Iron(II) carbonate

iron(II) carbonate, or ferrous carbonate, is a chemical compound with formula FeCO
3
, that occurs naturally as the mineral siderite. At ordinary ambient temperatures, it is a green-brown ionic solid consisting of iron(II) cations Fe2+
and carbonate anions CO2−
3
.[4]

iron(II) carbonate
Names
Other names
ferrous carbonate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.008.418
E number E505 (acidity regulators, ...)
Properties
FeCO3
Molar mass 115.854 g/mol
Appearance white powder or crystals
Density 3.9 g/cm3[1]
Melting point decomposes
0.0067 g/l;[2] Ksp = 1.28 × 10−11 [3]
+11,300·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
Hexagonal scalenohedral / Trigonal (32/m)
Space group: R 3c, a = 4.6916 Å, c = 15.3796 Å
6
Related compounds
Other anions
copper(II) carbonate, zinc carbonate
Other cations
iron(II) sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Preparation

Ferrous carbonate can be prepared by reacting solution of the two ions, such as iron(II) chloride and sodium carbonate:[4]

FeCl
2
+ Na
2
CO
3
FeCO
3
+ 2NaCl

Ferrous carbonate can be prepared also from solutions of an iron(II) salt, such as iron(II) perchlorate, with sodium bicarbonate, releasing carbon dioxide:[5]

Fe(ClO
4
)2 + 2NaHCO
3
FeCO
3
+ 2NaClO
4
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O

Sel and others used this reaction (but with FeCl
2
instead of Fe(ClO
4
)2) at 0.2 M to prepare amorphous FeCO
3
.[6]

Care must be taken to exclude oxygen O
2
from the solutions, because the Fe2+
ion is easily oxidized to Fe3+
, especially at pH above 6.0.[5]

Ferrous carbonate also forms directly on steel or iron surfaces exposed to solutions of carbon dioxide, forming an "iron carbonate" scale:[3]

Fe + CO
2
+ H
2
O
FeCO
3
+ H
2

Properties

The dependency of the solubility in water with temperature was determined by Wei Sun and others to be

where T is the absolute temperature in kelvins, and I is the ionic strength of the liquid.[3]

Uses

Ferrous carbonate has been used as an iron dietary supplement to treat anemia.[7]

Toxicity

Ferrous carbonate is slightly toxic; the probable oral lethal dose is between 0.5 and 5 g/kg (between 35 and 350 g for a 70 kg person).[8]

References

  1. ^ D R. Lide, ed.(2000): "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics". 81st Edition. Pages 4-65.
  2. ^ Patty, F., ed. (1963): "Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology"; volume II: 'Toxicology". 2nd ed. Interscience. Page 1053.
  3. ^ a b c Wei Sun (2009): "Kinetics of iron carbonate and iron sulfide scale formation in CO2/H2S corrosion". PhD Thesis, Ohio University.
  4. ^ a b (1995): "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology". 4th ed. Volume 1.
  5. ^ a b Philip C. Singer and Werner Stumm (1970): "The solubility of ferrous iron in carbonate-bearing waters". Journal of the American Water Works Association, volume 62, issue 3, pages 198-202. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41266171
  6. ^ Ozlem Sel, A.V. Radha, Knud Dideriksen, and Alexandra Navrotsky (2012): "Amorphous iron (II) carbonate: Crystallization energetics and comparison to other carbonate minerals related to CO2 sequestration". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 87, issue 15, pages 61–68. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.03.011
  7. ^ A .Osol and J. E. Hoover and others, eds. (1975): "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences". 15th ed. Mack Publishing. Page 775
  8. ^ Gosselin, R.E., H.C. Hodge, R.P. Smith, and M.N. Gleason. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1976., p. II-97
Carbonates
H2CO3 He
Li2CO3,
LiHCO3
BeCO3 B C (NH4)2CO3,
NH4HCO3
O F Ne
Na2CO3,
NaHCO3,
Na3H(CO3)2
MgCO3,
Mg(HCO3)2
Al2(CO3)3 Si P S Cl Ar
K2CO3,
KHCO3
CaCO3,
Ca(HCO3)2
Sc Ti V Cr MnCO3 FeCO3 CoCO3 NiCO3 CuCO3 ZnCO3 Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb2CO3 SrCO3 Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag2CO3 CdCO3 In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs2CO3,
CsHCO3
BaCO3   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl2CO3 PbCO3 (BiO)2CO3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La2(CO3)3 Ce2(CO3)3 Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa UO2CO3 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Carbonate

In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of CO2−3. The name may also refer to a carbonate ester, an organic compound containing the carbonate group C(=O)(O–)2.

