Isaac Parker

Isaac Charles Parker (October 15, 1838 – November 17, 1896) was an American politician and jurist. He served as the United States Congressman for Missouri's 7th congressional district for two terms and presided over the United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas for 21 years.

He became known as the "Hanging Judge" of the American Old West due to the large number of convicts whom he sentenced to death.[2] In 21 years on the federal bench, Judge Parker tried 13,490 cases. In more than 8,500 of these cases, the defendant either pleaded guilty or was convicted at trial.[3] Parker sentenced 160 people to death; 79 of them were executed.[4][5]

Parker's health deteriorated in the 1890s and the jurisdiction and power of his court were reduced by Congress. In September 1896, Congress effectively closed the District Court for the Western District of Arkansas by removing its jurisdiction. Shortly after, on November 17, 1896, Parker died of complications due to Bright's disease. He is buried in Fort Smith.

Isaac Charles Parker
Comfort 0p 000pm 0000pm 00
Painting of Judge Isaac Parker, circa 1896.
Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas
In office
March 19, 1875 – November 17, 1896[1]
Nominated byUlysses S. Grant
Preceded byWilliam Story
Succeeded byJohn Henry Rogers
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Missouri's 7th district
In office
March 4, 1871 – March 4, 1875
Preceded byJoel Funk Asper
Succeeded byThomas Theodore Crittenden
Judge of the 12th Missouri Circuit Court
In office
1868–1870
Personal details
BornOctober 15, 1838
Barnesville, Ohio, US
DiedNovember 17, 1896 (aged 58)
Fort Smith, Arkansas, US
Spouse(s)Mary O'Toole

Early life

Parker was the youngest son of Joseph Parker and his wife Jane Shannon, and the great-nephew of Ohio Governor Wilson Shannon. He was raised on the family farm near Barnesville, Ohio. He attended Breeze Hill Primary School, followed by the Barnesville Classical Institute, a private school. He taught in a county primary school to pay for his secondary education.[6][7] At 17, he began an apprenticeship in law, and passed the Ohio bar exam in 1859.[7]

Parker moved to St. Joseph, Missouri between 1859 and 1861 and worked at his maternal uncle's law firm of Shannon and Branch.[8][9] On December 12, 1861, Parker married Mary O'Toole, with whom he had sons Charles and James.[8] By 1862, Parker had his own law firm and was working in the municipal and country courts.[7][9]

Political career

Isaac Parker 2
Photo of Isaac Parker taken between 1860 and 1865

In April 1861, Parker ran as a Democrat for the St. Joseph part-time city attorney. He served three one-year terms from April 1861 to 1863. The American Civil War broke out four days after Parker took office and he enlisted in a pro-Union home guard unit, the 61st Missouri Emergency Regiment. He had reached the rank of corporal by the end of the war.[9]

During the 1860s, Parker continued both his legal and political careers. In 1864, he formally split from the Democratic Party over conflicting opinions on slavery.[10] He ran as a Republican for county prosecutor of the Ninth Missouri Judicial District. By the fall of 1864, he was serving as a member of the Electoral College and voted for Abraham Lincoln.[11] In 1868, Parker won a six-year term as judge of the Twelfth Missouri Circuit.[11]

Parker was nominated for Missouri's 7th congressional district on September 13, 1870, backed by the Radical faction of the Republican party. He then resigned his judgeship and devoted his energy to his campaign.[6] Parker won the election after his opponent withdrew two weeks prior to the vote.[12]

The first session of the Forty-second Congress convened on March 4, 1871. During his first term, Parker helped to secure pensions for veterans in his district and campaigned for a new federal building to be built in St. Joseph. He sponsored a failed bill designed to enfranchise women and allow them to hold public office in United States territories. He also sponsored legislation to organize the Indian Territory under a territorial government.[11]

Parker was again elected to Missouri's 7th district in the forty-third Congress.[13] A local paper wrote of him, "Missouri had no more trusted or influential representative in ... Congress during the past two years".[14] In his second term, Parker concentrated on Indian policy, including the fair treatment of the tribes residing in the Indian Territory. His speeches in support of the Bureau of Indian Affairs gained national attention.[15]

In 1874, Parker was the caucus nominee of the Republican Party for a Missouri Senate seat.[6] However, the political tide had shifted in Missouri; it seemed unlikely that he would be elected to the Senate, so he sought a presidential appointment as judge for the Western District of Arkansas.[7][11]

