by the Czechoslovak government. A smaller mountain hut was built on the Polish side in 1962.
In 1965-1967 a chairlift was constructed on the Polish side, it has been renovated several times since. Reaching the mountain via chairlift takes roughly 6 minutes. The mountain can be hiked from both sides of the border, though the Polish side offers easier access to the summit from Ustroń. The Knight's hiking trail from the Czech side runs through the village of Nýdek (Nydek).Dorothea of Lorraine
Dorothea of Lorraine (24 May 1545 – 2 June 1621), was by birth a member of the House of Lorraine and by marriage to Eric II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Calenburg.
Born at the Château de Deneuvre, she was the third child and second daughter of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark. Her paternal grandparents were Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier and her maternal grandparents were Christian II of Denmark and Isabella of Austria.Dyveke Sigbritsdatter
Dyveke Sigbritsdatter or Dyveke Willomsdatter, (1490 – 21 September 1517), in Denmark normally known as "Dyveke" ; in modern Dutch "duifje" means "little dove"), was known as the mistress to Christian II of Denmark.
Dyveke was a "commoner", the daughter of the Dutch merchant Sigbrit Willoms, who lived in Bergen in Norway. Dyveke became the mistress to Christian II of Denmark in 1507 or 1509. They met in Bergen, and Christian took Dyveke with him to Oslo, where he was regent, and to Copenhagen, when he became king in 1513. Their relationship has been the inspiration of many poets but in fact little is known about it. The mother of Dyveke, Sigbrit, acted as an advisor to the king, which was much disliked, especially by the nobility, and every effort was therefore made to separate Dyveke and Christian, which would ensure the departure also of Sigbrit from the court. Whether Dyveke herself had any political influence is unknown.
Though Christian married Isabella of Austria and had her crowned in 1515, he refused to end his relationship with Dyveke. This created tension between him and his brother-in-law, the future Emperor Charles V. In 1516, the Emperor demanded that Dyveke and her mother would be sent away, but Christian refused.
Dyveke died in the summer of 1517, possibly because of a poisoning. She was suspected to have been poisoned by cherries. This death led to the execution of the nobleman Torben Oxe, but his guilt has never been proven and both an initiative by the court of the Emperor Maximilian I or even an accidental poisoning have been suggested as an explanation. Her mother Sigbrit went on to become Christian II's financial advisor. Nothing is recorded for Sigbrit after 1523, one assumption has her imprisoned for witchcraft, dying in 1532.Isabella of Castile (disambiguation)
Isabella of Castile most often refers to Queen Isabella I (1451–1504).
Isabella of Castile may also refer to:
Isabel (d. bef. 1107), fourth wife of Alfonso VI of León and Castile, perhaps identical to Alfonso's mistress, Zaida of Seville
Isabel, born Zaida of Seville, mistress of Alfonso VI of León and Castile, of Iberian Muslim origin, perhaps identical to Alfonso's Queen Isabel
Infanta Isabella of Castile, (d. aft. 1272), ninth child of Alfonso X of Castile
Isabella of Castile, Queen of Aragon (1283–1328), daughter of Sancho IV of Castile and wife of James II of Aragon and John III, Duke of Brittany
Infanta Isabella Núñez de Lara (1340–1361), Lady of Lara and Vizcaya; daughter of Juan Núñez de Lara, wife of Infante Juan of Aragon (1331–1358)
Infanta Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York (1355–1392), daughter of Peter of Castile and wife of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York
Isabella of Portugal, Queen of Castile (1428–1496), wife of John II of Castile and mother of Isabella I
Isabella I of Castile (1451–1504), Queen Regnant of Castile, wife of Ferdinand II of Aragon
Isabella, Princess of Asturias (1470–1498), daughter of Isabella I of Castile and wife of Manuel I of Portugal
Isabella of Austria, Isabella of Castile, Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, daughter of Philip I of Castile and wife of Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
Isabella II of Spain (1830–1904), queen of Spain, Castile, Leon, and AragonJohn of Denmark (1518–1532)
John of Denmark (Danish: Hans; 21 February 1518 – 11 August 1532) was the eldest child and first of four sons born to the King and Queen of Denmark and Norway, Christian II and Isabella of Austria.Malmfred of Kiev
Malmfred of Kiev (between 1095 and 1102 – d. after 1137), was a medieval Norwegian and Danish queen consort, wife first to King Sigurd I of Norway and second to king Eric II of Denmark.Maria Carolina Zamoyska
Countess Maria Carolina Zamoyska (22 September 1896 in Kraków, Austria-Hungary – 9 May 1968 in Marseille, France) was the wife of Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro, claimant to the headship of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Carolina was the sixth child and youngest daughter of Polish nobleman Andrzej Przemysław Zamoyski, Count Zamoyski and his wife Princess Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Carolina's maternal grandparents were Prince Francis of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Count of Trapani and his wife Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria, Princess of Tuscany.Princess Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Princess Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (Maria Antonietta Giuseppina Leopoldina; 16 March 1851 – 12 September 1938) was a Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies by birth and by her marriage to Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta, claimant to the defunct throne of the Two Sicilies.Psalter (GKS 1605 4°)