The term is also used as a verb, to describe carbonation: the process of raising the concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in water to produce carbonated water and other carbonated beverages – either by the addition of carbon dioxide gas under pressure, or by dissolving carbonate or bicarbonate salts into the water.

In geology and mineralogy, the term "carbonate" can refer both to carbonate minerals and carbonate rock (which is made of chiefly carbonate minerals), and both are dominated by the carbonate ion, CO2−3. Carbonate minerals are extremely varied and ubiquitous in chemically precipitated sedimentary rock. The most common are calcite or calcium carbonate, CaCO3, the chief constituent of limestone (as well as the main component of mollusc shells and coral skeletons); dolomite, a calcium-magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2; and siderite, or iron(II) carbonate, FeCO3, an important iron ore. Sodium carbonate ("soda" or "natron") and potassium carbonate ("potash") have been used since antiquity for cleaning and preservation, as well as for the manufacture of glass. Carbonates are widely used in industry, e.g. in iron smelting, as a raw material for Portland cement and lime manufacture, in the composition of ceramic glazes, and more.

Chalybeate

Chalybeate () waters, also known as ferruginous waters, are mineral spring waters containing salts of iron.

Chapeltoun

Chapeltoun is an estate on the banks of the Annick Water in East Ayrshire, Scotland. This is a rural area famous for its milk and cheese production and the Ayrshire or Dunlop breed of cattle.

Copper(II) carbonate

Copper(II) carbonate or cupric carbonate is a chemical compound with formula CuCO3. At ambient temperatures, it is an ionic solid (a salt) consisting of copper(II) cations Cu2+ and carbonate anions CO2−3.

This compound is rarely encountered because it is difficult to prepare and readily reacts with water moisture from the air. The terms "copper carbonate", "copper(II) carbonate", and "cupric carbonate" almost always refer (even in chemistry texts) to a basic copper carbonate (or copper(II) carbonate hydroxide), such as Cu2(OH)2CO3 (which occurs naturally as the mineral malachite) or Cu3(OH)2(CO3)2 (azurite). For this reason, the qualifier neutral may be used instead of "basic" to refer specifically to CuCO3.

Iron

Iron () is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust.

In its metallic state, iron is rare in the Earth's crust, limited to deposition by meteorites. Iron ores, by contrast, are among the most abundant in the Earth's crust, although extracting usable metal from them requires kilns or furnaces capable of reaching 1500 °C or higher, about 500 °C higher than what is enough to smelt copper. Humans started to master that process in Eurasia only about 2000 BCE, and the use of iron tools and weapons began to displace copper alloys, in some regions, only around 1200 BCE. That event is considered the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. In the modern world, iron alloys, such as steel, inox, cast iron and special steels are by far the most common industrial metals, because of their high mechanical properties and low cost.

Pristine and smooth pure iron surfaces are mirror-like silvery-gray. However, iron reacts readily with oxygen and water to give brown to black hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the oxides of some other metals, that form passivating layers, rust occupies more volume than the metal and thus flakes off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion.

The body of an adult human contains about 4 grams (0.005% body weight) of iron, mostly in hemoglobin and myoglobin. These two proteins play essential roles in vertebrate metabolism, respectively oxygen transport by blood and oxygen storage in muscles. To maintain the necessary levels, human iron metabolism requires a minimum of iron in the diet. Iron is also the metal at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals.Chemically, the most common oxidation states of iron are iron(II) and iron(III). Iron shares many properties of other transition metals, including the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium. Iron forms compounds in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7. Iron also forms many coordination compounds; some of them, such as ferrocene, ferrioxalate, and Prussian blue, have substantial industrial, medical, or research applications.