District judge

On May 26, 1874, President Ulysses S. Grant nominated Parker as Chief Justice of the Utah Territory to replace James B. McKean. However, following a request from Parker, Grant instead nominated him for the United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas, replacing William Story who was facing impeachment proceedings due to allegations of corruption.[12][16][17][18]

Parker arrived in Fort Smith on May 4, 1875, initially without his family. Parker's first session as the district judge was on May 10, 1875, with court prosecutor W. H. H. Clayton, who remained the United States Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas for fourteen of Parker's twenty-one years on the court.[19]

JUDGE PARKER'S COURTROOM
Photo of Parker's courtroom reconstructed at the Fort Smith National Historic Site taken in 1966

In May 1875, Parker tried 18 men during his first session of court, all of whom were charged with murder; 15 were convicted in jury trials. Parker sentenced eight of them to a mandatory death penalty.[7][12] He ordered six of the men to be executed at the same time on September 3, 1875.[8] One of those sentenced to death was killed trying to escape, and another's sentence was commuted to life in prison due to his youth.[7] Parker gave an interview to the St. Louis Republic on September 1, 1896, in which he stated that he had no say whether a convict was to be hanged due to compulsory death sentences, and that he favored "the abolition of capital punishment".[20][21]

Parker's court had final jurisdiction over the Indian Territory from 1875 until 1889, as there was no court available for appeals. The legal systems and governments of the Five Civilized Tribes and other Native American tribes in the Indian Territory covered their own citizens, and federal law applied to non-Indian United States citizens in the territory.[22][23]

According to Congress, the federal court for the Western District of Arkansas was to meet in four separate terms each year: in February, May, August, and November. The court had such a large caseload that the four terms ran together. Parker's court sat six days a week in order to ensure that they tried as many cases as possible each term, and often up to ten hours each day.[7][8] In 1883, Congress reduced the jurisdiction of the court, reassigning parts of the Indian Territory to federal courts in Texas and Kansas; however, the increasing number of settlers moving into the Indian Territories actually increased the court's workload.[8][24]

From May 1, 1889, changes made by Congress allowed appeals of capital convictions to the United States Supreme Court.[25][26] Forty-four cases in which Parker imposed the death penalty were appealed to the Supreme Court, which overturned and ordered a re-trial for 30 of them.[8][27][28]

While serving as a district judge in Fort Smith, Parker served on the Fort Smith School Board and was the first president of St. John's Hospital (known today as Sparks Health System).[29][30][31]

Gallows at Fort Smith Arkansas
Present-day image of the reconstructed gallows now located at the Fort Smith National Historic Site

In his time on the court, Parker presided over a number of high-profile cases, including the trial of Cherokee Bill and the "Oklahoma Boomer" case involving David L. Payne, who illegally settled on lands in the Indian Territory.[32] In 1895, Parker heard two cases involving Crawford Goldsby (Cherokee Bill). The first involved Goldsby killing a bystander during a general-store robbery in 1894. He was convicted in a case that lasted from February 26 to June 25, 1895, and Parker sentenced him to death. However, while awaiting execution, Goldsby attempted to escape prison and killed a prison guard. He was again brought before Parker, who gave him a second death sentence on December 2, 1895. Goldsby was eventually hanged on March 17, 1896.[33]

Later years

Keeping up with continued settlement in the West, the Courts Act of 1889 established a federal court system in the Indian Territory; this decreased the jurisdiction of the Western District Court at Fort Smith.[20]

Parker clashed with the Supreme Court on a number of occasions, with around two-thirds of cases appealed to the Supreme Court being upheld.[22][23] In 1894, Parker gained national attention in a dispute with the Supreme Court over the case of Lafayette Hudson.[34] Hudson was convicted of assault with intent to kill and sentenced to four years imprisonment. He appealed to the Supreme Court and was granted bail. Parker refused to release Hudson on the grounds that statute law did not provide the Supreme Court the authority to demand Hudson's release.[35][36]

In 1895, Congress passed a new Courts Act which removed the remaining Indian Territory jurisdiction of the Western District, effective September 1, 1896. This effectively closed the federal court for the Western District of Arkansas by removing its jurisdiction.

