Iron star

In astronomy, an iron star is a hypothetical type of compact star that could occur in the universe in the extremely far future, after perhaps 101500 years.

The premise behind iron stars states that cold fusion occurring via quantum tunnelling would cause the light nuclei in ordinary matter to fuse into iron-56 nuclei. Fission and alpha-particle emission would then make heavy nuclei decay into iron, converting stellar-mass objects to cold spheres of iron.[1] The formation of these stars is only a possibility if protons do not decay. Though the surface of a neutron star may be iron, according to some predictions, it is distinct from an iron star.

Unrelatedly, the term is also used for blue supergiants which have a forest of forbidden FeII lines in their spectra. They are potentially quiescent hot luminous blue variables. Eta Carinae has been described as a prototypical example.[2][3]

In popular culture

  • The Soviet film The Andromeda Nebula is about a starship low on fuel caught by the gravity of an iron star, which could only be seen in the infrared. It is based on the novel Andromeda: A Space-Age Tale by Ivan Yefremov written when Steady State theory was dominant and iron stars were expected to exist in the Milky Way.

See also

References

  1. ^ Dyson, Freeman J. (1979). "Time without end: Physics and biology in an open universe". Reviews of Modern Physics. 51 (3): 447–460. Bibcode:1979RvMP...51..447D. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.51.447.
  2. ^ Walborn, Nolan R.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L. (2000). "The OB Zoo: A Digital Atlas of Peculiar Spectra". The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 112 (767): 50. Bibcode:2000PASP..112...50W. doi:10.1086/316490.
  3. ^ Clark, J. S.; Castro, N.; Garcia, M.; Herrero, A.; Najarro, F.; Negueruela, I.; Ritchie, B. W.; Smith, K. T. (2012). "On the nature of candidate luminous blue variables in M 33". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 541: A146. arXiv:1202.4409. Bibcode:2012A&A...541A.146C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118440.
Albert Park, Victoria

Albert Park is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 3 km south of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Port Phillip.

The suburb of Albert Park extends from the St Vincent Gardens to Beaconsfield Parade and Mills Street. It was settled residentially as an extension of Emerald Hill (South Melbourne). It is characterised by wide streets, heritage buildings, terraced houses, open air cafes, parks and significant stands of mature exotic trees, including Canary Island Date Palm and London Planes.

Since 1996 Albert Park Reserve has been home to the Australian Grand Prix, a motor racing event. The Melbourne Supercars Championship is also held here.

Anchor plate

An anchor plate, floor plate or wall washer is a large plate or washer connected to a tie rod or bolt. Anchor plates are used on exterior walls of masonry buildings, for structural reinforcement. Being visible, many anchor plates are made in a style that is decorative.One popular style is the star anchor — an anchor plate cast or wrought in the shape of a five-pointed star. Other names and styles of anchor plate include earthquake washer, triangular washer, S-iron, and T-head. In the United Kingdom, pattress plate is the term for circular restraints, tie bar being an alternate term for rectangular restraints.

Anchor plates are made of cast iron, sometimes wrought iron or steel, and are often used on brick or other masonry-based buildings. They are commonly found in many older cities towns and villages in Europe and in more recent cities with substantial legacies of 18th- and 19th-century brick construction, such as New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati and Charleston, South Carolina, and in older earthquake prone cities such as San Francisco, as well as across all of Europe. The tie-rod-and-plate assembly braces the masonry wall against lateral bowing.

Battle of Little Muddy Creek

The Battle of Little Muddy Creek, also known as the Lame Deer Fight, was fought on May 7–8, 1877, by United States soldiers and scouts against a village of Miniconjou Lakota and Northern Cheyenne. The battle occurred near Little Muddy Creek in Montana Territory, near present-day Lame Deer, Rosebud County.

Coralville Public School

Coralville Public School, also known as the Fifth Street School, is a historic building located in Coralville, Iowa, United States. This two-story brick structure replaced Coralville's first school building, which was destroyed in a fire. It housed grades one through eight from 1876 to 1949, and it was the town's only school building during that time. It was closed two years later when Coralville schools became a part of the Iowa City Community School District. After its use as a school it has housed a teen center and then for the storage of school equipment. It has subsequently been converted into a museum. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. The former school now sits across the street from the historic Coralville Union Ecclesiastical Church and Town Hall (c. 1885), which was moved there in 2014. Both buildings flank the entrance to a mixed use development known as Old Town.There are three cast-iron star clamps in a triangular pattern on the main facade, and three on each side of the structure. Their placement on the building is as much decorative as they are structural.

Defensive fighting position

A defensive fighting position (DFP) is a type of earthwork constructed in a military context, generally large enough to accommodate anything from one soldier to a fire team (or similar sized unit).