Lands of Lainshaw

The Lands of Lainshaw lie in Strathannick and were part of the Lordship of Stewarton, in East Ayrshire, Scotland. Lainshaw House is a category B listed mansion, lying in a prominent position above the Annick Water and its holm in the Parish of Stewarton, Scotland. Part of the much older Lainshaw Castle is contained within the several later building phases of the present day Lainshaw House. The names 'Langshaw' or 'Langschaw' were used in historic times. Law Mount near the High and Laigh Castleton farms has been suggested as the site of the original castle, granted in the 12th century to Godfrey de Ross by Hugo de Morville.

List of CAS numbers by chemical compound

This is a list of CAS numbers by chemical formulas and chemical compounds, indexed by formula. This complements alternative listings to be found at list of inorganic compounds, list of organic compounds and inorganic compounds by element.

List of minerals S (complete)

This list includes those recognised minerals beginning with the letter S. The International Mineralogical Association is the international group that recognises new minerals and new mineral names, however minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure, although some minerals published previously have been either confirmed or discredited since that date. This list contains a mixture of mineral names that have been approved since 1959 and those mineral names believed to still refer to valid mineral species (these are called "grandfathered" species).

The list is divided into groups:

Introduction • (Main synonyms)

A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H • I • J • K • L • M • N • O • P–Q • R • S • T • U–V • W–X • Y–ZThe data was exported from mindat.org on 29 April 2005; updated up to 'IMA2018'.

The minerals are sorted by name, followed by the structural group (rruff.info/ima and ima-cnmnc by mineralienatlas.de, mainly) or chemical class (mindat.org and basics), the year of publication (if it's before of an IMA approval procedure), the IMA approval and the Nickel–Strunz code. The first link is to mindat.org, the second link is to webmineral.com, and the third is to the Handbook of Mineralogy (Mineralogical Society of America).

Abbreviations:

D – discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).

Q – questionable/ doubtful (IMA/CNMNC, mindat.org or mineralienatlas.de status).

N – published without approval of the IMA/CNMNC, or just not an IMA approved mineral but with some acceptance in the scientific community nowadays.

I – intermediate member of a solid-solution series.

H – hypothetical mineral (synthetic, anthropogenic, suspended approval procedure, etc.)

ch – incomplete description, hypothetical solid solution end member.

Rd – redefinition of ...

"s.p." – special procedure.

group – a name used to designate a group of species, sometimes only a mineral group name.

no – no link available.

IUPAC – chemical name.

Y: 1NNN – year of publication.

Y: old – known before publications were available.

Photogeochemistry

Photogeochemistry merges photochemistry and geochemistry into the study of light-induced chemical reactions that occur or may occur among natural components of Earth's surface. The first comprehensive review on the subject was published in 2017 by the chemist and soil scientist Timothy A Doane, but the term photogeochemistry appeared a few years earlier as a keyword in studies that described the role of light-induced mineral transformations in shaping the biogeochemistry of Earth; this indeed describes the core of photogeochemical study, although other facets may be admitted into the definition.

Qualitative inorganic analysis

Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds. It is mainly focused on detecting ions in an aqueous solution, therefore materials in other forms may need to be brought to this state before using standard methods. The solution is then treated with various reagents to test for reactions characteristic of certain ions, which may cause color change, precipitation and other visible changes.Qualitative inorganic analysis is that branch or method of analytical chemistry which seeks to establish the elemental composition of inorganic compounds through various reagents.

Siderite

Siderite is also the name of a type of iron meteorite.Siderite is a mineral composed of iron(II) carbonate (FeCO3). It takes its name from the Greek word σίδηρος sideros, “iron”. It is a valuable iron mineral, since it is 48% iron and contains no sulfur or phosphorus. Zinc, magnesium and manganese commonly substitute for the iron resulting in the siderite-smithsonite, siderite-magnesite and siderite-rhodochrosite solid solution series.Siderite has Mohs hardness of 3.75-4.25, a specific gravity of 3.96, a white streak and a vitreous lustre or pearly luster. Siderite is antiferromagnetic below its Néel temperature of 37 K which can assist in its identification.It crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system, and are rhombohedral in shape, typically with curved and striated faces. It also occurs in masses. Color ranges from yellow to dark brown or black, the latter being due to the presence of manganese.