Death and legacy

Parker was at home when the August 1896 term began, too sick to preside over the court, as he suffered from Bright's disease. The jurisdiction of the court came to an end on September 1, 1896, over lands in the Indian Territory; reporters wanted to interview him about his career but had to talk to him at his bedside.[20] Parker died on November 17, 1896, of a number of health conditions, including heart degeneration and Bright's disease.[8] His funeral in Fort Smith had the highest number of attenders up to that point.[37] He is buried at the Fort Smith National Cemetery.

In 21 years on the federal bench, Parker tried 13,490 cases; more than 8,500 defendants either pled guilty or were convicted at trial.[3] He sentenced 160 people to death and 79 were executed; the others either died while incarcerated or were acquitted, pardoned, or their sentences were commuted.[4][5]

Parker has been represented in a number of fictionalised portrayals of his time at Fort Smith. Charles Portis features Parker in his novel True Grit, which has twice been adapted as films of the same name. Parker is a featured character in the sequel to the first film. He was portrayed by James Westerfield in the 1969 movie and by John McIntire in the sequel. He was played by Jake Walker in the 2010 remake of True Grit.[38] Zeke Proctor, one of Parker's deputy marshals, is featured in Larry McMurtry's 1997 novel Zeke and Ned.[39]

Carlyle Mitchell, in his penultimate acting role, was cast as Judge Parker in the 1961 episode, "A Bullet for the D.A.", on the syndicated television anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews. Carole Mathews played Belle Starr recently released from federal prison. In the story line, Belle unsuccessfully plots the revenge assassination of United States Attorney W. H. H. Clayton (Don Haggerty) during a Wild West show in Fort Smith. William Thourlby played as Belle's second husband, Sam Starr.[40]

See also

References

  1. ^ Isaac Charles Parker at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. (The Western District of Arkansas lost its jurisdiction over Indian Territory on September 1, 1896, but he continued as district judge until his death.)
  2. ^ National Park Service. "Judge Isaac C. Parker". National Park Service. Retrieved November 22, 2015. Remembered in Western novels and films as a "Hanging Judge"
  3. ^ a b Burton 2008, p. 30
  4. ^ a b "Men Executed at Fort Smith: 1873 to 1896". National Historic Site: Fort Smith. National Park Service. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  5. ^ a b "History — Historical Federal Executions". US Marshals Service. U.S. Federal Government. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  6. ^ a b c "PARKER, Isaac Charles, (1838–1896)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. US Federal Government. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "Judge Isaac Parker — Page 1". Old West Legends. Legends of America. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Radcliff, Maranda (December 5, 2014). "Isaac Charles Parker (1838–1896)". The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture. The Central Arkansas Library System. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  9. ^ a b c Leonard, Eric. "Parker's Missouri Years". National Historic Site: Fort Smith. National Park Service. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  10. ^ Brodhead 2003, p. 7
  11. ^ a b c d Leeper 2014, p. 90
  12. ^ a b c Friedman, Mark (March 15, 2004). "Judge Isaac Parker: A legend hangs on". Arkansas Business. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  13. ^ "Rep. Isaac Parker [R]". GovTrack. US Federal Government. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  14. ^ Tuller 2001, p. 36
  15. ^ Leonard, Eric. "U.S. Congressman from Missouri". National Historic Site: Fort Smith. National Park Service. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  16. ^ Riggs, Lamar (1955). "Judge Isaac C. Parker". The Arkansas Historical Quarterly. Arkansas Historical Association. 14 (1): 85–89. doi:10.2307/40018689. JSTOR 40018689.
  17. ^ Grant & Simon 1998, p. 9
  18. ^ Tuller 2001
  19. ^ Shirley 1968
  20. ^ a b c Leeper 2014, p. 91
  21. ^ Hafnor 2009, p. 18
  22. ^ a b "Judge Isaac C. Parker". National Historic Site: Fort Smith. National Park Service. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  23. ^ a b "Local Obituary of Judge Parker". National Historic Site: Fort Smith. National Park Service. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  24. ^ Brodhead 2003, p. 103
  25. ^ Leonard, Eric. "Judge Parker: An Able Jurist". National Historic Site: Fort Smith. National Park Service. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  26. ^ Daily, Harry P. (1933). Chronicles of Oklahoma: Judge Isaac C. Parker. Oklahoma State University. p. 678. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  27. ^ Boardman, Mark (February 11, 2014). "Beginning of the End: How famed "Hanging Judge" Isaac Parker lost his power". True West Magazine. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  28. ^ "Judge Isaac Parker — Page 2". Old West Legends. Legends of America. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  29. ^ Galonka 2000, p. 218
  30. ^ "Our history timeline". History. Sparks Health System. 2015. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
  31. ^ "Church History". St. John's Episcopal Church. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
  32. ^ "Publishing a Newspaper in a "Boomer" Camp". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. December 1927. p. 363. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  33. ^ Metz 2014, p. 98
  34. ^ "Overruled the Supreme Court: An Amusing Conflict of Judge Parker with the Highest Tribunal". The New York Times. November 25, 1894. Retrieved December 16, 2015. Direct link to article (PDF).
  35. ^ Tuller 2001, p. 186
  36. ^ Brodhead 2003, pp. 167–169
  37. ^ Stolberg, Mary M. (1988). "Politician, Populist, Reformer: A Reexamination of "Hanging Judge" Isaac C. Parker". The Arkansas Historical Quarterly. 47 (1): 3–28. doi:10.2307/40038130. JSTOR 40038130.
  38. ^ Brodhead 2003, p. 186
  39. ^ Brodhead 2003, p. 189
  40. ^ "A Bullet for the D.A. on Death Valley Days". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 11, 2018.