Eric Temple Bell

Eric Temple Bell (February 7, 1883 – December 21, 1960) was a Scottish-born mathematician and science fiction writer who lived in the United States for most of his life. He published non-fiction using his given name and fiction as John Taine.

Fantasy Publishing Company, Inc.

Fantasy Publishing Company, Inc., or FPCI, was an American science fiction and fantasy small press specialty publishing company established in 1946. It was the fourth small press company founded by William L. Crawford.

Crawford's first company was Fantasy Publications which he started in 1935 in Everett, Pennsylvania, primarily to publish his magazines Marvel Tales and Unusual Stories. However, three books were published under the imprint.

In 1936, Crawford initiated his second company, Visionary Publishing Company, with the intention of publishing books with this imprint. Visionary is notable for publishing the only hardcover book by H. P. Lovecraft that was published during his lifetime.Later in 1936, Crawford assumed management of publication of Fantasy Magazine from Conrad H. Ruppert and ceased all book publications in order to concentrate on the magazine. After relocating to California, Crawford again published books as "A Crawford Publication".

Finally, he incorporated as Fantasy Publishing Company, Inc. in December 1946. Forrest J. Ackerman served as a partner for the company and many of the books published by FPCI were from authors Ackerman represented as agent. Undercapitalisation was a major problem with FPCI and many of the books had a cheap look. FPCI reprinted a number of novels by John Taine, Ralph Milne Farley, Stanton Coblentz and L. Ron Hubbard. FPCI continued publishing books until 1972.

During this period, Crawford also used the Griffin Publishing Company to publish books which were not science fiction or fantasy. Two additional books were published by Crawford in 1978, but a publisher was not cited.

Future of an expanding universe

Observations suggest that the expansion of the universe will continue forever. If so, then a popular theory is that the universe will cool as it expands, eventually becoming too cold to sustain life. For this reason, this future scenario once popularly called "Heat Death" is now known as the Big Chill or Big Freeze.If dark energy—represented by the cosmological constant, a constant energy density filling space homogeneously, or scalar fields, such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density can vary in time and space—accelerates the expansion of the universe, then the space between clusters of galaxies will grow at an increasing rate. Redshift will stretch ancient, incoming photons (even gamma rays) to undetectably long wavelengths and low energies. Stars are expected to form normally for 1012 to 1014 (1–100 trillion) years, but eventually the supply of gas needed for star formation will be exhausted. As existing stars run out of fuel and cease to shine, the universe will slowly and inexorably grow darker. According to theories that predict proton decay, the stellar remnants left behind will disappear, leaving behind only black holes, which themselves eventually disappear as they emit Hawking radiation. Ultimately, if the universe reaches a state in which the temperature approaches a uniform value, no further work will be possible, resulting in a final heat death of the universe.

Gaunt's Ghosts

Gaunt's Ghosts is a series of novels written by Dan Abnett. It is a military science fiction series set in the Warhammer 40,000 universe.

The series spans 16 novels which document the efforts of the Tanith First-And-Only, a highly skilled yet unappreciated light infantry regiment of the Imperial Guard, during the Sabbat Worlds Crusade. The protagonist is Colonel-Commissar Ibram Gaunt, one of the few political commissars of the Imperium to be officially awarded command of a regiment.

Although Gaunt is the primary character, the perspective from which the novels are told shifts regularly to encompass a wider view of events – it is usually told from the Imperial point of view, though the perspective is occasionally seen through the eyes of antagonists. The series alludes to other series by Dan Abnett, such as Eisenhorn and Ravenor, and has resulted in three spin-off works.

The series began as a continuing set of loosely connected short stories in the Black Library magazine Inferno! (issues 4, 8, and 30). The next short piece, entitled "Vermilion Level", was written out to novel length as First and Only and published as the Black Library's first original novel (the book line up until that point consisting of reprints of novels from the pre-Black Library days and anthologies of short fiction taken from Inferno! magazine). The original short pieces subsequently appeared as flashback-chapters in Ghostmaker, the second book.

There are also ancillary novels devoted to minor characters in the main series and a mock "historical book" about the war in which the books take place, as well as merchandise such as badges, T-shirts, and special editions of the books themselves.

Hypothetical star

A hypothetical star is a star, or type of star, that is speculated to exist but has yet to be definitively observed. Hypothetical types of stars have been conjectured to exist, have existed or will exist in the future universe.

Iron-56

Iron-56 (56Fe) is the most common isotope of iron. About 91.754% of all iron is iron-56.