The Psalter (GKS 1605 4°) is a medieval illuminated manuscript, a psalter made in Flanders c. 1500–35. It belongs to the Royal Library, Denmark. The quality of its illuminations has been described as "unique".The origins of the book are not known, though it may have been commissioned by Isabella of Austria, wife of Christian II of Denmark. It was probably illuminated by a follower of Gerard Horenbout and the scribe may have been one Anthonius van Damme, active in Bruges. It contains 150 psalms as well as other hymns, as well as minor texts and illustrations. The book was unexpectedly discovered in Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen in 1781, in a chest which had remained unopened for more than a hundred years.Queen Isabella
Queen Isabella may refer to:
Isabella of Hainaut (1170–1190), queen consort of Philip II of France
Isabella I of Jerusalem (1172–1205), queen regnant
Isabella of Angoulême (1188–1246), queen consort of John of England
Isabella II of Jerusalem (1212–1228), queen regnant, also known as Yolande
Isabella of England (1214–1241), Holy Roman Empress to Frederick II and his queen consort of Germany and of Sicily
Isabella, Queen of Armenia (died 1252), queen regnant
Isabella of Aragon (1247–1271), queen consort of Philip III of France
Isabella of Ibelin (1241–1324), queen consort of Hugh III of Cyprus
Isabella of Ibelin (1252–1282), queen consort of Hugh II of Cyprus
Elizabeth of Aragon (1271–1336), queen consort of Denis of Portugal
Isabella of France (1295–1358), queen consort of Edward II of England
Isabella of Majorca (1337–1406), titular queen consort
Isabeau of Bavaria (1369–1435), queen consort of Charles VI of France
Isabella of Valois (1389–1409), queen consort of Richard II of England
Isabella of Portugal, Queen of Castile (1428–1496), queen consort of John II of Castile
Isabella I of Castile (1451–1504), Queen of Spain and wife of Ferdinand II of Aragon
Isabella, Princess of Asturias (1470–1498), queen consort of Manuel I of Portugal
Isabella of Austria (1501–1526), queen consort of Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
Isabella of Portugal (1503–1539), Holy Roman Empress to Charles V and his queen consort of Aragon and Castile
Isabella Jagiellon (1519–1559), queen consort of János Szapolyai of Hungary
Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (1566–1633), co-sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands
Isabella II of Spain (1830–1904), queen regnantRenata of Lorraine
Renata of Lorraine (20 April 1544 – 22 May 1602), was by birth a member of the House of Lorraine and by marriage Duchess of Bavaria.
Born in Nancy, France, she was the second child and eldest daughter of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark. Her paternal grandparents were Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier and her maternal grandparents were Christian II of Denmark and Isabella of Austria.Sigrid the Haughty
Sigrid the Haughty, also known as Sigríð Storråda (Sigrid Storråda in Swedish), is a queen appearing in Norse sagas as wife, first of Eric the Victorious of Sweden, then Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark. Sigrid appears in many sagas composed generations after the events they describe, but there is no reliable evidence as to her existence as they describe her. The figure of Sigrid appears mainly in late Icelandic sagas, while more contemporary sources such as Thietmar of Merseburg and Adam of Bremen instead claim that Sweyn was married to a Polish princess, identified as Świętosława. Snorri Sturluson gives conflicting information and in one place says that Sweyn was married to Sigrid and in another that he was married to a Gunhild of Wenden.
It is unclear if the figure of Sigrid was a real person, if the saga account of her is an amalgamation of the lives and deeds of several women, or if she is a completely fictional character. The latter view is held by some modern scholars, who do not give credibility to Sigrid's legacy in old Nordic sources and thus consider it a myth.Sophie of Pomerania
Sophie of Pomerania (1498–1568) was queen of Denmark and Norway as the spouse of Frederick I. She is known for her independent rule over her fiefs Lolland and Falster, the castles in Kiel and Plön, and several villages in Holstein as queen.Świętosława
Świętosława was a Polish princess, daughter of Mieszko I of Poland and Dobrawa of Bohemia, and sister of Boleslaw I of Poland. She was married first to Eric the Victorious of Sweden and then Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark, according to German chroniclers, and gave them the sons Olof, and Canute and Harald, respectively. The name is only known through an inscription that gives the name of Canute's sister and the assumption that this sister was named for her mother.
The Icelandic sagas give her rôle to Sigrid the Haughty. This account is considered less reliable than the contemporary chroniclers by a number of scholars, according to Birgitta Fritz in Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Snorre Sturlasson also mentions a Slavic princess he calls Gunhild of Wenden.(Wends being the name of the ancient Slavs inhabiting the regions of modern Poland)
Researcher Rafał T. Prinke in "The Identity of Mieszko I's Daughter and Her Scandinavian Relationships"(Roczniki Historyczne LXX (2004),[summary in German], Poznań – Warszawa 2004, ISBN 83-7063-429-X, pp. 81–110) establishes that Sigrid the Haughty (Sigríð Storråda) was the daughter of Skoglar Tosti, while the name Świętosława belonged to the mother of Mieszko I of Poland and his granddaughter by daughter Gunhilda (her mother being Mieszko I's second wife, Oda) and her husband, Sweyn Forkbeard. This would make Świętosława the sister of Canute the Great.
|Ancestors of Isabella of Austria|
* also Queen of Denmark
^also Queen of Sweden