Books

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Joel F. Asper
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Missouri's 7th congressional district

1871–1875
Succeeded by
Thomas T. Crittenden
Legal offices
Preceded by
William Story
Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas
1875–1896
Succeeded by
John Henry Rogers
93rd Delaware General Assembly

The 93rd Delaware General Assembly was a meeting of the legislative branch of the state government, consisting of the Delaware Senate and the Delaware House of Representatives. Elections were held the first Tuesday after November 1st and terms began in Dover on the first Tuesday in January. This date was January 3, 1905, which was two weeks before the beginning of the first administrative year of Governor Preston Lea and Isaac Parker as Lieutenant Governor.

Currently the distribution of the Senate Assembly seats was made to seven senators for New Castle County and for five senators to each Kent and Sussex counties. Likewise the current distribution of the House Assembly seats was made to fifteen representatives for New Castle County and for ten representatives each to Kent and Sussex counties. The actual population changes of the county did not directly affect the number of senators or representatives at this time.

In the 93rd Delaware General Assembly both chambers had a Republican majority.

94th Delaware General Assembly

The 94th Delaware General Assembly was a meeting of the legislative branch of the state government, consisting of the Delaware Senate and the Delaware House of Representatives. Elections were held the first Tuesday after November 1st and terms began in Dover on the first Tuesday in January. This date was January 1, 1907, which was two weeks before the beginning of the third administrative year of Governor Preston Lea and Isaac Parker as Lieutenant Governor.

Currently the distribution of the Senate Assembly seats was made to seven senators for New Castle County and for five senators to each Kent and Sussex counties. Likewise the current distribution of the House Assembly seats was made to fifteen representatives for New Castle County and for ten representatives each to Kent and Sussex counties. The actual population changes of the county did not directly affect the number of senators or representatives at this time.

In the 94th Delaware General Assembly both chambers had a Republican majority.

Fort Smith, Arkansas

Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 86,209. With an estimated population of 88,037 in 2017, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents that encompasses the Arkansas counties of Crawford, Franklin, and Sebastian, and the Oklahoma counties of Le Flore and Sequoyah.

Fort Smith has a sister city relationship with Cisterna, Italy, site of the World War II Battle of Cisterna, fought by United States Army Rangers commanded by Fort Smith native William O. Darby. The city also has a mutual friendship-city relationship with Jining, China.Fort Smith lies on the Arkansas-Oklahoma state border, situated at the confluence of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers, also known as Belle Point. Fort Smith was established as a western frontier military post in 1817, when it was also a center of fur trading. The city developed there. It became well known as a base for migrants' settling of the "Wild West" and for its law enforcement heritage.

In 2007, the city of Fort Smith was selected by the United States Department of the Interior as the site of the new United States Marshals Service National Museum, slated to open in 2019.

Frank Cochran

Frank Cochran (1853? – 1925?) was a 19th-century Old West Deputy US Marshal in the service of Judge Isaac Parker, known as the "Hanging Judge", operating out of Fort Smith, Arkansas.