Of all nuclides, iron-56 has the lowest mass per nucleon. With 8.8 MeV binding energy per nucleon, iron-56 is one of the most tightly bound nuclei.Nickel-62, a relatively rare isotope of nickel, has a higher nuclear binding energy per nucleon; this is consistent with having a higher mass per nucleon because nickel-62 has a greater proportion of neutrons, which are slightly more massive than protons. See the nickel-62 article for more information regarding the ordering of binding energy per nucleon, and mass-per-nucleon, for various nuclides.

Thus, light elements undergoing nuclear fusion and heavy elements undergoing nuclear fission release energy as their nucleons bind more tightly, and the resulting nuclei approach the maximum total energy per nucleon, which occurs at 62Ni. However, during nucleosynthesis in stars the competition between photodisintegration and alpha capturing causes more 56Ni to be produced than 62Ni (56Fe is produced later in the star's ejection shell as 56Ni decays). This means that as the Universe ages, more matter is converted into extremely tightly bound nuclei, such as 56Fe, ultimately leading to the formation of iron stars in around 101500 years.Production of these elements has decreased considerably from what it was at the beginning of the stelliferous era.

List of companies of Peru

Peru is a country in western South America. Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%). Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption. Peru's main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal; its major trade partners are the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile.For further information on the types of business entities in this country and their abbreviations, see "Business entities in Peru".

Outline of astronomy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy:

Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).

Rare Cult

Rare Cult is a limited edition, six-CD box set (early copies with a seventh bonus disc) from British rock band the Cult, released in November 2000. The chronologically-organized set contains 90 tracks (48 previously unreleased) of studio B-sides, radio sessions, 12-inch mixes, alternate mixes, demos and the complete then-unreleased Peace album (also known as the "Manor sessions", later re-released with Electric as Electric Peace). The set is packaged in a matte black box with gold lettering, containing three 2-disc gatefold digipaks and an extensive 80-page booklet of liner notes and photos.Only 15,000 copies were produced, with only the first 5,000 copies including a bonus seventh disc of remixes. The Rare Cult box set is complemented by the single-disc compilation The Best of Rare Cult and the 2002 5-CD release Rare Cult: The Demo Sessions.

Semyon Dezhnev

Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev (Russian: Семён Ива́нович Дежнёв, IPA: [sʲɪˈmʲɵn ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ dʲɪˈʐnʲɵf]; sometimes spelled Dezhnyov; c. 1605 – 1673) was a Russian explorer of Siberia and the first European to sail through the Bering Strait, 80 years before Vitus Bering did. In 1648 he sailed from the Kolyma River on the Arctic Ocean to the Anadyr River on the Pacific. His exploit was forgotten for almost a hundred years and Bering is usually given credit for discovering the strait that bears his name.

The Andromeda Nebula

The Andromeda Nebula (Russian: Туманность Андромеды) is a 1967 Soviet science fiction film starring Sergei Stolyarov and directed by Yevgeni Sherstobitov at the Dovzhenko Film Studios. The film was originally intended to be the first episode of a series of films, alternatively titled as The Andromeda Nebula: Episode I. Prisoners of the Iron Star, but the remaining parts were never made due to Stolyarov's death.

The Iron Star

The Iron Star is a science fiction novel by American writer John Taine (pseudonym of Eric Temple Bell). It was first published in 1930 by E. P. Dutton.

Timeline of the far future

While the future can never be predicted with absolute certainty, present understanding in various scientific fields allows for the prediction of some far-future events, if only in the broadest outline. These fields include astrophysics, which has revealed how planets and stars form, interact, and die; particle physics, which has revealed how matter behaves at the smallest scales; evolutionary biology, which predicts how life will evolve over time; and plate tectonics, which shows how continents shift over millennia.

All projections of the future of Earth, the Solar System, and the universe must account for the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy, or a loss of the energy available to do work, must rise over time. Stars will eventually exhaust their supply of hydrogen fuel and burn out. Close encounters between astronomical objects gravitationally fling planets from their star systems, and star systems from galaxies.Physicists expect that matter itself will eventually come under the influence of radioactive decay, as even the most stable materials break apart into subatomic particles. Current data suggest that the universe has a flat geometry (or very close to flat), and thus will not collapse in on itself after a finite time, and the infinite future allows for the occurrence of a number of massively improbable events, such as the formation of Boltzmann brains.The timelines displayed here cover events from the beginning of the 11th millennium

to the furthest reaches of future time. A number of alternative future events are listed to account for questions still unresolved, such as whether humans will become extinct, whether protons decay, and whether the Earth survives when the Sun expands to become a red giant.

Formation
Evolution
Spectral
classification
Remnants
Hypothetical
Nucleosynthesis
Structure
Properties
Star systems
Earth-centric
observations
Lists
Related articles

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