Siderite is commonly found in hydrothermal veins, and is associated with barite, fluorite, galena, and others. It is also a common diagenetic mineral in shales and sandstones, where it sometimes forms concretions, which can encase three-dimensionally preserved fossils. In sedimentary rocks, siderite commonly forms at shallow burial depths and its elemental composition is often related to the depositional environment of the enclosing sediments. In addition, a number of recent studies have used the oxygen isotopic composition of sphaerosiderite (a type associated with soils) as a proxy for the isotopic composition of meteoric water shortly after deposition.

Solubility table

The table below provides information on the variation of solubility of different substances (mostly inorganic compounds) in water with temperature, at 1 atmosphere pressure. Units of solubility are given in grams per 100 millilitres of water (g/100 ml), unless shown otherwise. The substances are listed in alphabetical order.

Standard enthalpy of formation

The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the substance from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states. The standard pressure value p⦵ = 105 Pa (= 100 kPa = 1 bar) is recommended by IUPAC, although prior to 1982 the value 1.00 atm (101.325 kPa) was used. There is no standard temperature. Its symbol is ΔfH⦵. The superscript Plimsoll on this symbol indicates that the process has occurred under standard conditions at the specified temperature (usually 25 °C or 298.15 K). Standard states are as follows:

For a gas: the hypothetical state it would have assuming it obeyed the ideal gas equation at a pressure of 1 bar

For a solute present in an ideal solution: a concentration of exactly one mole per liter (1 M) at a pressure of 1 bar

For a pure substance or a solvent in a condensed state (a liquid or a solid): the standard state is the pure liquid or solid under a pressure of 1 bar

For an element: the form in which the element is most stable under 1 bar of pressure. One exception is phosphorus, for which the most stable form at 1 bar is black phosphorus, but white phosphorus is chosen as the standard reference state for zero enthalpy of formation.For example, the standard enthalpy of formation of carbon dioxide would be the enthalpy of the following reaction under the above conditions:

C(s, graphite) + O2(g) → CO2(g)All elements are written in their standard states, and one mole of product is formed. This is true for all enthalpies of formation.

The standard enthalpy of formation is measured in units of energy per amount of substance, usually stated in kilojoule per mole (kJ mol−1), but also in kilocalorie per mole, joule per mole or kilocalorie per gram (any combination of these units conforming to the energy per mass or amount guideline).

All elements in their standard states (oxygen gas, solid carbon in the form of graphite, etc.) have a standard enthalpy of formation of zero, as there is no change involved in their formation.

The formation reaction is a constant pressure and constant temperature process. Since the pressure of the standard formation reaction is fixed at 1 bar, the standard formation enthalpy or reaction heat is a function of temperature. For tabulation purposes, standard formation enthalpies are all given at a single temperature: 298 K, represented by the symbol ΔfH⦵298 K.

Wüstite

Wüstite (FeO) is a mineral form of iron(II) oxide found with meteorites and native iron. It has a gray color with a greenish tint in reflected light. Wüstite crystallizes in the isometric-hexoctahedral crystal system in opaque to translucent metallic grains. It has a Mohs hardness of 5 to 5.5 and a specific gravity of 5.88. Wüstite is a typical example of a non-stoichiometric compound.

Wüstite was named for Fritz Wüst (1860–1938), a German metallurgist and founding director of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Eisenforschung (presently Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH).In addition to the type locality in Germany, it has been reported from Disko Island, Greenland; the Jharia coalfield, Jharkhand, India and as inclusions in diamonds in a number of kimberlite pipes. It also is reported from deep sea manganese nodules.

Its presence indicates a highly reducing environment.

Iron compounds
Fe(-II)
Fe(0)
Fe(I)
Fe(0,II)
Fe(II)
Fe(0,III)
Fe(II,III)
Fe(III)
Fe(VI)

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