Frank Dalton

Frank Dalton (June 8, 1859 – November 27, 1887) was a Deputy US Marshal of the Old West under Judge Isaac Parker (the hangin' judge), for Oklahoma Territory, as well as the older brother to the members of the Dalton Gang, in addition to being the brother to William M. Dalton, once a member of California legislature, and later an outlaw and leader of the Doolin Dalton gang alongside Bill Doolin. Frank Dalton is not to be confused with J. Frank Dalton, who made many claims to be famous people, including his claim of being Frank Dalton, and later Jesse James.

Dalton became, without much effort, the success story of the Dalton family. He was commissioned as a Deputy US Marshal, serving under Judge Parker, and quickly developed a reputation as being a brave lawman. Based out of Fort Smith, Arkansas, Dalton was involved in a number of shootouts and high risk arrests over a three-year period. However, on November 27, 1887, he and Deputy J.R. Cole were on the trail of outlaw Dave Smith, wanted for horse theft. As they approached Smith's camp, Smith fired a shot from a rifle, hitting Dalton in the chest. Deputy Cole returned fire, killing Smith, but was then shot and wounded by a Smith cohort. Cole was able to make his escape, however, believing Dalton was dead. Dalton, however, was still alive, and engaged the outlaws in a short gunbattle. One of Smith's cohorts was wounded, and a woman who was in the camp was killed during the crossfire. Frank Dalton was dead by the time Deputy Cole returned with a posse, having been killed with two additional rifle shots by outlaw Will Towerly. The outlaw wounded by Dalton never revealed his own name. He died shortly thereafter, but not before naming Towerly as Frank Dalton's murderer. A newspaper of the time indicated Dalton had begged Towerly not to kill him, saying he was already dying. However that was a rumour, and there were no witnesses to the crime who ever made that statement. Towerly was killed one month later by Deputy William Moody and Deputy US Marshal Ed Stokley. Stokley was also killed during the gunfight. Dalton was buried in Elmwood Cemetery in Coffeyville, Kansas, not far from the graves of his two outlaw brothers, Grat and Bob. (One can see the graves of Bob, and Grat just to the left of Frank's grave about 30 yards back with the original hitching post that they tied their horses to)

The actor Robert Lansing played Frank Dalton in the NBC television series The Outlaws in a two-part episode "The Daltons Must Die", which aired early in 1961.

Don Collier was cast as Frank Dalton in the 1964 Death Valley Days episode, "There Was Another Dalton Brother". In the story line, while starting his job as a deputy U.S. Marshal, Dalton must question Frank Johnson (Bill Zuckert), a suspect in a missing persons case. Johnson is the father of Dalton's girlfriend, Emmy (Laura Shelton) . Strother Martin was cast in this episode as Charlie Neel and Robert Anderson (1920-1996) as Marshal Heck Thomas.

George Maledon

George Maledon (June 10, 1830 – June 5, 1911) was a hangman aptly nicknamed "The Prince of Hangmen", who served in the federal court of Judge Isaac Parker.

Hang 'Em High

Hang 'Em High is a 1968 American DeLuxe Color revisionist Western film directed by Ted Post and written by Leonard Freeman and Mel Goldberg. It stars Clint Eastwood as Jed Cooper, an innocent man who survives a lynching; Inger Stevens as a widow who helps him; Ed Begley as the leader of the gang that lynched Cooper; and Pat Hingle as the judge who hires him as a U.S. Marshal.

Hang 'Em High was the first production of The Malpaso Company, Eastwood's production company.

Hingle portrays a fictional judge who mirrors Judge Isaac Parker, labeled the "Hanging Judge" due to the large number of men he sentenced to be executed during his service as District Judge of the Western District of Arkansas.

The film also depicts the dangers of serving as a U.S. marshal during that period, as many federal marshals were killed while serving under Parker. The fictional Fort Grant, base for operations for that district judge seat, is also a mirror of the factual Fort Smith, Arkansas, where Judge Parker's court was located.

Isaac Parker (Massachusetts judge)

Isaac Parker (June 17, 1768 – May 26, 1830) was a Massachusetts Congressman and jurist, including Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court from 1814 to his death.

Isaac Parker (disambiguation)

Isaac Parker (1838–1896), U.S. District Court judge.

Isaac Parker may also refer to:

Isaac Parker (congressman) (1768–1830), U.S. Representative from Massachusetts

Isaac T. Parker, politician

Isaac Parker (Texas politician) (1793–1883), Republic of Texas and state Senator, for Twenty-first Texas Legislature

Judge Parker (disambiguation)

Judge Parker is a syndicated comic strip.

Judge Parker may also refer to:

Judge Alton B. Parker, New York Court of Appeals (1898–1904)

Judge Isaac Parker, United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas (1875–96)

Judge John J. Parker, United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (1925–58)

Judge Linda Vivienne Parker, United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan (2014-present)

Justice Parker

Justice Parker may refer to:

Alton B. Parker, a Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals

Amasa J. Parker, a justice of the New York Supreme Court and an ex officio judge of the New York Court of Appeals

Charles Wolcott Parker, an Associate Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court

Emmett N. Parker, an Associate Justice of the Washington Supreme Court

Frank W. Parker, an Associate Justice of the New Mexico Supreme Court

Glenn Parker (judge), an Associate Justice of the Wyoming Supreme Court

Hubert Parker, Baron Parker of Waddington, Lord Chief Justice of England from 1958 to 1971

Isaac Parker (congressman), an Associate Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court

Jay S. Parker, an Associate Justice of the Kansas Supreme Court

Joel Parker, an Associate Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court

Joel Parker (jurist), an Associate Justice of the New Hampshire Supreme Court

John M. Parker (New York politician), a Judge on the New York Court of Appeals

R. Hunt Parker, an Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court

Richard Parker (judge), an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia

Richard E. Parker, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia (grandson of the above Richard Parker)

Sarah Parker, Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court

Thomas Parker, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, Lord Chief Justice of the Privy Council of England from 1710 to 1718

Tom Parker (judge), an Associate Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court

Missouri's 9th congressional district

Missouri's 9th congressional district was a US congressional district, dissolved in 2013, that last encompassed rural Northeast Missouri, the area known as "Little Dixie," along with the larger towns of Columbia, Fulton, Kirksville and Union. Boone, Franklin, and a portion of St. Charles County comprise the highest voting centers of the mostly rural district. It was last represented by Republican Blaine Luetkemeyer.

Some of the most famous representatives to represent the 9th congressional district were Speaker of the House Champ Clark;

James Broadhead, the first president of the American Bar Association; Clarence Cannon, chairman of the House Appropriations Committee; Isaac Parker, a judge depicted in True Grit; James Sidney Rollins, known as the "Father of the University of Missouri"; and Kenny Hulshof, unsuccessful candidate to become Governor of Missouri.

Oak Cemetery

Oak Cemetery is a historic cemetery at Greenwood and Dodson Avenues in Fort Smith, Arkansas. Established in 1853, it is the city's oldest and largest cemetery, and the burial site of many of its most prominent citizens. The cemetery covers 35 acres (14 ha) and is estimated to have more than 11,000 burials. Noted burials include Fort Smith founder John Rogers and "Hanging Judge" Isaac Parker.The cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1995.

Parker County, Texas

Parker County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 116,927. The county seat is Weatherford. The county was created in 1855 and organized the following year. It is named for Isaac Parker, a state legislator who introduced the bill that established the county in 1855.Parker County is included in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Texas Senate, District 4

District 4 of the Texas Senate is a senatorial district that serves all of Liberty and Orange counties, and portions of Chambers, Harris, Jefferson and Montgomery counties in the southeastern portion of the state of Texas. The current Senator from District 4 is Brandon Creighton, the winner of a special election held on August 5, 2014, to succeed the resigning Tommy Williams.

Tipton, Indiana

Tipton is a city in and the county seat of Tipton County, Indiana, United States. The population was 5,106 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Kokomo, Indiana, Metropolitan Statistical Area. It was named after John Tipton, a politician.

W. H. H. Clayton

William Henry Harrison Clayton best known as W. H. H. Clayton (October 13, 1840 – December 14, 1920) was an American lawyer and judge in post-Civil War Arkansas and Indian Territory Oklahoma. He was the United States Attorney for the United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas and the chief prosecutor in the court of "hanging judge" Isaac Parker for 14 years.

He was the brother of Arkansas Governor Powell Clayton, President Judge of the Thirty-Second Judicial District of Pennsylvania Thomas J. Clayton and twin-brother of U.S. Congressman elect John Middleton Clayton.

Weatherford, Texas

Weatherford ( WEDH-ər-fərd) is a city in and the seat of Parker County, Texas, United States. The 2010 United States Census stated the population as being 29,969.

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